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This report will hopefully pull together the research available with regard to this issue, and also identify what users are most at risk for virus attacks.
The research currently available also confirms that modern viruses are becoming more insidious and complex, with the potential to incur more damage to computers and data than in the past. Studies suggest that newer versions of viruses may escape detection using standard anti-viral software. This presents a new threat to computer users that must be addressed, hence it is more important than ever that effective methods of prevention and control are designed to prevent future data loss.
Design of the Study
The research study takes into consideration multiple factors when deciding the methodology. The history of viruses, positive and negative effects, organizational impacts, etc. will all be examined. These factors will be measured using a variety of techniques including field research that will…
Hickman, J.R. (1995). "Viruses: New strains, new solutions." ABA Banking Journal,
Hopkins, W. (000). "Quantitative Research." Sports Science. 30, October 2005: http://www.sportsci.org/jour/0001/wghdesign.html
Horn, R.V. (2003). "Technology: Prudent computing." Phi Delta Kapan, 85(3): 183.
Hunton, J.E. (1998). "Facts and fables about computer viruses." Journal of Accountancy,
Hacking, the apolitical counterpart of hacktivism, is also not necessarily a form of terrorism. However, cyberterrorists often use hacking as a tool of terrorism.
Terrorists may be tempted to use computer attacks for several reasons including the following. First, cyberterrorism can be relatively inexpensive. Second, terrorists can easily remain anonymous when they use computer terrorism. Third, the scope of the attack can potentially be larger than physically combative ones. Fourth, cyberterror can be launched and managed remotely and fifth, computer terrorism can garner instant and widespread media attention. Cyberterrorism is not only in the province of international terrorist organizations but may also be used by fanatical religious groups or even by disgruntled employess. Using computer terrorism can also become an adjunct to traditional forms of terror like bombs.
The National Security Agency (NSA) has investigated vulnerabilities in their own systems and have hired hackers to expose weaknesses in their systems.…
Weimann, G. (2004). Cyberterrorism: How Real Is the Threat? United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved April 17, 2007 at http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr119.html
computer is a device that accepts information in the form of digitalized data and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. Used the right way, computers can be an enormous personal and business productivity tool for automating numerous routine tasks and increasing information storage, retrieval and exchange. Unfortunately, computers also facilitate and expand crime.
Computer crime pertains to any intentional or unintentional harm done to or with information and/or hardware that may result in losses of, or injury to, property, services, and people. Many crimes involving computers are no different from crimes without computers. Some examples include:
Using a computer and peripherals for forgery or counterfeiting is the same crime as using an old-fashioned printing press with ink.
Stealing a laptop computer with proprietary information is the same crime as stealing a briefcase that contains papers…
Eder, Karen. Defining Computer Crime and Technology Misuse." Technology Studies in Education Research Portal. 23 Nov. 2003. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/wp/crime/definition.htm.
Standler, Ronald B. "Computer Crime." 2002.
23 Nov. 2003. http://www.rbs2.com/ccrime.htm .
TechTarget. 23 Nov. 2003. http://searchwin2000.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,sid1_gci211829,00.html .
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
Information technology and related systems provide multiple benefits to business, government, and individual users. Databases, Internet transactions, and emails contain sensitive customers, employee and operations data that are extremely vulnerable. The following study focuses on various components of IT and related systems used for the storage of information like computers, servers, and website databases. Whilst identifying the ways the date can be compromised and exposed to abuse, the study identifies ways of protecting and enhancing their integrity.
Types of information systems that that hold data
Computers do their primary work in parts that are not visible when using them. To do this, a control center that converts data input to output must be present. All this functions are done by the central processing unit (CPU) a highly complicated set of electric circuits that intertwine to store and achieve program instructions. Most computers regardless of…
Adikesavan, T.A. (2014). Management Information Systems Best Practices and Applications in Business. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Bradley, T. (2006). Essential Computer Security: Everyone's Guide to Email, Internet, and Wireless Security: Everyone's Guide to Email, Internet, and Wireless Security. New York: Syngress
Khosrowpour M. (2006). Emerging Trends and Challenges in Information Technology Management: 2006 Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Washington, DC, USA, May 21-24, 2006 Volume 1. Washington: Idea Group Inc. (IGI)
Kim, D. & Solomon, M. (2010). Fundamentals of Information Systems Security. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Intent to perform a greater good would not affect the possibility of being exposed to a prison sentence of up to 20 years and a fine of up to $250,000, plus possible penalties under state law.
Montana compares this legislation with that of the regulation of firearms. It is not the mere possession of malicious code that is criminalized, but the use and the damage to computer systems and association economic losses that are the focal point of the law. Computer code, even MMC, is considered intellectual property and carries legal protections similar to books or sound recordings. It is also considered a form of speech and therefore is also offered protection under the Constitution's First Amendment. However, this protection is limited, just as 'free speech' is limited, especially in instances when this speech interferes with the protection of the public welfare -- as is the case with the release…
Ford, R., Bush, M., & Boulatov, a."Internet Instability and Disturbance: Goal or Menace?" Proceedings of the 2005 Workshop on New Security Paradigms. 2005: p. 3-8.
Frohmann, B. "Subjectivity and Information Ethics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology. 59(2) Jan 2008: p. 267-277.
Johnson, M. & Rogers, K. "The Fraud Act 2006: The E-Crime Prosecutor's Champion or the Creator of a New Inchoate Offence?" International Review of Law, Computers & Technology. 21(3) Nov 2007: p.. 295-304.
Ledin, G. "Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful." Communications of the ACM. 48(1) Jan 2005: p. 144.
These days, every new computer technology provides many benefits to different kinds of organizations. eing very much in demand in schools, new computer technologies prepare the students in facing the challenges of their future - a future that will certainly be made more advanced by new computer technologies. Another is the importance of new computer technologies in different kinds of industries as they make almost all tasks be completed more quickly and more accurately. Moreover, competition of organizations belonging to same industry seems to rely on who has the latest technology. Whoever has the latest computer technology has the edge of winning clients and being the first to succeed as well.
New computer technologies play important role in the life of humans. They can be learning tools, productivity tools, communication tools, and entertainment tools. As new computer technologies are continuously being developed, it can be expected that change will be…
Geuder, M. (2000). New Computer Technology Aids Hearing-Impaired MSU Student.
Retrieved on November 17, 2006, from Online.
Web site: http://www.msstate.edu/web/media/detail.php?id=1214
Ruane, M.E. (1999). New Computer Technology Makes Hacking a Snap.
computers for the organization. All three are high-end ultra-slim laptops for the sales force. These are compared according to a number of key variables -- weight, size, performance, memory, communications, power, software, operating system and price. The three models are the MacBook Air, the Toshiba Portege R830 and the Samsung Series 9. A recommendation is made at the end of the paper.
This essay will compare three different computer models for the organization to meet its needs. It is assumed that the computer chosen will have a high need for portability and performance, so the focus is going to be on three high-end lightweight laptops. They are the MacBook Air, the Toshiba Portege R830 and the Samsung Series 9. They will be evaluated on a number of different metrics and considerations.
eight and Size
Each of the three computers has a 13.3" widescreen display. The material that is used is…
Samsung Series 9: http://www.samsung.com/us/computer/laptops/NP900X3A-A03US-specs
Toshiba Portege R830: http://us.toshiba.com/computers/laptops/portege/R830/R830-S8332
Apple MacBook Air: http://www.apple.com/macbookair/
There's also the issue of speed and response that each of these devices imply and the expectations of those that are members of social networks, keeping mind these social networks could be the departments they work in for their jobs. Even the iPod has this speed of response inherent within it from having the continual stream of new songs copied onto it for use during commuting, working out and working. The advent of social networking sites that are accentuating the speed of response include Twittr and others, which support messaging to PCs, hybrid MP3 players and smart phones. Inherent in the social network that is fostering the growth of these technologies that provide options for collaborating and connecting more than ever before is the implied expectation that once someone is contacted they will respond immediately. The urgency of the immediate often overtakes the importance of the longer-term more introspective…
Gul Agha. "COMPUTING in PERVASIVE CYBERSPACE. " Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM 51.1 (2008): 68-70. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.. 28 Apr. 2008 / www.proquest.com.
