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Sometimes it can be difficult for a writer to understand whether he or she is plagiarizing and by performing a plagiarism quiz the respective individual can understand more about his or her original ideas. People are not born with knowledge and it is perfectly normal for someone to make mistakes during his or her initial attempts to work in a particular field. Through performing a plagiarism quiz consequent to writing an essay I discovered that some of the information I used needed to be acknowledged. People are often inclined to consider that particular concepts are common knowledge because they are acquainted with them. However, one needs to carefully analyze his or her work in order to be able to differentiate between common knowledge and information that needs to be cited or acknowledged before turning it in.
6. Respond orally and in writing to the works of others, both by summarizing…
However, though instructional adaptations are favored, students generally preferred that homework remain uniform for all students.
Students were very specific about the types of teacher practices that facilitated their understanding of grading, homework, and assignments, and provided recommendations to teachers regarding these practices. In general, students find textbook learning difficult and boring. Though they indicated that they learned a great deal from reading and answering questions, they did not like doing it. Students also were begging for strategy instruction that would assist them in learning from text and learning independently. Students liked activity-based instruction and while they did not call for an abandonment of textbooks, they wanted a balance between text learning and activity learning.
These studies teach us that students want teachers to be clear about the types of adaptations and accommodations that they intend to make and for which students. hen it comes to grading, teachers need to…
Bailey, D.B., SC Wolery, M. (1992). Teaching infants and preschoolers with disabilities (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Battiato, a.C., Walker, J.M.T., Reed, R.P., Delong, J.M., & Jones, K.P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36, 195-209.
Lindsay, James. (2001). "A Model of Homework's Influence on the Performance Evaluations of Elementary School Students." The Journal of Experimental Education
Mahoney, J.L., & Cairns, R.B. (1997). Do extracurricular activities protect against early school dropout? Developmental Psychology, 33, 241-253.
Size Affect Learning Outcomes?
Some educators feel that there is a perfect size for a classroom and that any number over this can lead to stress for both teacher and student. As a result, these educators hold that learning outcomes are negatively impacted the bigger the class becomes. However, if an educator has truly mastered the art of education, then class size really should not be that big of a factor in how well student learning outcomes are achieved: what will matter will be how effectively the teacher implements his or her teaching approach, assessments and classroom design. Thus, this paper will show that class size does not have to affect learning outcomes because teachers can use a variety of teaching methods, evaluation methods, and classroom designs in order to facilitate student learning no matter the size of the class.
Class size does not affect learning outcomes because teachers can…
The best method for conducting the study would involve the use of a case study. Since this would be a group, setting, the case study method would allow the researcher to conduct in-depth investigations. Case studies offer the researcher an opportunity to use various data gathering sources like interviews, and observations (Halligan & Marshall, 2013). In order for the researcher to conduct an in-depth study of the subjects, the case study would offer an effective method for data gathering. The researcher would manage to immerse him/herself into the group or could make observations as the participants attend their quit smoking classes. Being a participant would allow the other participants to open up to the researcher more easily. Since the classes mostly consist of around 20 people, this makes it a small number and easy for the researcher to deal with. A case study method would ensure that…
Everly, J.B., Holtyn, A.F., & Perone, M. (2014). Behavioral functions of stimuli signaling transitions across rich and lean schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, 101(2), 201-214.
Graham, S., & Folkes, V.S. (2014). Attribution theory: Applications to achievement, mental health, and interpersonal conflict. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Halligan, P.W., & Marshall, J.C. (2013). Method in madness: Case studies in cognitive neuropsychiatry. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Huitema, B. (2011). The analysis of covariance and alternatives: Statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies (Vol. 608). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Additionally, it will boost team morale and teamwork and better employee relations and retention as well. Overall, performance will be improved. Intervention as a team is a must for the conflict resolution process to work. This process unlocks the power in a team and then provides an opportunity to negotiate and mediate problems. The results are detailed action plans which brings out strategies for improvement of a company. To ensure that all of the team members understand the project's goal and are committed is an effective methiod that can be used to avoid group conflicts. A team is normally formed involving a rational making decision process. Therefore, it must also be maintained through the agency of rational conflict resolution methods.
Sample Project Definition Document
As we mentioned above, it is important for a project to be able to procure the requisite permits and other permission documentation. Also, as mentioned above,…
Boyd, K. (2011). crushing plant design and layout considerations. Retrieved from http://www.technology.infomine.com/hydrometmine/papers/kboyd.pdf/
Heerkens, G. (2007). Project management: 24 steps to help you master any project. (1st ed. ed.). New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Kerzner, H. (2009). Project management: A systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling.
Learner in Monitoring His/Her Own Learning Progress
The following are various ways I use to make learning effective by helping the pupil to monitor their own learning. These approaches encourage positive relationships in the class environment and enhance the emotional well-being of the learners. They also encourage learners to participate in the class activity. Effective application of these qualities depends on how well I have combined them with pedagogical skills and other appropriate behavior management strategies that are tailored for the learners in focus. This section describes a number of these pedagogical skills (Cooper & Cefai, 2013).
As an effective teacher I take my time to plan lessons in detail. This planning ensures that the learning needs of a diverse class are taken into consideration. The details include auditory and visual approaches to the delivery of content. It also aims at encouraging learners to actively participate in the…
Afasic. (2016). Language Disorder - Receptive Language Disorder. London: Helplines Partnership.
Cooper, P., & Cefai, C. (2013). Understanding and Supporting Students with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. Malta: European Centre for Educational Resilience and Socio-Emotional Health.
Mary Magee, Q., David, O., Cynthia, W., Tom, H., & Dehaven, B. (2000). Teaching and Working with Children Who Have Emotional and Behavioral Challenges. . Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research - Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice.
Ministry of Education - Province of British Colomb. (2011). A Guide for Teachers - Supporting Students with Learning Disabilities. Ministry of Education.
Learning Differences and Learning Needs
Learning Styles and Learning Preferences
For many years a great debate has existed in the field of education. Teachers and educators have attempted to uncover the best method for teaching students. The majority of evidence available suggests that multiple factors influence a student's ability to achieve in the classroom, none the least of which is learning styles and preferences. There is ample evidence supporting the notion that intelligence aside, most students have a learning preference related to their cognitive style of thinking that is ingrained or innate.