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. " MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36-42. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 28 Apr.2008 www.proquest.com.
Robin Snow. "Rethinking the Web. " Marketing Health Services 26.2 (2006): 35-37. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 28 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com
Cynthia G. Wagner. "Disconnectivity Demonstrated. " the Futurist 42.2 (2008): 68. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com
computer used by the employee has either been compromised physically with a password cracking software (EC-Council,2010;Beaver & McClure,2010) or it has bee compromised remotely with the help of a keylogging software.A keylogger is noted by APWG (2006) as a special crimeware code that is designed with the sole intention of collecting information from the end-user terminal. The stolen information includes every strike of the keyboard which it captures.The most sensitive of the captured information are the user's credentials. Keylogger may also be used to refer to the hardware used for this purpose. The employee's password could also have been shoulder-surfed by his immediate neighbor at the workplace. This could be his coworker who manages to peek and see over his shoulder as he types in sensitive authentication information (password)
Strategy to address the issue as well as the necessary steps for resolving the issue
The strategy for addressing this threat…
Anti-Phising Working Group (2006). Phishing Activity Trends Report
Bem, D and Huebner, E (2007).Computer Forensic Analysis in a Virtual Environment. International Journal of Digital Evidence .Fall 2007, Volume 6 (2)
Dot.com Comparison of a Leader and an Upstart
Red Hat.com vs. Microsoft.com
Two prominent dot.com companies within the same industry of recent note may be found in the competing personages of Red Hat Software and the successful brand name of Microsoft. Although Red Hat Software is not nearly as well-known as the Titanic brand name of Microsoft, it offers an interesting and different software business perspective to Microsoft's better-known strategy business. Of course, it should be noted that, as Red Hat is the world's premier open source and Linux provider that it is not exactly tiny in its stretch as a company. However, it does not have nearly the status of industry leader as Microsoft, or, more importantly, that company's well-known status as a brand name and purveyor of technology and software.
Microsoft's business strategy is in line with many typical technological vendor models. It attempts to generate…
In today's society, more people and businesses rely on computers and networks to store vital information and technology.
Networking is the process of moving information via computers rather than via any other medium, such as paper media or mere human communication. In addition to sharing information via networks, computers can share hardware, e.g., laser printers, and software in the networking process. This can save businesses and individuals large sums of money.
The computers or devices on a network are often referred to as "nodes."
To visualize a network, the easiest image is that of two computers hooked together by a cable, transmitting information between the two machines.
There are actually a variety of kinds of networks, e.g., local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (ANs).
LAN is a relatively localized network:
LAN is a high-speed data network that covers a relatively small geographic area. It typically connects…
Computer Networking." ComputerNetworking.com. July 4, 2002. http://compnetworking.about.com/library/glossary/bldef-ipaddress.htm .
CERT Coordination Center, "Home Network Security." Cert.org. July 4, 2002 http://www.cert.org/ tech_tips/home_networks.html#III-A' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The owner remarked about how important it is to guard one's system against viruses and intrusion. He went further to remark that there are programs that offer their services free of charge (partial programs or trial versions) to protect one's computer, but he recommends buying a program that offers full protection. This statement concluded the interview "Unfortunately my customers have often learned the importance of protecting their information the hard way; it is not something to be taken lightly." This statement makes a lot of sense. Too often a person will sit back thinking that it is impossible for something to happen to them, when in fact one should always be prepared for the unexpected. The owner of Company Xtreme reported that approximately 50% of his customers are individuals whom have had viruses on there computer. Among this 50%, they also have spyware, which often may allow strangers access to…
ith the sophistication of computer users generally increasing, the corporate market forms an important part of the customer base as these users are a more captive audience. One sale to an it department can be worth hundreds of licenses. However, Norton is weak in the corporate market and competes mainly in the consumer market at present.
Demand for Norton products is declining. hile Symantec overall has continued to grow in size, acquisitions and other business segments have spurred this growth (2009 Symantec Form 10-K). From 2007 to 2008, Norton revenue grew 7.2%, but the market share declined as the overall security software market increased 19.4% by revenue (Gartner, 2009). The market is trending towards increased fragmentation. The share of minor players in the industry has increased from 48% of the market in 2007 to 50.9% of the market in 2008. McAfee has increased its market share slightly, while each of…
Gartner Inc. (2009). Symantec market share falls; McAfee's shows growth. The Windows Club. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://www.thewindowsclub.com/symantec-market-share-falls-mcafees-shows-growth
2009 Symantec Form 10-K. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MzQ3OTU4fENoaWxkSUQ9MzM2NTY1fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1
Trefis. (2010). Comcast deal can slow Symantec's market share declines. Trefis.com. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://www.trefis.com/articles/11016/comcast-and-quest-deals-could-plug-symantec%E2%80%99s-market-share-declines-temporarily/2010-03-04
Weiner, K. (2009). Symantec and McAfee is arms race in PC security market. Neowin.net. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://www.neowin.net/news/symantec-and-mcafee-in-arms-race-for-security
Contending With Cybercrime Issues
Attacks and Malware
There are numerous laws pertaining to identity theft, privacy, and cybercrime. Prior to designating those laws and their ramifications for the parties involved with a breach, it is sapient to provide a brief overview of the correlation between these three facets of laws. One of the more common means of engaging in identity theft is through the means of cybercrime, in which individuals typically hack into a computerized systems and take personally identifiable information of others and use it for their own illicit purposes. Additionally, such crimes intrinsically invade the privacy of others and intrude upon that privacy by preventing individuals to keep personally identifiable information and other aspects of their lives private.
One of the most salient of the laws relating to these three different aspects of theft in contemporary times is the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003. This…
North Carolina Department of Justice. (2005). Cooper proposes identity theft protection act of 2005. http://www.ncdoj.gov / Retrieved from
Computer/Software and the Use of Computer Technology in Investigations
The key advantage of computer forensics is that it can look for and assess loads of data in a swift and efficient manner. Computers are able to search for keywords from hard drives, in various languages. This proves valuable, as cybercriminals are easily able to cross national boundaries over the World Wide Web (Forensic Science, 2009). Computer forensics may be utilized in cases of corporate frauds, thefts, disputes over intellectual property, asset recovery and contract breaches (Forensic Science, 2009).
Important information, which cybercriminals have deleted or which is lost may be recovered and employed as significant court evidence. Professionals in the legal domain can furnish evidences in courts, which were earlier impossible. The field of computer forensics (i.e., electronic evidence) is fairly new; typically, criminal issues are handled through the use of physical evidence. Fortunately, the tool has proven advantageous in…
10 Famous Criminal Cases Cracked by Forensics. (2011, February 1). Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://www.criminaljusticeschools.org/blog/10-famous-cases-cracked-by-forensics
Forensic Science. (2009). Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://www.anushreepatil.myewebsite.com/articles/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-computer-forensics.html
University professor helps FBI crack $70 million cybercrime ring. (2012, March 1). Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://rockcenter.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/03/21/10792287-university-professor-helps-fbi-crack-70-million-cybercrime-ring
Science and Technology sounds promising as more and more unprecedented advances in computing, artificial intelligences robotics, genetics, biotechnology and neurosciences are unraveling. The commonly held belief is that technology goes on to make our lives better. Keeping this in mind, many people also believe that it has a positive impact on our aspects of our society. Because of the advents in technologies, there are present significant improvements in the standard of education, transport, and medical care as well. Similar impacts are also noticed in the security and safety arena as well. Even though the computer and science technology has had a positive impact on safety and technology, it has a negative impact as well.