Because of this students will react to material presented to them in the classroom in different ways. It is vital that teachers begin recognizing the significance of these individual learning differences and uncover methods for coping with and addressing learning style differences and preferences within the classroom. Only then will all children be afforded the opportunity to learn…
Fields S.C. ( 1985, April 15-18). Assessment of aptitude interactions for the most common science instructional strategies. Paper presented at the 58th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, French Lick Springs, IN.
Grabowski, B.L. & Jonassen, DH (1993). Handbook of individual differences in learning and instruction. Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Merrill M.D. ( 1973). "Content and instructional analysis for cognitive transfer tasks." A
V Communication Review, 21,109-125.
Learning and Development Solutions What Factors Would You Take Into Consideration
The environment is one of the factors that enhance the learning process and offering solutions among learners. The environment refers to any physical and psychological presence, which constitutes a surrounding during the time of learning. In every learning endeavor, it is often important to consider the effects that the environment has on the learning that is taking place, the achievement of the learning objectives, and the nature of the solutions derived from the learning process. The environment influences the learner at the process of learning and deriving solutions to problems at hand. The influence of the environment could be either positive or negative. This factor should be considered since it is intrinsic at the point of learning. The environment also includes the physical and natural existence at the process of learning. As such, the learning environment should be…
Armstrong, S., & Fukami, C. V, 2009, The SAGE handbook of management learning, education and development. London, SAGE.
Park, C. C, 2007, Asian-American education: acculturation, literacy development, and learning. Charlotte, N.C., IAP.
In conjunction with these perspectives on how to create a highly effective online learning platform that aligns to the specific needs of students, there is a corresponding area of research that concentrates on teaching resiliency in the teaching process. The work of Dr. Carol Dweck of Stanford University underscores the need for leading students to continually challenge themselves to grow and have a very strong growth mindset vs. A limited on. She draws on an empirically-derived research study that shows the greater the growth mindset of even the most talented and gifted mindset, the greater the long-term performance gains they make in life (Dweck, 2006). Her book, Mindset, challenges both students and teachers to create a culture of continual focus on excellence and continual striving to improve, never taking a closed or limited mindset to improvement. It is an inspirational book and shows that there is hope for continual improvement…
Ahlfeldt, S., Mehta, S., & Sellnow, T. (2005). Measurement and analysis of student engagement in university classes where varying levels of PBL methods of instruction are in use. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(1), 5-20.
Basile, a. & D'Aquila, J.M. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a Principles of Financial Accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137.
Beard, L.A. (2002). Students perceptions of online vs. campus instruction. Education, 122(4), 658.
Dutton, j. d.; Dutton, m.; Perry, j. (2002). How do Online Students Differ from Lecture Students? JALN. Vol. 6, no. 1, July.
In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).
White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that…
Many studies have shown that PBL students experience greater motivation toward learning than their traditional counterparts (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Beachey, 2007, Rogal & Snider, 2008). Further PBL has been associated with greater satisfaction in the learning process by physicians than its traditional counterpart (Beachey, 2007; Op't Holt, 2000; Rogal & Snider, 2008). Evaluations of PBL programs have found that not only do students take pleasure in the process, they also believe that they have the capacity to out perform their peers from traditional curricula in clinical settings (Op't Holt, 2005; Kaufman & Mann, 1996). Studies have shown that the teaching method has little bearing on the learning of academically talented students (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Distlehorst, Dawson, Robbs, & Barrows, 2005; Op't Hoyt, 2005). In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).
White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that one would expect significant improvement in clinical knowledge and performance in order to advocate for the use of PBL in the classroom due to the extensive resources that are required to utilize PBL curricula.
One would expect that PBL students would be at a significant advantage over their traditional peers due to the clinical application in the classroom (Colliver, 2000). Some
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…
Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),
Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.
Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]
Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Learning Styles -- Academic Performance
There has been a great deal of scholarly research done on how students learn, and how certain learning styles impact the academic outcomes. This paper delves into four scholarly research papers that describe learning styles and the subsequent academic achievements that result from those learning styles.
Deep Learning is Preferable to Surface Learning
Several learning styles were used in a research project involving 273 Social Science students at a British university. The learning styles being rated and observed (part of Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles) included "deep learning," "self-regulated learning," "intrinsic motivation," and "constructivist conception of learning." In the research, these four styles of learning were seen as preferable to "surface learning," "teacher-centered learning," "extrinsic motivation," and "objectivist conception of learning" (Boyle, et al., 2003). The most acceptable learning style in terms of the student achieving positive academic gains was "deep learning," which requires the…
Boatman, K., Courtney, R., and Lee, W. (2008). "See How They Learn": The Impact of Faculty and Student Learning Styles on Student Performance in Introductory
Economics. The American Economist, 52(1), 39-52.
Boyle, E. A., Duffy, T., and Dunleavy, K. (2003). Learning styles and academic outcome:
The validity and utility of Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles in a British higher education setting. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 73, 267-290.
A child can learn that pressing a button on remote changes a channel on a television set. The experiment used two set of participants where one set learnt from a machine while the others learnt from a human participant. It was evident that the use of a ghost machine yielded better results compared to the use of a participant (Nairne, 2011).
The method used to learn how observational learning influences children will be the use of questionnaires. Short questionnaires will be sent to twenty baby care centers to evaluate the observational learning skills possessed by the caregivers. The questionnaires will be filled by the participants using three main methods. Centers that are a long distance from researcher's location will be provided with the questionnaires through emails. Centers where the care giver is busy will be called when convenient and the questionnaire filled through a telephone conversation. Centers that are…
Mishra, B.K. (2008). Psychology; the study of human behavior. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Nairne, J.S. (2011). Psychology. Australia: Thompson/Wadsworth.