How computers have affected the discipline
Information security is a very crucial operational technique. Before computers were invented, the main mode of security was through manual means. Everything had to be taken care of using the…
Byrne, J., & Marx, G. (2011). Technological innovations in crime prevention and policing. A review of the research on implementation and impact. Journal Of Police Studies, 20(3), 17 -- 40.
European Union,. (2012). Health effects of security scanners for passenger screening (based on X-ray technology) (1st ed.). Brussels: European Union. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/docs/scenihr_o_036.pdf
Goodman, M. (2012). How technology makes us vulnerable. CNN. Retrieved 5 July 2014, from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/29/opinion/goodman-ted-crime/
The anti-virus software company Symantec (NASDAQ symbol: SYMC) makes Norton antivirus software, one of the industry's leading anti-virus programs. This paper investigates how Symantec fares against Network Associates, Inc. (the makers of MacAfee anti-virus software) in terms of the relationship between revenue and computer virus outbreaks, as well as overall averages. Specifically, stock quotes for Symantec and Network Associates will be compared post-virus outbreak for each of these four major outbreaks: 1) Blaster, Category 4, August 12, 2003, 2) SoBig, Category 4, August 22, 2003, 3) Bugbear, Category 4, October 2, 2002, 4) Klez, Category 4, April 25, 2002, and 5) Sircam, Category 4, July 24, 2001. Ultimately, there is a small decrease in stock price for both Symantec and Network Associates the day after a major virus outbreak occurs.
One of Symantec's main competitors in terms of industry anti-virus software is McAfee, a business unit of Network Associates,…
Forbes.com. Symantec Stock Seen With More Than 25% Upside, 02.26.04, 12:27 PM ET. 01 March 2004. http://www.forbes.com/markets/2004/02/26/0226automarketscan06.html?partner=yahoo&referrer=
Yahoo Finance. Company Profile: Symantec. 01 March 2004. http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=SYMC
Yahoo Finance. Competetors: SYMC. 01 march 2004. SYMANTEC CORP (NasdaqNM:SYMC) Quote data by Reuters
However, nothing can be done until the malware actually occurs. With all the different viruses, worms and Trojans, how can security managers possibly predict what malware will occur next? In contrast, a behavioral rule defines legitimate activity in a system. Any activity not matching the profile will cause the security product to be triggered. As rules are not specific to a particular type of attack, they can block malicious behavior without having to recognize the precise attack used. Thus, there is additional protection against new attacks as they emerge. It is to effectively prevent any unauthorized applications, including malicious code and Trojans. or, it could protect a webserver by making it impossible for anyone to access the webserver to change the files and limiting the risk of a hack (Franklin, 2002).
However, the dilemma comes how many rules should the system have? The security manager must decide between an effective…
Bowyer, K.W. (2003). "Living responsibly in a computerized world." Ethics and Computing. New York: IEEE press.
Control Guard. http://www.controlguard.com/index.asp
Franklin, I. (November 26, 2002) "Entercept Security Technologies: Rules or signatures?
The best method of prevention." Toolbox. Retrieved from website September 16,
Andrea, Tech. Rep., CIS
Jack, Manager, CIS
Potential Threat to Company IT Systems
Over the past few weeks, it has become increasingly evident to me that our company may be the target of a denial of service attack or other computer virus for which we may be ill-prepared today. In this regard, I have reviewed the company standing operating procedures concerning computer viruses in an attempt to determine what measures should be taken by whom and when. Unfortunately, the company's SOP does not even address denial of service threats and only mentions computer viruses in a tangential way.
To help address this apparent gap in the company's ability to respond to threats to the integrity of its IT systems, I believe we should form a task force immediately to develop appropriate responses in the event of a computer virus infection…
Warfare: An Overview
In today's age, traditional warfare, though a major player as we see in the Iraq war, has in some arenas taken a back seat to information warfare.
y definition, information warfare is the offensive and even defensive utilization of information and information systems to deny, exploit, corrupt or destroy an adversary's information, information-based processes, information systems and computer-based networks while protecting one's own. Parties use information warfare to gain military, public relations or economic advantage. (www.psycom.net)
Users of information technology are most often nation-states and corporations. For instance, by gaining access to a rival company's databases, a business can get a valuable advantage on price-points and supply chains. Countries can decide how much to spend on military equipment by discovering how much in military stocks adversary nations have.
One major focus recently on information warfare has been hackers. For instance, the most recent generation of mobile phones…
Bibliography www.iwar.org.uk: The information warfare site.
www.psycom.net/iwar.2.html: Glossary of information warfare terms.
www.fas.org/irp/wwwinfo.html: Web source of information warfare sites.
Risks for Children
Credit Card Usage
Using the Internet Safely
The Internet is a wonderful place and can create many positive experiences for people of all ages. A vast amount of information is available with a simple click of a mouse. Great deals, convenience and choices are found all over the Internet. However, when exploring what the Internet has to offer, users must be smart to make the most of the online experience. The Internet is a very real place and there is good reason to be exercise caution when using it. The same dangers that exist on the street exist on the Internet.
Risks for Children
Children are often more advanced than their parents on the Internet (Coalition for Children, 2000). Young people are more comfortable with computer technologies, schools are going online rapidly and the Internet is growing in many…
McAfee.com Virus Information Library
2. National Infrastructure Protection Center: www.nipc.gov
You just received a brand new computer for your home environment. It comes with the latest Operating System. You also have an Internet Service Provider where you can easily use the existing network to connect to the Internet and to perform some online banking. Describe the steps you plan to go through to ensure this system remains as secure as possible. Be sure to discuss the details of firewall settings you plan to implement within your operating system, browser privacy settings, and recommended software (e.g., Anti-virus and others) you will install. Also, describe your password strength policy you plan to adopt, and what you envision to do to ensure your online banking site is encrypted and using the proper certificates. Discussion of operating system patches and application updates should also be included. As you discuss these steps, be sure to justify your decisions bringing in possible issues if…
Increasing Your Facebook Privacy and Security By Dave Taylor onSeptember 16, 2011
Safe Computing provided by the Office of Information Technology University of California, Irvine Last Updated: January 28, 2011
Technologies with Ethical Implications
The effect of information revolution in changing many facets of life in varied fields like banking and commerce, transportation, health care, entertainment, work and employment and national security is clearly visible in the developed countries of the world. As a result, information technology has started influencing relationships, family and community atmosphere, democracy, freedom, etc. (Computer Ethics: Basic Concepts and Historical Overview) Being an exclusive technology, computers bringup uncommon ethical matters. Computer ethics refers to the study of the characteristics and communal bearing of computer technology and the subsequent creativity and explanation of policies for the ethical utilization of such technology. This vigorous new field of computer ethics, in present modern years, has sprung new university courses, workshop, conference, curriculam materials, professional organizations, articles, books, journals and research centres. In addition, the age of WWW.hasaltered computer ethics into a field of world-wide information ethics. (Moor, 1985, p.267)…
Barger, Robert N. "In Search of a Common Rationale for Computer Ethics" University of Notre Dame, Read at the Third Annual Computer Ethics Institute Conference, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC. April 28, 1994. Retrieved at http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/common-rat.html . Accessed on 10 September, 2004
Chmura, Gail. "What do Students Think about Computer Ethics?" VSTE (Virginia Society for Technology in Education) Journal Volume: 18, No. 1 Fall/Winter 2003-2004; pp: 32-41
Computer Ethics: Basic Concepts and Historical Overview" 14 August, 2001. Retrieved at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/ . Accessed on 10 September, 2004
Floridi, Luciano. "Information Ethics: On the Philosophical Foundation of Computer Ethics" Retrieved at http://www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/ie.htm . Accessed on 10 September, 2004
Network Security and Why Use It
Security And Why Use It
The security of any network should be taken seriously. A network allows someone to share resources and information with others on the network. Networks allow for distribution of computer viruses, Trojans, human intruders, and employees can damage more than just one computer. To better understand the importance of network security, one needs to think of what might happen if all the data for a company that is stored in their servers vanishes. This scenario would cause losses that the company might never recover. Networks are divided into three main categories Internetwork (internet), Wide Area Networks (WAN) and Local Area Networks (LAN). These three categories of network require security to ensure that no malicious humans gain access, and no viruses attack the network.
To better understand network security, one needs to know what a network is. A network is defined…
Hu, H., Myers, S., Colizza, V., Vespignani, A., & Parisi, G. (2009). WiFi Networks and Malware Epidemiology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(5), 1318-1323.
Krishna, V.A., & Victoire, T.A.A. (2011). A Descriptive Study on Firewall. [Article]. European Journal of Scientific Research, 63(3), 339-346.
Papaj, J., Dobos, L. u., & izmar, A. (2012). Opportunistic Networks and Security. [Article]. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, 5(1), 163-166.
Rao, B., & Parikh, M.A. (2003). Wireless Broadband Networks: The U.S. Experience. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8(1), 37-53.
networking and TCP/IP and internetworking. Also discussed are risk management, network threats, firewalls, and also more special purpose network devices. The paper will provide a better insight on the general aspects of security and also get a better understanding of how to be able to reduce and manage risk personally at the workplace and at home.
In today's world, the Computer has become a common feature in any organization anywhere in the world. This may be due to the fact that a computer can be accessed by anybody who knows how to handle it and also because it can store a lot of information both confidential and general. A computer is connected through a physical network that allows a person or many persons to share any information necessary. (Conceptual Overview of Network Security) Though network security in Information Technology is an issue that has been discussed endlessly, implementation has definitely…
Bolding, Darren. "Network Security, Filters and Firewalls." Retrieved from ACM Cross Roads Student Magazine, 17 January, 2001 http://www.acm.org/crossroads/xrds2-1/security.html . Accessed on 03/09/2004
Curtin, Matt. "Introduction to Network Security March" 1997. Retrieved at http://www.interhack.net/pubs/network-securityAccessed on 03/09/2004
Home Internet security: Protection against network security attacks" Retrieved at http://www.buildwebsite4u.com/articles/home-internet-security.shtml. Accessed on 03/09/2004
Magalhaes, Ricky M. "Network Security recommendations that will enhance your windows" network" Oct 22, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.windowsecurity.com/articles/Net_Security_Recommendations.html . Accessed on 03/09/2004
Defeating the Threat of Malware
Throughout history, humans have constructed walls, palisades, moats and other barriers as defenses against malicious attacks, but invaders have also responded with improved technologies that can defeat these defenses. Just as medieval defenders built their walls higher and their moats deeper, software developers today also seek to create products that are safe from unauthorized intrusion through firewalls and other security measures while hackers and other criminal elements try to defeat them with various stratagems including the use of so-called "malware." Because malware can affect any consumer, identifying ways to defeat these programs represents a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the different types of malware, typical proactive measures and tools that can be utilized against malware attacks and the technologies that are involved. Finally, a discussion and assessment concerning future trends…
Gale, D. (2006). Can this virus be 'rooted' out? A new kind of hard-to-detect malware is increasing our vulnerability to hackers and creating headaches for makers of antiviral software THE Journal, 33(1), 18-20.
Hua, V. (2011). Redefining the security wall THE Journal, 38(7), 36-38.
Johnston, J.J. (2009). Technological turf wars: A case study of the computer antivirus industry.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Network Design Proposal
ABC School Stats/User Counts
Having a current strength of approximately 845 students, ABC School provides education from Pre-Kindergarten to the 12th Grade. According to the requirements of The New York School District, 250 Curriculum computers along with 75 Administration computers are to be installed. The requirements for the wiring per room of layer 1 are that it should adjust a total of 25 computers, 24 of which will be used for the curriculum, whereas one will be used for administrative purposes.
The model for the WAN is 2 layers of hierarchy having a total of 3 hubs, one connecting the District Office or the Data Center, one the Service Center, and the remaining one connecting the Black Hawk School. A Frame elay WAN will be responsible for providing the required internet services.
For all the hosts, interconnection devices, and servers an…
ArrowMail. (2011). "Advice on Choosing the best Range of IP Addresses to use on your LAN." Taken from: http://www.arrowmail.co.uk/articles/iprange.aspx
Begin Linux. (2010). Network Design for Small Business. Taken from: http://beginlinux.com/blog/2010/06/network-design-for-a-small-business
Botsford, C. (2011). Learn To Subnet.com v. 3.2." LearnTCPIP.com. Taken from: http://www.learntcpip.com/LTSN/default.htm
Crockett, R. (2003). Network design project Sunnyslope elementary school. WESD Network Design Project Proposal.
Internet: Security on the Web
Security on the Web -- What are the Key Issues for Major Banks?
The age of digital technology -- email, Web-driven high-speed communication and information, online commerce, and more -- has been in place now for several years, and has been touted as a "revolutionary" technological breakthrough, and for good reason: This technology presents enormous new business opportunities. For example, by moving the key element of marketing and sales from local and regional strategies onto the global stage, and by providing dramatically improved customer convenience, the Web offers medium, small and large companies -- including banks -- unlimited growth potential.
That having been said, there are problems associated with online services, in particular online banking services, and security is at the top of the list of these issues. Some of the most serious security issues associated with Web-banking keep customers away from this technology, in…
Anti-Phishing Working Group (2004), "Committed to wiping out Internet scams and fraud: Origins of the Word 'Phishing'," Available: http://www.antiphishing.org /word_phish.html.
Arnfield, Robin (2005), "McAfee Warns on Top Viruses," (News Factor Network / Yahoo! News), Available:
http://www.news.yahoo/news?tmpl=story& cid=75& u=/nf/20050104/tc_nf/29450& printer=1.
Bergman, Hannah (2004), "FDIC Offers, Solicits Ideas on Stopping ID Theft," American Banker, vol. 169, no. 240, p. 4.
Therefore it has been suggested that it always preferable to not only pay a subscription to update software currently installed on the system, but to also install the latest software wherever a new version is released (Andrew, 2005).
All programs which are employed should be regularly updated to ensure that they are kept current, and should be run as often as possible to ensure that any threat present within the network does not embed itself too deeply, making it more difficult to detect and remove. If available, all possible auto-protect features should be enabled within the network, allowing the system to update itself automatically on a regular basis, and reducing the risk of malware infiltrating the network.
It is also recommended that frequent checks are performed for security patches and updates which are offered by Microsoft for Windows users, or by the manufacturers of other operating systems. Although enabling auto-protect…
Andrew, a.M. (2005) Cybernetics and systems on the web: internet newsletters. Kybermetes, Vol 34, No 7/8, pp. 1278-1281.
Commtouch: Malware Writers' Tactics Evolving" (2007) eWeek, May 2, 2007. Retrieved September 7, 2007, at http://find.galegroup.com.libezproxy.open.ac.uk/itx/start.do?prodId=CDB .
Hsu, F., Chen, H., Ristenpart, T., Li, J. And Su, Z. (2006) Back to the future: A framework for automatic malware removal and system repair. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC '06).
Rice, J. And Martin, N. (2007) Using biological models to improve innovation systems: The case of computer anti-viral software. European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol 10, No 2, pp. 201-214.