Given the capriciousness of the human condition with respect to continuing redefinitions of personal and professional success, human resource managers are faced with some difficult choices in formulating recommendations for best practices. Therefore, the learning journal would undergo a series of draft versions that would be used to solicit feedback from experts in the field who could point out flaws and areas that required additional research or support to be valid and trustworthy. The solicitation of feedback process would follow the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who recommends having a manuscript reviewed by knowledgeable individuals who possess the requisite credentials to provide informed feedback. This feedback would be carefully reviewed and the collaborative process would result in changes and additions where they were deemed necessary and appropriate.
Outcomes and New Learning
Some of the overriding themes that emerged from the learning episodes outlined above was that the more researchers…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Cheverton, J. 2007. 'Holding our own: Value and performance in nonprofit organizations.'
Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 427-428.
This study investigates how ESL students' perception affects the teacher-student interaction in the writing conferences. The multiple-case study explores: ESL students' expectations of the writing conference and factors contributing to the expectations, participation patterns of ESL students in the conferences, and ESL students' perception of the effectiveness of teacher-student conferences. A questionnaire, distributed to 110 (65 NS and 45 ESL) students enrolled in the first-year composition classes, examines students' previous writing experience and expectations of the writing conferences. Pre-conference interviews with 19 focus students (8 NS and 11 ESL) were conducted to verify the survey results. Students' participation patterns were investigated via the video-recorded writing conferences of the 19 focus students. Students' perceptions of the conference were investigated through the post conference interviews with the 19 focus students and follow-up interviews with six Chinese students.
esults of the research that Liu (2009) conducted determined that ESL students and NS students…
Beare, K. (n.d.). ESL Writing Workshop 2. Retrieved from http://esl.about.com/od/writinglessonplan/a/l_wwshop2.htm
Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2009). The value of a focused approach to written corrective feedback. ELT Journal: English Language Teachers Journal, 63(3), 204-211. doi:10.1093/elt/ccn043.
Liu, Y.. ESL students in the college writing conferences: Perception and participation. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, United States -- Arizona. Retrieved September 06, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3359771).
Matthews-Aydinli, J. (2008). OVERLOOKED AND UNDERSTUDIED? A SURVEY OF CURRENT TRENDS IN RESEARCH ON ADULT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS. Adult Education Quarterly, 58(3), 198. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.
(3) According to the Multiple Intelligences Survey, I have quite a bit of intrapersonal and interpersonal intellegence and a moderate amount of musical and kinesthetic intelligence. This makes sense because I enjoy analyzing people and situations; and, I decided to leave my old job because I was bored sitting still behind a desk and not talking to anyone for most of the day.
As I was enjoying the surveys so much, also I took Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory and discovered that my learning style consists of doing and feeling or what Kolb would abbreviate as "CE/AE." When these findings are placed on the two-by-two grid by Kolb, my learning style is accommodating. An accommodating learning style is often times referred to as a "hands-on" style and one that relies upon intuition over logic. In fact, these findings also did not surprise me because I have to do something at least…
Codde, PhD, J.R. (2006). Using Learning Contracts in the College Classroom. Michigan State University.
During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.
Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…
Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3
Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:
Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
e. In instances where the students have already demonstrated a diversity of learning styles (DeCastro-Ambrosetti & Cho, 2005). The use of authentic assessments includes greater student directive-ness and increased empowerment and self-guidance and -reliance in the learning process.
Self-assessment is seen by many to be the culmination of the individualization of learning assessment, but when this occurs solely for the purposes of accountability, learning is far from guaranteed (Gaytan & McEwen, 2007). This is partially due to the difference students and instructors, at least in the study conducted by Gaytan and McEwen (2007), perceive in the purpose of self-assessment tests; students viewed them primarily as a way to receive feedback as to their progress and achievement, while instructors saw them more as a way to make sure students understood the material (Gaytan and McEwen, 2007). Both views underline the usefulness of self-assessments, but perhaps they can be best applied by…
Commons, P. "The contribution of inspection, self-assessment, investors in people...: an initial exploration." Journal of further & higher education, vol. 27, issue 1 (Feb 2003), pp. 27-47
DeCastro-Ambrosetti, D. & Cho, G. "Synergism in learning: A critical reflection of authentic assessment." High school journal, vol. 89, issue 1(Oct/Nov 2005), pp. 57-62
Feinstein, S. "Performance assessment in Juvenile Correction education programs." Journal of correctional education, vol. 53. Issue 1 (Mar 2002), pp. 9-12
Gaytan, J. & McEwen, B. "Effective online instructional and assessment strategies." American journal of distance education. Vol. 21 issue 3 (Sep 2007), pp. 117-32
" The advantages of such a curriculum is that the material stays with the student longer than mere memorization; the students experience prevails over the teachers (thus the student teaches themselves); and the information learned is customized to the needs of the individual learner. Disadvantages of such an approach is frustration on the part of the student for their being a lack of a "right and wrong answer (or instant gratification); there is immense responsibility on the individual student and therefore requires a certain level of maturity; and there is not defined start and finish to the learning process.
However, Bonoma cites numerous examples of case studies, in both administrative and health care situations, in various fields where the statistics show a higher level of learner comprehension of the subject. Bonoma then concludes his paper by laying out instruction on how to set up, implement, run and evaluate a marketing-based…
Within a learning setting, each student comes with their individual package and it is not possible to have two pupils learning concepts in the same way despite the fact that they are taught with the same curriculum by the same educators as well. Naseem International School accommodates students from different cultures and backgrounds with different needs. The needs are not purely academic and learning needs only but also cultural and social needs hence care is needed. This paper looks at how teachers can plan for and assess the individual needs of students as well as identify and discuss strategies which promote and enhance the learning of students who have different educational needs (Project Ideal, 2008).
It is critical to asses the pupils in my class since they differ in terms of their abilities to learn and imbibe concepts in class. This assessment can be done as below:
Douglous.D.Christensen, (1996). Teaching Strategies for Students with Diverse Learning Needs.