Over the last several years, the issue of computer viruses has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the technology and techniques of hackers are more sophisticated. According to Statistic Brain, this problem is wide spread with a total of 8.9 million active viruses. This affects 40% of users at some point in time. For businesses, these challenges can result in decreased productivity and increased costs. To fully understand what is happening requires focusing on the causes of the problem and possible solutions. Together, these elements will provide specific insights about how firms can avoid these kinds of issues. ("Computer Virus Statistics," 2012) (Nahhas, 2009) (Stamp, 2011)
This report is going to be focusing on the primary reasons why businesses are susceptible to computer viruses. In a study conducted by McAfee (a software solutions provider), they found that the total costs all corporations are dealing…
Computer Virus Statistics. (2012). Statistic Brain. Retrieved from: http://www.statisticbrain.com/computer-virus-statistics/
Albers, S. (2009). Dealing with Rough Times. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 48 (3), 433 -- 445.
Braksick, L. (2012). Tough Transitions. Small Business Pittsburgh, 7.
Dewhurst. (2010). Motivating People. McKinsey Quarterly, 1.
entepise wide netwoking has been the topic of discussion. Advances in technology and netwoking systems have caused oganizations to develop new management techniques fo entepise wide netwoks. The pupose of this pape is to discuss the Management of entepise-wide netwoking. We will focus on fou aspects of entepise wide netwoking including; legacy systems, Intenet Secuity, offshoe development and suppot and Mobile computing. We will investigate how each of these aspects is handled within an entepise.
Legacy systems wee once popula in the business wold but have become less popula in ecent yeas. (Sinn 2003) legacy system is loosely defined as "a softwae platfom developed in a pocedual language such as Cobol o RPG, hosted on a mainfame o an IBM iSeies. In most cases the maintenance costs of the system tend to incease ove time while the available technical expetise aound it deceases (Ludin 2004)."
Many entepises ae…
references and Deter Computer Crime. Yale Law Journal, 112(6), 1577+.
As the world continues to evolve with technology and technological advances, certain problems arise that requires precise and involved management of these advances. The purpose of this essay is to examine the importance of information security systems and how they demonstrate their importance in the commercial world. To do this, this essay will be presented from the viewpoint of an Information Security Officer (ISO) who has been tasked to identify the inherent risks associated with a business operation and to establish physical and logical access control methods that will help minimize those risks. A scenario has been created to help explain this process where a pharmacy and its accompanying information systems scheme are presented to give an example of how this may be done.
In order to accomplish this task, this report will first identify the physical vulnerabilities that are given in the directed scenario before identifying the…
Jackson, W. (2013). New strategy for IT security: Focus on the systems not the threat. GCN, 2 May 2013. Retrieved from http://gcn.com/articles/2013/05/02/it-security-strategy-focus - on-systems-not-threats.aspx
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (2013). Special Publication 800-12: An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook. Updated 25 Jan 2013. Retrieved from http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-12/800-12 - html/index.html
Prince, K. (2009). Top 9 IT Security Threats. Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance Journal, 24 March, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.s-ox.com/dsp_getFeaturesDetails.cfm?CID=2461
Vernon, M. (2012). Top Five Threats. Computer Weekly, 21 Sep, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/Top-five-threats
Less satisfied knowledge dealing processes like keeping copies of old as well as unused spreadsheets which have several Social Security numbers instead of transmitting such data to long period and safe storage- persistently involve data at vulnerable stage. (Schuster 140-141)
Security concerns are associated with primarily to the system security, information security and also to Encryption. Taking into consideration the system security, it is applicable that what is pertinent to make sure that a system is quite secured, and decrease the scope that perpetrators could break into a website server and change pages. System security is a real responsibility particularly if one regulates one's owned Website server. (Creating Good Websites: Security)
There are two primary concerns in system security. One is in the application of passwords that ought to be selected and applied securely. But however protected a system could be, it is ordinarily exposed to the world if the…
Cavusoglu, Huseyin; Mishra, Birendra; Raghunathan, Srinivasan. The Effect of Website security Breach Announcements on Market Value: Capital Market Reactions for Breached Firms and Website security Developers. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, vol. 9, no.1, Fall 2004. pp: 70-104.
Creating Good Websites: Security. http://www.leafdigital.com/class/topics/security / de Vivo, Marco; de Vivo, Gabrieal; Isern, Germinal. Website security attacks at the basic level. SACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, vol. 32, no. 2, April 1998. pp: 4-15.
Farmer, Melanie Austria; Hu, Jim. Microsoft not alone in suffering security breaches.
October 27, 2000, http://news.com.com/Microsoft+not+alone+in+suffering+security+breaches/2100-1001_3-247734.html
IT Security Plan
The technological advances that have been witnessed in the past twenty to thirty years, has placed a tremendous emphasis on data and information. Computers have changed the world in many facets and the ability to communicate and perform work have been greatly assisted by the digital age. Along with these new found powers, there exists also new found threats. The ability to protect these investments and resources of an informational matter, has produced new sciences and approaches to accomplishing such a task.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss and analyze how to establish an information security program to protect organizational information. This essay will address the specific guidelines and elements that compose such a program and explore ways in which these methods can be exploited for the fullest possible benefit. Specific guidelines will be discussed however this is a general overview of a program and…
Bulling, D., Scalora, M. Borum, R. Panuzio, J., and Donica, A. (2008, July). Behavioral science guidelines for assessing insider threat attacks. Public Policy Center, University of Nebraska. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=publicpolicypublications
Boscolo, C. (2008). How to implement network access control. Computerweekly, November 2008 . Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/How-to-implement-network-access-control
Durbin, S. (2013). Security Think Tank: ISF's top security threats for 2014. Computerweekly, Dec 2013. Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/Security-Think-Tank-ISFs-top-security-threats-for-2014
Grimes, R. (2012). IT's 9 biggest security threats. Infoworld, 27 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.infoworld.com/ d/security/its-9-biggest-security-threats-200828
Privacy and security is a major concern for any person in the technological era that we are living in today. Everything today is revolving around technology in some aspect. Our academic career, professional life and even personal lives are affected by technology. Because of social media, people are likely to put very personal details and images on the World Wide Web. When people are not reluctant about uploading their personal information online, they also wouldn't have any problem uploading their financial and company relations.
Social media websites like LinkedIn, Facebook and twitter is affecting the way people interact with each other on the global scale. They are also affecting the way company's brand, advertise and even distribute their products (Edosomwan et.al, 2011) It has been stated that majority of the companies and corporations are receptive to online collaboration tools and social media. Nonetheless, when it comes to information technology, there…
Colombe, J., & Stephens, G. (2004). Statistical profiling and visualization for detection of malicious insider attacks on computer networks, 138 -- 142.
Cloudsecurityalliance.org. (2011). Top threats to cloud computing: cloud security alliance. [online] Retrieved from: https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/top-threats [Accessed: 10 Aug 2014].
Edosomwan, S., Prakasan, S., Kouame, D., Watson, J., & Seymour, T. (2011). The history of social media and its impact on business. Journal Of Applied Management And Entrepreneurship, 16(3), 79 -- 91.
Ho, P., Tapolcai, J., & Mouftah, H. (2004). On achieving optimal survivable routing for shared protection in survivable next-generation internet. Reliability, IEEE Transactions On, 53(2), 216 -- 225.
solution for a client of Wireless Technology Company. They are a company that assists organizations and businesses when it comes to issues that involve networking, bandwidth, productivity and connectivity. The client in need of a solution right now is The Athlete's Shack. They are a chain of sporting goods stores with about ten stores in the area. While the company has a technology framework in place, they are lacking a wireless element and they wish to add one. Beyond that, they wish to make use of iPads that can thus link to the wireless infrastructure in the stores. The Athlete's Shack is unsure on how to initiate and start the process and that is why they are turning to the Wireless Technology Company.
The Athlete's Shack is in need of a solution that allows for wireless connectivity along with the use of iPads as a mean to make…
Amazon. (2015). NETGEAR Nighthawk X6 AC3200 Tri-Band Wi-Fi Router (R8000). Amazon.com.
Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://www.amazon.com/NETGEAR-Nighthawk-AC3200-Tri-Band -
Apple. (2015). Apple. Apple. Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://apple.com
Great sums of
money are being invested to further enhance product differentiation. The
presence of highly enforced industry standards provides assurance that the
future will continue to be consumer-friendly. It is the end user community
that truly drives advancement. They provide the vast sums of revenue that
the manufacturers seek. In the final analysis, though, innovations such as
PANs must be viewed as interim technology that represents a stepping-stone
on the way to ubiquitous computing where computers simply disappear and
become integrated into all aspects of daily life.
Gerwig, Kate. (2007, December 3). "IP router/switch sales may reach all-
time high in 2007." SearchTelecom 03 Dec 2007. [Online]. Available:
McMillan, Robert. (2008, January 4). "A i-Fi virus Outbreak? Researchers
say it's possible." Network orld IDG News Service. [Online]. Available:
Mitchell, Bradley. (2007). "The MAC Address; An Introduction to MAC
Gerwig, Kate. (2007, December 3). "IP router/switch sales may reach all-
time high in 2007." SearchTelecom 03 Dec 2007. [Online]. Available:
McMillan, Robert. (2008, January 4). "A Wi-Fi virus Outbreak? Researchers
say it's possible." Network World IDG News Service. [Online]. Available:
This seems to be a case of some mischievous young men getting in way over their heads and not realizing how serious the consequences of their actions would be. Early on in the investigation, they were apparently laughing about the incident and enjoying their stint in the media spotlight (Poulsen, 2008). Now that they have been sentenced to serious jail time and are forced to pay major restitution, the seriousness of their crime has undoubtedly begun to sink in.
While there was no new legislation specifically attached to the Comcast incident, crimes such as this demonstrate that computer security is an enormously difficult problem for which no simple solution exists. Obviously there are differences between detecting an intrusion attack and preventing one from occurring in the first place. Preventative measures are obviously more helpful and less complicated, however with new intrusion techniques cropping up all the time, it is…
Comcast Hackers sentenced to prison (2010, September 24) U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/criminal/cybercrime/lewisSent.pdf
Poulsen, K. (2008, May 29) Comcast hijacker say they warned the company first, Wired, Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2008/05/comcast-hijacke/
Poulsen, K. (2009, November 20) Three charged as Comcast hackers, CNN Tech/Wired. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2009-11-20/tech/comcast.hacking.charge_1_hackers-domain-e-mail?_s=PM:TECH
A survey questionnaire design is employed to gather data to be used in the lazy user model test, with details on the sample population in which the questionnaire is to be administered. An innovative method to increase response rate is offered, followed by a data analysis plan. Finally, a conclusion and recommendation will complete this research project.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Information Technology and the Internet
The Information Age has changed our world in many different areas, from mankind's first steps into the space frontier, to the development of consumer items of convenience. Computers where once virtually inaccessible to the average person, and at that time were used only for information processing and logical calculations on a grand scale for large corporations and military endeavors. Indeed, only in the military did the information age really begin to develop, with the need for advanced military operations driving the information technology race.…
Bellaaj, M. (2010). The competitive value of the internet: an empirical investigation. International Journal of Technology Marketing, 238.
Bagozzi, R.P. (2007). The Legacy of the Technology Acceptance Model and a Proposal
for a Paradigm Shift. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 8, 244-
Chau, M., Wong, C.H., Zhou, Y., Qin, J., & Chen, H. (2009). Evaluating the use of search engine development tools in it education. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 288-299.
Seven domains can be found in a typical IT infrastructure. They are as follows: User Domain, Workstation Domain, LAN Domain, LAN-to-WAN Domain, Remote Access Domain, WAN Domain, and System/Application Domain. Each of these domains is viewed as portals for attackers if countermeasures are missing or fail. It is very imperative for businesses to protect each of these seven domains. It only takes one unprotected domain for an attacker to gain access to private data.
The User Domain is comprised of individuals that are often not aware of the tricks of attackers. For example, networks usually have strong passwords that one must know in order to gain access to the Internet. Nevertheless, social engineers can persuade individuals to give out personal information such as passwords and other types of private information. By giving out such information can cause computer viruses and infections executed by social engineers. Another way in…
articles that form the foundation of this analysis is Disruptive Behavior and Social Concerns (Barnes, 2015). Included in this analysis is an overview of the ethical, moral and legal implications of cyberterrorism, network and computer hacking, computer viruses, hate speech and pornography. The analysis strives to provide a balanced analysis of each area, illustrating how the inherent freedoms the Internet also provide powerful catalysts for criminals, hackers and hate groups to thrive. The paradoxical nature of Internet freedom is most clearly demonstrated in the examples of how hackers had been able to permeate a wide variety of systems and gain access to valuable data, intent on destroying it (Barnes, 2015). This article discusses the technologies underlying these areas in light detail, choosing instead to concentrate on the societal dilemmas of having an entirely open publishing medium that anyone at any time can use either ethically or unethically. The bottom line…
Barnes, Susan. Disruptive Behavior and Social Concerns (from class)
Coyle, C.L., & Vaughn, H. (2008). Social networking: Communication revolution or evolution? Bell Labs Technical Journal, 13(2), 13-17.
Yang, M.L., Yang, C.C., & Chiou, W.B. (2010). Differences in engaging in sexual disclosure between real life and cyberspace among adolescents: social penetration model revisited. Current Psychology, 29(2), 144-154.
Cloud storage and other online solutions offer the reassurance of a remote backup strategy that complements your local backup strategy. This is a burgeoning market and backup options and pricing vary. Depending on the storage and user needs, these service cost nearly $120 to $700 per year. Using web-based storage services to back up what you don't feel comfortable storing locally will also help to keep costs lowered.
Providers include Carbonite, Amazon S3, DropBox and Mozy. In addition to basic backup services, many offer various bells and whistles, including the option to access data from mobile devices, backup multiple PCs from one account, and share large files with teams. Another increasingly popular option is to build your own personal cloud with the help of a wireless network and sturdy storage devices currently available in the market.
If a server is being used in this business to…
Vandalism is a major concern because of the nature of the products manufactured by the organization and the high rate of theft generally associated with motor vehicles and motorcycles. It is recommended that the organization conduct a thorough perimeter and site security audit for the purposes of ensuring the maximum mitigation of any risks of vandalism and theft. To the extent that internal vandalism is a concern, it is recommended that the organization invest in security cameras to monitor critical areas. Additionally, employee physical access to specific areas on the grounds of the company should be restricted appropriately based on responsibilities. Likewise, it is recommended that different degrees of it system access be assigned to employees on the basis of need instead of allowing universal system access to all authorized it system users.
Modern it systems are inherently vulnerable to many types of malicious attempts at unauthorized…
Disasters that can critically compromise the accessibility of knowledge include floods, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, employee sabotage, computer viruses, and theft. The effects of disasters can lengthen even after the restructure of physical damage. Simply, the earlier a business recovers from a disaster; it will experience lesser wide-ranging continuing effects of the disaster. Not only the thrashing of sales during a disaster is destructive for the company, "the loss of customers, vendors, inventory and employee records extend recovery times from weeks and months to years" (Carlson & Parker, 1998). However, if a company has a premeditated disaster recovery plan (DP), it can reduce the nuisance of a disaster, whereas inappropriate preparations can result in a business experiencing liquidation of its bank accounts (Carlson & Parker, 1998).