Centennial Mall South. Nebraska Department of Education. ( Pg 11-16).Retrieved January 24,2013 from http://www.nebraskasocialstudies.org/pdf/tsfswdln.pdf
Sue Watson, (2012). Differentiated Instruction and Assessment. Retrieved January 24, 2013
Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis
The University of San Diego Counseling Center (USDCC) has been established to provide enrolled students with access to quality counseling and healthcare services. Employing a diverse selection of the university's most accomplished psychiatrists, psychologists, medical doctors, registered nurses, and other healthcare professionals, the USDCC operates a high-volume Critical Intensive Care Unit with the assistance of a 50-member nursing staff. Although the USDCC has built a reputation for delivering competent and qualified critical care services across a number of years, the organization's management structure has become concerned that educational priorities have not been updated to reflect modern advancements in the field. To that end, the USDCC recently elected to conduct a comprehensive Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis to identify the paramount educational needs in place, and the institutional forces working to facilitate or impede the implementation of these needs. Empirical research on the efficacy of various…
Lewin, K. (1939). Field theory and experiment in social psychology: Concepts and methods.
Journal of Sociology, 44, 868-896. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2769418?uid=3739552&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=7
Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
') (Tingstrom et al., 226) in correspondence with the example provided by the researchers responsible for this evaluation, it may be deduced that such method of positive reinforcement implementation is best suited to a younger educational context such as grammar school. It may only be considered appropriate to attach the positive consequences of individual efforts with the capabilities of an entire class in settings where future prospects such as class rank and college admissions have not yet entered into the discourse over performance motivators.
Tingstrom et al. also identify the independent group-oriented contingencies, which "involve consequences, and criteria for all group members, but access to reinforcement for each group member is based on each member's performance (e.g., 'whoever makes a 90% or higher on the end chapter math test will be able to pick a prize from the treasure chest.' (Tingstrom et al., 226) in many ways, this has proved…
Bunderson, C.V. (1990). Computers in Educational Assessment: An Opportunity to Restructure Educational Practice. Educational Resource and Information Center.
Eisner, E. (1997). The Promise and Perils of Alternative Forms of Data Representation. Educational Researcher, Vol. 26, No. 6, p. 4-10.
Emerson, J. (1989). Review: Dead PoetsSociety. Jeems Cinepad. Online at http://cinepad.com/reviews/deadpoets.htm.
Florio-Ruane, Suzanne; Marianne George & Taffy E. Rapheal. (2004). Book Club Plus: Organizing Your Literacy Curriculum to Bring Students to High Levels of Literacy. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 27.
For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.
The Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.
With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…
Akers, Ronald. Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Transaction Publishers, 2009
Griffin, Ricky Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning, 2009
Sarafino, Edward. Self-Management: Using Behavioral and Cognitive Principles to Manage Your Life. John Wiley and Sons, 2010
Ronald Akers, Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance (Transaction Publishers, 2009), 25.
Learning Log: Organizational Culture
An increasingly globalized marketplace and multicultural society demand a solid understanding of others' cultures, particularly with regards to interpersonal communications. These issues are especially important in the workplace where effective communication requires a careful balance of appreciation and recognition of cross-cultural differences that may affect the exchange. Although common courtesy and common sense will go a long way in preventing inadvertent cross-cultural communications gaffs, it is also important to understand the more salient workplace behaviors that may be regarded as offensive by people from other cultures.
Questions that resulted
What types of workplace behaviors are universally acceptable, if any, irrespective of the culture(s) involved?
What types of workplace behaviors are generally prohibited based on cultural factors?
How can the views of cultural theorists such as Geert Hofstede and others help inform the cross-cultural communication process in the workplace?
Relative positions with respect to the presented…
A group with many extroverts may cause the introverts to withdraw despite the fact the introverts have needed skills and input for the group. Being more self-aware about the different group types can help the group overcome such obstacles ("Information about personality types," 2006, BSM Consulting).
hat are types of conflict management tools?
First of all, when discussing a dispute, choose a neutral, private environment. Allow everyone to express their point-of-view, as they see it. Clarify before discussing the issue at stake. Agree on what the difference is. Explore potential alternatives and compromises. Focus on similarities as well as differences. Make issues, not personality the focus. Have a clear idea of what concrete, definable, and achievable outcomes should result from the discussion. Put in controls to implement those decisions (Heathfield 2008).
Having a mediator can make conflict resolution easier. Also, having certain standard operating procedures to deal with a conflict,…
Chapman, Allan. (2008). "Tuckman: Forming-storming-norming-performing."
Businessballs. Retrieved 28 Apr 2008 at http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm
Chapman, Allan. (2008). "Motivational theory." Businessballs. Retrieved 28 Apr 2008 at http://www.businessballs.com/motivation.htm
Heathfield, Susan. (2008). "Personal courage and conflict resolution at work." About.com. Retrieved 28 Apr 2008 at http://humanresources.about.com/cs/conflictresolves/a/conflictcourage_2.htm
Within each of these are discriminatory and generalized patterns of learning; and can be incorporated into learning models.
My own learning style is a combination of listening (learning from others) and then doing. It depends on the material; for any tactile operation, I find it easier to understand by touching and manipulating than simply reading in a manual how to perform the task. I believe I make clear use of discrimination in learning; responding to different stimuli with different responses. When the learning task is more scholarly in nature, I tend to combine visual and aural methods with kinesthetic and write down, or outline material.
Burton, N. (March 15, 2012). Hide and Seek: Understanding Self-Deception, Self-Sabotage
nd More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:
Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational,…
And More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:
Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational, but are rationalizing. For instance, the trauma of 9/11, even for those not directly affected, caused a number of people to commit suicide. Moreover, if someone is the victim of beatings as a child, they tend to repress those memories, internalize some of the actions, and possibly have problems forming attachments. This, according to Dr. Burton, is the mind's way of defending and coping with stress. It becomes part of the unconscious, but often resurfaces in odd forms. The healthy individual can get on a path to deal with these issues; talk through them, analyze, and find coping mechanisms.
Clinical Learning Outcomes
Interaction of Variables.
Evaluating clinical learning outcomes
Describe the skill and the learner you intend to teach and evaluate
Because of cutbacks in the number of days new patients are allotted to spend in the hospital, patients and their families are increasingly responsible for more of the patient's care, even immediately following a diagnosis of a serious illness such as type I, or juvenile, insulin-dependent diabetes. Teaching patients to correctly monitor their blood sugar and self-administer insulin is essential, but it requires a high level of patient compliance and willingness to learn. It is essential that young patients and their parents have a thorough understanding of the process.