In the Information Technology industry, Disaster ecovery (D) security issues occur repeatedly. The critical security measures in the environment are frequently covered by…
Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+. Retrieved July 21, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001370062
Disaster Recovery Security: The Importance of Addressing Data Security Issues in DR Plans. (2011, January). Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://searchdisasterrecovery.techtarget.com/feature/Disaster-recovery-security-The-importance-of-addressing-data-security-issues-in-DR-plans
O'Sullivan, K. (2010, September 23). Knowledge Continuity: Strategies, Approach & Tools. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://star-knowledge.com/websites/star-knowledge/skblog/?p=70
An analysis of IT policy transformation
The aim of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of information security policy in the context of an organization, OSI Systems, Inc. With presence in Africa, Australia, Canada, England, Malaysia and the United States, OSI Systems, Inc. is a worldwide company based in California that develops and markets security and inspection systems such as airport security X-ray machines and metal detectors, medical monitoring anesthesia systems, and optoelectronic devices. The company is also represented by three subsidiary divisions in offices and plants dedicated to the brands, apiscan Systems, OSI Optoelectronics and SpaceLabs Healthcare.
In 2010, OSI, Inc. had sales of $595 million with net income of over $25 million. As of June 2010, the company was comprised of 2,460 personnel globally. The parent company provides oversight and fiscal control to the different divisions, and is connected through its virtual network world-wide intranet system;…
Allen, J. (2005). Governing for Security: Project Stakeholders Interests. News at SEI. Retrieved on 5SEPT10 from http://www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/news-at-sei/securitymatters20054.cfm
Computer Misuse Law, 2006. Parliament UK. Retrieved from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmhansrd/cm090916/text/90916w0015.htm#09091614000131
Diver, S. (2006). Information Security Policy -- A Development Guide for Large and Small Companies. SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room. Retrieved on 30 Sept 10 from http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/policyissues/information-security-policy-development-guide-large-small-companies_1331
Global IT Policy (2009) OSI, Inc.
Finance and Accounting Application that provides finance and accounting operations require all the possible computer security measures to be adopted. In this case, two patterns call for an incident response plan:
The company's computer networks and systems are at a higher risk to threats like intrusions, computer viruses and exposures
Computers are widespread through the company; the company depends heavily on computers and cannot afford service denial
Therefore, the following security incidents will be an essential:
A computer virus might be copied to a LAN server; within seconds, thousands of other computers will be infected. This will require the efforts of different people and several days to achieve recovery.
Back-ups can be infected with viruses resulting in re-infection of other systems; recovery will require more expenses and time
System intruders could copy passwords and distribute them across large networks
Outbreaks of system or virus penetrations will cause embarrassment and possible…
Taylor, L.P. (2013). FISMA compliance handbook. Burlington: Elsevier Science.
McCarthy, N.K. (2012). The computer incident response planning handbook: Executable plans for protecting information at risk. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Vacca, J.R., & Rudolph, K. (2010). System forensics, investigation, and response. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
The increasing skill of these terrorists in using cyberspace has led some officials to believe that they are on the point of using computers for increasing bloodshed. This new threat is not similar to hackers' earlier using computers for passing viruses and worms. This has now reached a level of being able to reach the meeting point of computers and physical structures controlled by computers. The belief of analysts in U.S. is that they may try to disable or control floodgates in dams or electrical stations handling large quantities of power and through them destroy lives and property around them.
Though there is not much evidence, they believe that al Qaeda may be using these capacities with other weapons like explosives. The al Qaeda is known to have capacity to use other sites for their own benefit, and al Qaeda laptop in Afghanistan had visited the French site of Anonymous…
Cyber-terrorism. (30 April, 2005) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber-terrorismAccessed on 14 May, 2005
Gellman, Barton. (June 27, 2002) "Cyber-Attacks by Al Qaeda Feared" Washington Post. P: A01. Retrieved at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A50765-2002Jun26?language=printerAccessed on 14 May, 2005
Lewis, James a. (December, 2002) "Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other Cyber Threats" Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved at http://www.csis.org/tech/0211_lewis.pdf . Accessed on 14 May, 2005
O' Neil, Michael J. (2001) "Cyber-Terrorism: Case Study" Excerpt from Terrorism and the Law, by Yonah Alexander and Edgar H. Brenner, Editors. Transnational Publishers, Inc. Retrieved at http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Library/Teasers/ONeil.CyberT.html. Accessed on 14 May, 2005
In addition to the America's, your company also did well in the European market.
The company was able to fortify its No. 2 annual share position. In calendar 2003, your company held a 10.5% market share compared to 9.6% market share in 2002 ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In deed the company's globel presence is increasing at a remarkable rate.
In 2004 your company's Gross margin as a percentage of net revenue increase to 18.2%, compared to 17.9% in 2003 and 17.7% in 2002("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In addition, your company's cost savings initiative drove the year-over-year improvement for fiscal 2004 and 2003 ("Dell Annual Report 2004").
The company also made a concerted effort to improve margins by implementing four main cost reduction initiatives ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). These cost reduction initiatives affect warranty costs, manufacturing costs, design costs, and operating expenses ("Dell Annual Report 2004"). In addition, the cost savings…
Balance Sheet (Dell Inc. Annual). 20 March 2005 at http://finance.yahoo.com/q/bs?s=DELL&annual
Cash Flows. 20 March 2005 (Dell Inc. Annual) at http://finance.yahoo.com/q/cf?s=DELL&annual
Dell Annual Report 2004" 20 March 2005. http://biz.yahoo.com/e/040412/dell10-k.html
Dell Fiscal 2004 in Review." 20 March 2005
The vision Oracle has is one of unifying all of their enterprise applications into their Fusion architecture and creating a single unifying Service oriented Architecture (SOA) was first announced in 2006 (Krill, 13). Since that time Oracle has continually strived to create an SOA in Fusion that would appeal to its corporate customers. The proposed Fusion SOA platform has been designed to be robust and scalable enough to encompass enterprise-level applications including Enterprise esource Planning (EP) applications while also being flexible enough to provide for individualized application development. There are critics of SOA in general and Fusion specifically, with industry analysts considering it too difficult to create a process-centric model that allows for pervasive, in-depth applications necessary for mission-critical business while at the same time allowing for significant scalability (Handy, 2005). Despite these concerns however Fusion continues to gain market acceptance and provide Oracle with a path to the fulfillment…
Alex Handy. 2005. Oracle Fusion: The 'Frankenstein' of SOA? Software Development Times, October 15, 6
Paul Krill. 2006. Oracle Does SOA. InfoWorld, August 14, 11-13
Homeland Security and Information Technology
Security and Technology
Geospatial Information System
The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations.
Security and Technology
In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Cybercrime. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The FBI: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/cyber
Goodchild, M.F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GI Science in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 3-20.
John D. Woodward, N.M. (2002). Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information Age. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.
Jussi, P. (2007). Digital Contagions: A Media Archaeology of Computer Viruses. New York: Peter Lang.
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
Accounting and Intrusion Detection
In a report issued by Paladin Technologies, Inc., entitled: "Security Metrics: Providing Cost Justification for Security Projects," 273 organizations were surveyed on the topic of security. The report illustrates in quantifiable terms the depth and reach of intrusion detection on the financial viability of the organization. The combined reported losses from the firms surveyed totaled $265.6 million in 1999. The highest loss categories were reported as follows:
Type of Loss
Estimated Dollar Value
Number of espondents
Theft of intellectual capital
The average annual financial loss of firms surveyed was estimated at $40 million. Forty three percent of respondents were able to quantify financial losses, and seventy four percent were able to acknowledge financial loss. Ninety percent detected cyber attacks within the most recent twelve-month period and seventy percent reported serious breaches other than viruses, laptop theft, and employee abuse of…
Risk Assessment risk assessment involves estimating the likelihood and severity of an occurrence, the relative impact of risk on the facility, information handler, processing, support, and the mission of the organization. Assessing the likelihood means determining the probability that existing controls will be skirted. Pfleeger has identified a series of steps for examining the likelihood of adverse occurrences:
Calculate the probability that the risk may happen, found in the observed data for the specific system.