Briefly describe how you would design the learning experience
Learning is a step-by-step process. It is important not to bombard patients with knowledge right away, when they are still frightened and confused. Also, although there are real risks with…
Hahn, K.K. (1990). Teaching patients to administer insulin. Nursing, 20(4), 70-70.
Silvestrone, J.M. (2004). Performance-based assessment: Improving the value of laboratory and skills examinations. New Directions for Teaching & Learning, 100, 65 -- 71.
learning experiene. The writer demonstrates how to put together a prior learning and prior experiene portfolio for the purpose of demonstrating urrent knowledge due to that prior experiene.
A omprehensive look at the management of one's personal finanes; overs budgeting, use of and ost of redit, life and property insurane, inome and state taxation, housing, wills, trusts, estate planning, and savings and investments.
You must reall and write one or more "learning events" for eah of the key terms listed on the ourse desription you have obtained. By using Kolb's model to guide your storytelling, you will assist your faulty assessor, the person who will evaluate your PLA portfolio for redit, to loate and appreiate your learning outomes.
In short, your task in writing your PLA portfolio essay is to address all listed ourse ontent areas and to do so via speifi stories told in terms of the Kolb Model.…
cited in Tennant 1996) highlights, there is a need to take account of differences in cognitive and communication styles that are culturally-based. Here we need to attend to different models of selfhood - and the extent to which these may differ from the 'western' assumptions that underpin the Kolb and Fry model.
The idea of stages or steps does not sit well with the reality of thinking. There is a problem here - that of sequence. As Dewey (1933) has said in relation to reflection a number of processes can occur at once, stages can be jumped. This way of presenting things is rather too neat and is simplistic - see reflection.
Empirical support for the model is weak (Jarvis 1987; Tennant 1997). The initial research base was small, and there have only been a limited number of studies that have sought to test or explore the model (such as Jarvis 1987). Furthermore, the learning style inventory 'has no capacity to measure the degree of integration of learning styles' (Tennant 1997: 92).
The relationship of learning processes to knowledge is problematic. As Jarvis (1987) again points out, David Kolb is able to show that learning and knowledge are intimately related. However, two problems arise here. David Kolb doesn't really explore the nature of knowledge in any depth. In chapter five of Experiential Learning he discusses the structure of knowledge from what is basically a social psychology perspective. He doesn't really connect with the rich and varied debates about the nature of knowledge that raged over the centuries within philosophy and social theory. This means that I do not think he really grasps different ways of knowing. For example, Kolb focuses on processes in the individual mind, rather than seeing learning as situated. Second, for David Kolb, learning is concerned with the production of knowledge. 'Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and transforming it' (Kolb 1984: 41). Here we might contrast this position with Paulo Freire. His focus is upon informed, committed action (praxis).
Given these problems we have to take some care approaching David Kolb's vision of experiential learning. However, as Tennant (1997: 92) points out, 'the model provides an excellent framework for planning teaching and learning activities and it can be usefully employed as a guide for understanding learning difficulties, vocational counselling, academic advising and so on'.
For the purposes of this review, Web-based instruction is considered to be any educational or training program distributed over the Internet or an intranet and conveyed through a browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Java applet-based instruction is a special form of Web-based instruction.
Although there is very little research on comparing the effectiveness of Java applet-based instruction to the traditional face-to-face offering. However Web-based instruction has received enough attention that many studies are now available in the research literature.
Comparing the learning effects of Web-based learning with traditional face-to-face teaching and learning is emphasized in the research on the Internet as a medium in higher education. However, these research studies always produce conflicting results. esearchers found significant differences, positive or negative, in using different Internet-based approaches to facilitate teaching and learning.
This literature review explores three dominant themes: impact on student performance, student attitude, and student satisfaction.…
Rajshree Agarwal, a Edward Day. (1998). The impact of the Internet on economic education. Journal of Economic Education, 29(2), 99. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 28501331).
Al-Jarf, a. & Sado, R. (2002). Effect of online learning on struggling ESL college writers. San Antonio, TX: National Educational Computing Conference Proceedings. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 475-920).
Anthony Basile, Jill M. D'Aquila. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a principles of financial accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137-143. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 115217377).
Carey, J. (2001). Effective student outcomes: A comparison of online and face-to-face delivery modes. Retrieved November 14, 2008, at http://www.ed.psu.edu/acsde/deos/deosnews/deosnews11_9.asp
Adult Learning: Andragogy
Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).
Adult Learning Principles
Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…
Chen, I. (2008). Constructivism. College of Education: University of Houston. Retrieved on June 6, 2011 from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichn/ebook/et-it/constr.htm
Corley M.A. (2008). Experiential learning theory. California Adult Literacy Professional
Development Project. CALPRO: California Department of Education. Retrieved on June 13, 2011 from http://www.calpro-online.org/documents/AdultLearningTheoriesFinal.pdf
Kolb, D.A. et al. (1999). Experiential learning theory. "Perspectives on Cognitive
The issue involves one institution awarding PLA credits, and when a student then transfers to a similar program at another institution or applies to a higher level program after graduating, the second institution may not recognize the PLA credits. The concern exists predominantly in the gap between program levels, for example a diploma graduate applying to a baccalaureate program, a baccalaureate graduate applying to a master's program. It is thought that if this is left unaddressed, increasing PLA practices may well lower a barrier at one educational level, while raising a barrier at the next (Advancing PLA in Alberta -- an Action Plan, 2009).
Another problem that has been associated with PLA is institutional funding for both human resources and operations. There is a concern among institutions about being required to implement or increase their PLA practices without additional government funding to support it. Most institutions currently do not have…
Advancing PLAR in Alberta -- an Action Plan. (2009). Retrieved July 22, 2010, from Web site:
Applying education and skills to real employment opportunities. (n.d). Retrieved July 22, 2010,
from State of Washington Web site:
The learning and skills sector (LSS) is an Essential part of educational development in the United Kingdom. For many years this educational program faltered and was not taken seriously. However in recent years Legislators in the UK have dedicated a great deal of time and resources to improving LSS. According to Maxwell (2009)
The Learning and Skills Sector (LSS) in England is diverse, comprising further education (FE) colleges, sixth-form colleges, personal and community development learning and work-based training and learning in other adult settings such as prisons and the uniformed services. Over the last 15 years the sector has moved from a position of 'benign neglect' (Young et al. 1995, 7) to being placed 'at the forefront of UK's attempt to raise its skill profile' (Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills, and Department for Children, Schools and Families 2007, 3). Developing the workforce needed to support this ambitious agenda…
Curriculum for diversity guide. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from: http://shop.niace.org.uk/media/catalog/product/C/u/Curriculum-for-Diversity-Guide.pdf
Fisher, R., and Webb, K. (2006) Subject specialist pedagogy and initial teacher training for the learning and skills sector in England: the context, a response and some critical issues. Journal of Further and Higher Education. 30(4), 337 -- 349
Foundation Learning Curriculum for adults. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from:
With proper instructional techniques, the effects of online education could potentially be altered significantly in a positive direction. This research will attempt to determine the specific obstacles that still exist to online education and the current best practices for overcoming these obstacles, as demonstrated by a variety of independent and original research studies conducted on the topic.
Many studies have pointed out that inadequately equipped e-learning systems can result in 'frustration, confusion, and reduced learner interest' (Zhang et al. 2004). An example of this is the fact that many e-learning course offer only text-based learning materials, which could lead to a student's boredom and disengagement in students, preventing them from gaining a good understanding of a topic (2004). However, multimedia technology is becoming more and more advanced and now e-learning systems are able to incorporate materials in different media such as text, image, sound, and video (2004), all sources of…
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…
McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.
Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.
Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
; And, 3) The individual must believe that the recommended action can be adhered to successfully. (TC, 1)
Prevention: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary (diet, exercise, immunizations, screenings)
The Health Belief Model would contribute to a lesson in prevention of the condition's worsening severity. Here, the primary level of prevention is seen as dietary. The secondary level is seen as exercise and the tertiary level is viewed as immunizations and screenings.
Teaching strategies will included the use of visual aids and literature materials as well as the applied discussion of realistic dietary and exercise goals.
Resources to be used in supplement to the education of the patient will include pamphlets regarding the implications of diabetes, the distribution of kits with required self-treatment materials, the compilation of useful web resources, nutritional dietary recipe kits and preliminary exercise regimen diagrams.
Methods of Evaluation
The effectiveness of the proposed teaching learning plan…
TCW. (2006). Health Belief Model. Universitie Twente. Online at http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Health%20Communication/Health_Belief_Model.doc/.
Active participation in comprehensive activity may support not only advanced conceptual understanding, but also the emergency of new metacognitive beliefs about knowing, and particularly about the importance of understanding Hatano & Inagaki (1992); as cited by Lehtinen, et al., (2004). The typical classroom does not have the resources needed for successful collaboration because there are not enough available anchor points at which action and attention can be coordinated, "however computers and the accompanying capabilities of computers present an opportunity for mediation tools that assist students in focusing their attention on objects that are mutually shared." Jarvela, Bonk, Lehtinen; as cited by Lehtinen et al., (2004).
ffects of CSCL on learning and achievement have been studied through a large meta-analyses specifically on the effectiveness of computers with results stating that the use of technology has markedly improved learning outcomes e.g. Khaili & Shgashaani, (1994), Kulik, Kulik & Cohen, (1998); as cited…
Effects of CSCL on learning and achievement have been studied through a large meta-analyses specifically on the effectiveness of computers with results stating that the use of technology has markedly improved learning outcomes e.g. Khaili & Shgashaani, (1994), Kulik, Kulik & Cohen, (1998); as cited by Lehtinen, et al. (2004). The conclusions that CSCL-based learning frameworks enable higher levels of learning both for in-class and distance taught courses (Macdonald, 2003) further underscores the need for an online learning management system that is tailorable to support both instruction strategies. The concepts of Khan (2003) and others (Bannon, 1989) (Kanfer, 2001) highlight the need for an agile yet foundationally solid learning network that can respond to the changing needs of students.
Research Design and Methodology
In order to isolate the effects of CSCL and scaffolding-based teaching approaches, specifically looking to isolate statistically significant increases in comprehension, capability to critically evaluate concepts and analyze and critique them using analytical constructs learned, a test/re-test methodology is suggested. Of all methodologies that could potentially be used for analyzing the influence of CSCL-based teaching strategies that include customized scaffolding strategies for students, the test/re-test methodology shows the greatest potential level of reliability and validity over time according to Anderson (1998). Taking into account the concentration on using argumentative teaching strategies in conjunction with CSCL-based platforms and scaffolding yields a complex set of independent variables that are best measured in a test/re-test methodological approach. The combined influences of all variables together can be isolated by specific variable through the use of pair-wise t-tests and correlation analysis once the data is accumulated. Using statistical approaches that introduce any of the given independent variables into the analysis during the learning process introduce too much of a potential for sampling error, in addition to spurious results given the influence of the independent variable's introduction rather than its actual effect of the variable's value itself.
The transfer model of learning, when taken to its extreme, assumes the act of teaching implies that learning occurs (Schraube & Marvakis, 2015). From this perspective, as long as the teacher teaches, the student will learn. The flow of knowledge is therefore unidirectional. More contemporary theories of learning account for an individual student's motivation, willingness, and ability to learn, while other models incorporate reciprocal interactions between teacher and student. When the student seeks to expand their influence over their lives, through a process called expansive learning, society necessarily influences the learning choices made by the student because expanding one's influence over their life requires consideration of cultural and social expectations. Learning can therefore be a mechanism through which a person increases their ability to make cultural and social contributions, which in turn increases their value to society and thus security. The expansive learning process, according to Schraube and…
Brockmeier, J. (2002). Remembering and forgetting: Narrative as cultural memory. Culture & Psychology, 8(1), 14-43.