Estimate the likely number occurrences in a given time period. The analyst gives a rating based on several different risk analysis methodologies, and then creates a table to hold and compare the ratings.
The Delphi approach: several raters individually estimate the probable likelihood of an event, combine their estimates, and choose the best one.
There is a modern emphasis, which has resulted from the experience of the economic impact of disaster, on a more extensive and 'distributed' mode of thinking about disaster recovery. This is an important factor that should be stressed as it has direct implications in terms of the economic aspects of disaster recovery planning in an increasingly networked and technologized contemporary working environment. This aspect is cogently expressed in a White Paper on this issue.
Many organizations have strong business recovery plans for their mainframe and mini-computer systems. but, as more and more critical applications are migrated to distributed systems, companies are becoming concerned about how they can protect these systems in the event of a disaster. Chances of a disaster increase significantly as systems are moved away from traditional central computer facilities that have hardened security and environmental controls.
(Disaster ecovery - a White Paper)
This emphasizes a cardinal issue…
Bielski, L. (2002). Thinking the Unthinkable: Often Dismissed as Mere "Insurance," Disaster Recovery Ought to Be Considered Part of the Lifeblood of Any Business. ABA Banking Journal, 94(1), 44+.
This article focuses on the subject of disaster management in the banking industry. It provides insight into actual situations where disaster recovery plans were effective in preventing large-scale economic loss. It also provides examples of what can occur when there is a poor or recovery plan. This is also a good background study that provides insight into the economic effects and implications of disaster in the it context.
Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+.
This was a very useful article in that it provided an extensive and well written overview of issues surrounding disaster recovery and management. The article was particularly focused on the effects and implications in economic terms of the failure of disaster management planning. These aspects were compared to the effect of good and well thought out disaster planning.
This is also known as a vulnerability assessment (Shimonski, 2005).
Enlisting senior management support so that security is taking seriously within the organization and so that employee and manager alike understand the value of assets and the seriousness threats that may exist (Shimonski, 2005; Schwartz, 2003).
Establish a security budget so that from year to year an organization has the finances necessary to deal with security threats as they occur but also take measures to prevent security issues (Shimonski, 2005; Garcia, 2000).
Create a task force that can respond successfully and expediently to security emergencies (Shimonski, 2005). Along these lines a security breech plan of action should be developed and all employee informed of the proper steps to take if a security breech occurs.
Establish a recovery plan that will help protect assets. This should include establishing back up so a company has somewhere to go and can restore systems…
Darlington, Y. & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Storms from the field. Crows Nest, Allen & Unwin.
Garcia, M.L. (2000 - Jun). "Truth & Consequences." Security Management, 44(6): 44.
Grassie, R.P. (2000 - Nov). "Are companies properly addressing threats?" Security
Management, 44(11): 146.
Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.
The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…
Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.
War on Terror
War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…
The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.
The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,
Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.
Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
The real estate concept is very different in Great Britain. It consists of a system of bidding and auction. Still this obstacle did not stop Countrywide's management from seeing a wave of change. Many other companies had already seen Great Britain as an entry point into the rest of Europe. These success stories are Safeway, al-Mart and Pizza Hut to name a few. The means to acquiring a ready-made company within Great Britain was the next step. At this point, it was understood that independently opening a Countrywide branch there would be too risky. The strategy was to acquire or create a joint venture with a company that already existed where Countrywide could slowly take over meanwhile slowly introducing that workforce to American mortgage knowledge and skills (Globalhomeloans.com, 2005). The irony in this situation is that Countrywide may have been cocky. After all, the situation is very favorable and almost…
About Countrywide History. 19 Jan. 2005. http://about.countrywide.com/history/History.aspx?is Printable=Yes>.
AllDirect.com. 19 Jan. 2005. Company Profile. http://www.alldirect.com.html..
Globalhomeloans. 19 Jan. 2005. Company Web site. http://www.globalhomeloans.co.uk/mainsite/..
Lardy, Susan. 15 Jan. 2005. E-Marketing and Strategy within Countrywide Homa Loans,
The algorithm can be your market eyes. it's effectively a trading assistant - a very diligent trading assistant... The downside is that it is also a very obedient trading assistant, so if you tell it to do something it might not have the intuition or the ability to veto you... obviously there are checks and balances to prevent anything bad from happening, but you do hear stories about people putting an order in with the wrong instruction, it moved the stock 10 per cent and then you get a call from the regulator" (Dey, 2006) in 2007, the Economist attributed a financially significant "wobble" suffered by the New York Stock Exchange on February 27, 2007 to the ad hoc combination of increasing capacity by adding more scalable hardware to a system that still relies substantially on floor-based trading, yielding a "hybrid" system with significant vulnerabilities. According to that journal, the…
Curran, R. (2008). Watch Out for Sharks in Dark Pools: Anonymity on Alternative Electronic Stock Exchanges Can Provide Cover to 'Gamers' Hunting for Big Prey
Dey, I. (2006) Black Box Traders Are on the March.
Duhigg, C. (2006) Artificial Intelligence Applied Heavily to Picking Stocks
The Economist (2007) Dodgy tickers: Accurate information can make -- or break -- exchanges.
National Infrastructure Vulnerability
This report covers how the United States does and should address threats to its critical national infrastructure. Vulnerability to attacks like the SCADA/Stuxnet worm will be addressed as well as mitigations as they relate to the seven domains. The assessment of levels of responsibility to protect both the public and private sectors will be covered as well as the elements of an effective IT security policy framework. No less than three scholarly resources will be used for this report, as per the parameters of the assignment.
The Stuxnet word made major shockwaves when it came to be known fully in roughly 2010. Presumed by many to be the product of cooperation with the Israeli and United States governments to attack Iran and perhaps inhibit their ability to manufacture and process nuclear devices and materials, the worm specifically attacks Siemens (SCADA) devices that relate to…
Goodin, D. (2010, September 22). SCADA worm a 'nation state search-and-destroy weapon'. The Register. The Register: Sci/Tech News for the World. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.theregister.co.uk/2010/09/22/stuxnet_
Taylor, L. (2001, February 16). Seven elements of highly effective security policies |
ZDNet. ZDNet | Technology News, Analysis, Comments and Product Reviews for IT Professionals. Retrieved May 18, 2013,from http://www.zdnet.com/news / seven-elements-of-highly-effective-security-policies/297286
Telecommuting is the act of periodically working out of the main office, one or more days a week either at home, or at a telework center. (Avery and Zabel 2000, 82) The concept of telecommuting was created by Jack Niles as a result of the oil crisis of the 1970's. Niles felt that telecommuting would be a good way of eliminating the daily commute and preserving energy. Nile eventually found that telecommuting could be beneficial to workers and employees.
The research found that the benefits of telecommuting include increased productivity, improved familial relationships and decreases in absenteeism. Increased productivity is derivative of the fact that workers have fewer distractions and are able to complete tasks on their own time. We also found that telecommuters had increased job satisfaction and increased motivation.
A major hindrance to the implementation of a successful telecommuting strategy is the lack of effective communication technology. In…
Avery C. And Zabel D. (2000) The Flexible Workplace: A Sourcebook of Information and Research. Quorum Books: Westport, CT.
Burn, T. (2000, January 31). Telecommuting Fits Right at Home. The Washington Times, p. 10.