Schraube, E. & Marvakis, A. (2015, in press). Chapter 11: Frozen fluidity: Digital technology and the transformation of students' learning and conduct of everyday life. In E. Schraube & C. Hojholt (Eds.), Psychology and the Conduct of Everyday Life (pp. 1-19). London: Routledge.
learning theories, and apply them to the adult learning environment. Specifically behavioral, constructivist, and cognitive learning theories are examined.
Behavioral Learning Theories
This approach to learning suggests that learning is the result of external stimulus and response to stimulus, thus the learner's environment is the primary factor influencing learning (Hergenhahn & Olson, 1997). The focus of the behavioral learning model is changes in behavior facilitated by stimuli provided by the learner's environment; not stimuli produced by the learner. einforcement of stimuli in the environment are thought to effect change and therefore become critical to the learning process in this learning theory model. The learner's responses to stimuli can be strengthened depending on how one is conditioned to respond; meaning, in the behavioral model, positive reinforcement can serve to enforce positive learning.
Also important to the behavioral model is repetition and generalization of important learning concepts (Hartley, 1998). These serve to…
Bruner, J.S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.
Bruner, J.S. (1996). The culture of education. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.
Hartley, J. (1998). Learning and studying. A research perspective. London: Routledge.
Huang, Hisu-Mei. (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol 33, No. 1, 27-37.
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.
Background and Overview.
The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…
Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.
Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.
Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.
Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.
Significance of the Study to Leadership
A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.
ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…
Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at: http://www.aect.org/edtech/33.pdf
Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 -- 370.
de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.
Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 -- 153.
PBL vs. Traditional
Two of the methods of pedagogy that are currently employed in respiratory therapy are Problem-Based Learning and Traditional Teaching. Both instructional methods can provide a strenuous curriculum for the student interested in comprehensive training in the field of respiratory therapy, and each method has its advantages and (of course) its disadvantages. The focus of this study will be to determine which pedagogical methodology provides the most efficient and effective results in a respiratory therapy educational setting.
To accomplish that objective, the study will administer surveys in questionnaire form to students attending two separate schools that offer training in respiratory therapy. The questionnaires will provide a quantifying response to qualitative, and quantitative, information. Each school's pedagogy will represent either problem-based or traditional teaching methods and students from each school will be asked to complete pre and post training questionnaires and surveys. Additionally, students will be tested on their…
Albanese, M.A. & Mitchell, S. (1993) Problem-based learning: A review of literature on its outcomes and implantation issues, Academic Medicine, Vol. 68, Issue 1, pp. 52-81
Ali, M.; Gameel, W.; Sebai, E.; Menom, N.A.; (2010) Effect of problem-based learning on nursing students' approaches to learning and their self-directed learning abilities, International Journal of Academic Research, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 188 -- 195
Allie, S.; Armien, M.N.; Bennie. K.; Burgoyne, N.; Case, J.; Craig, T.; (2007) Learning as acquiring a discursive identity through participation in a community: A theoretical position on improving student learning in tertiary science and engineering programmes, Cape Town, South Africa, accessed at http://www.cree, uct.ac.za., on January 15, 2011
Biggs, J. (2003) Teaching for quality learning at university (2nd ed.), Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press
Expectations and Significance of Group Facilitation Learning Outcomes
Humans are notoriously difficult subjects to analyze, understand, motivate and lead, and while some group counselors appear to possess a natural ability to facilitate effective group interactions, others struggle to cope with the exigencies of a group setting. Despite the challenges that are involved, the importance of developing the requisite skills needed for effective group facilitation means that counselors must draw on the entire range of group dynamic theories and proven strategies to achieve this goal. In order to gain further insights into these areas, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify relevant expectations from learning about group dynamic theories and strategies, followed by a discussed concerning various aspects of applying these concepts in real-world settings. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the paper's conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Expectations concerning application of…
Clark, A.J. (2002). Scapegoating: Dynamics and interventions in group counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(3), 271-272.
Furr, S.R. & Barrett, B. (2000). Teaching group counseling skills: Problems and solutions.
Counselor Education and Supervision, 40(2), 94.
Zinck, K. & Littrell, J.M. (2000). Action research shows group counseling effective with at-risk adolescent girls. Professional School Counseling, 4(1), 50-52.
The problem being researched or evaluated
The presenting problems are inattentive and non-cooperative behavior in two special education students during classroom instruction. The teacher needs to get the attention of the students and get them to sit in their seats in order to engage them in instruction. The teacher will need to determine how to reward the students for attending and engaging in the lessons being presented to them.
• The design label and overview of what the design might look like (example, if I use mixed-methods, is it sequential or concurrent? If a program evaluation, what kind?)
The research design will be action research in order to engage the practitioners in an evaluative endeavor that will encompass their behavioral and academic instruction with the students.
• ationale for the design based on the problem
The action research design will need to be designed to provide answers to…
Guskey, T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Sagor, R (2003). How to conduct collaborative action research. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…
Student Learning Through Physical Activities
Learning objectives assessment methods
In order to understand how the lesson will impact the lives of the students, it is significant to first define the expected outcomes from the students then later measure if the implemented service or lesson was effective (University of Oregon, 2010). Since my lesson was to involve physical activities and instructions, I divided the objectives into two categories; language objectives and active participation objectives. This break down would help me be exhaustive and thorough as possible.
By the end of the lesson, the students would be in a position to clearly explain the meaning of interval workout. The students would also be able to practically show and participate in the various challenges that would exemplify what interval workout means. For the exceptional students in the physical activities, they would try to make the time lapse for the low intensity…
University of Oregon, (2010). Students Learning Outcomes: To Transform and Advance Student Learning. http://sa-assessment.uoregon.edu/ResourcesandTraining/WritingStudentLearningOutcomes.aspx
No high-achieving nation tests every child, every year, in the way we're currently doing. They have much more intellectually ambitious assessments [or measuring not just memory but what students can do with knowledge].
-- Ed Finkel, 2010
As the epigraph above emphasizes, during an era when critical thinking skills have assumed new importance, young people's academic and professional careers are still being controlled by high-stakes standardized testing regimes and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for student performance. As a result, it is little wonder that there has been a growing tendency on the part of many educators to "teach to the test." Indeed, and as also underscored by the epigraph above, the classroom testing process itself can be viewed as being counterproductive to the extent that it detracts from long-term learning and the development of the critical thinking skills young people need today to be competitive in the workplace.…
Education Industry Marketing Distance Learning?
"Online advertisements by traditional and dot.com institutions is an indication of a new trend in mass marketing of education. The strategies are based on traditional transactional marketing approach where each transaction is treated as an isolated event" (Shaik, 2005).
The opportunities for getting a degree without having to physically attend classes have grown exponentially the past twenty years or so, thanks to the explosive growth of distance learning (also called online education). This paper delves into the marketing of distance learning, and presents a wide range of approaches by various educational institutions and marketing eb sites that promote distance education.
According to eLearners.com, a eb site that markets online colleges and universities, there are 222 colleges currently offering distance education, and there are 5.6 million students taking courses online. The eLearners.com site sells ads to online colleges and universities and offers a link to each…
College-Scholarship.com. (2011). College Scholarships, Colleges, and Online Degrees.
Retrieved October 26, 2011, from http://www.college-scholarships.com .
Education-Portal.com. (2011). Colleges and Universities that Offer Free Courses Online.
Retrieved October 25, 2011, from http://education-portal.com .
The purpose of this study is to evaluate academic achievement of special education students enrolled in Challenger Middle school's inclusion program and the fidelity measured by student progress in CST/CMA scores in reading/language arts and mathematics and the relationship and efficacy of behavioral support. The evaluation of Challenger Middle school's inclusion program will serve as criteria to determine if any adjustments needed in relation to providing adequate and equitable service for special education students in compliance with the federal mandates and regulations of NCLB & IDEA.
There will be three research questions for this study. The research questions are:
What is the success rate of the special education program of Challenger Middle school students in grades seven on the academic proficiency in writing as measured by California's CST/CMA scores?
What is the impact of the special education program designed for Challenger Middle school students in grades six, seven,…
In a recent study co-learning is categorized into two separate domains; the facilitator and the explorer. According to the study the facilitator of learning is the individual who "does not get in the way of learning by imposing information…a facilitator guides the process of student learning" (Brantmeier, 2010, p. 1) while the student, or learner, is defined as an empowered explorer who is an "independent or collective explorer of knowledge through disciplined means" (p. 1). Whether the student is one as defined in the traditional sense, or it is a co-worker seeking to gain knowledge of the business world, both facilitator and explorer learn by sharing knowledge through communication.
Oftentimes the facilitator is one that has had previous experience in the workforce with the specific subject at hand. The facilitator is therefore often the leader of the group or project. Being a leader requires experience but it also…
Brantmeier, E.J. (2010) Empowerment pedagogy: Co-learning and teaching, accessed at website: www.indiana.edu/~leeehman/Brantmeier.pdf on April 25, 2011
Clarke, N. (2005) Workplace learning environment and its relationship with learning outcomes in healthcare organizations, Human Resource Development International, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 185 -- 205
Gratton, L. & Erickson, T.J.; (2007) 8 Ways to build collaborative teams, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 85, issue 11, pp. 100-109
Kitching, J. (2008) Rethinking UK small employer's skills policies and the role of workplace learning, International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 12, Issue 2, pp. 100 -- 120
The author of this report has been asked to offer a treatise on the subject of study skills. The dimensions and facets of studying skills that shall be covered include some reflection, the five learning outcomes for the model in question, the author's feelings about the matter, the evaluation of the same, an analysis of the overall progress and framework in question and an overall action plan. Study skills are often over-hyped or overly minimalized. However, to dismiss their importance or wield them improperly is a recipe for disaster when it comes to both the work and educational spheres. While incessantly drilling and covering subjects over and over can lead to burnout and wasted motion, being under-prepared is less than optimal and can lead to setbacks that are hard to recover from.
Study skills, of course, refer to the manner by which people work from an academic…
Cottrell, S. (2013). Study Skills Handbook. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: Contents. [online] gdn.glos.ac.uk. Available at: http://gdn.glos.ac.uk/gibbs/ [Accessed 20 Sep. 2016].
KCL, (2016). Using Gibbs -- ™ Reflective Cycle. [online] King's College London. Available at: https://www.kcl.ac.uk/campuslife/services/disability/onlineresources/Studyguides/Using-Gibbs-Reflective-Cycle-in-Coursework.pdf [Accessed 20 Sep. 2016].
Silberman, M. (2007). The handbook of experiential learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Long-Term Effects of Social Promotion on Student and Teacher
There is a problem in an urban elementary school in Eastern New York. This problem specifically is the social promotion of fifth grade students. Currently, nothing is being done to address the issue of social promotion which is supported by state education policies that benefits from children being passed to the next grade level. There is a lack of training for teachers who teach students who are at risk learners. Teaching at risk learners is one of the areas that require high quality teachers to enhance learner outcomes. However, at risk learners have teachers who are not adequately trained to meet the standards of effective teaching to meet their needs (Grant, Stronge & Popp, 2008). The current educational system/framework does not align such learners with expert teachers, but with average teachers with inadequate training, average skills, and less experience (Grant, Stronge…
Aldridge, J. & Goldman, R. (2014, May 7). Current issues and trends in education (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.
Education Week. (2004, August 4). Social Promotion. Retrieved December 22, 2016, from https://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/social-promotion/
Grant, L., Stronge, J.H. & Popp, P. (2008, May). Effective Teaching and At-Risk/Highly Mobile Students: What Do Award-Winning Teachers Do? Retrieved from Sonoma State University website: http://www.sonoma.edu/TRIO-training/research/homeless/mobile.pdf
Hernandez-Tutop, J. (2012, May). Social Promotion or Grade Repetition: What's Best for the 21st Century Student. Retrieved from Institute of Education Sciences website: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532287.pdf
The methodology of this research is one that is qualitative in nature. The research is one that will use the qualitative method in testing with cases and open problems as to the effectiveness of the training provided to the practical nurse group through case and open problems through direct observations of that which has been taught in which observation is through the structured method specifically work-based assessment. Work-based research is highly effective when clear learning outcomes are in place.
Data will be collected through the trainers in a work-based assessment of the skills acquired during training and education of the practical nurse group. All trainers will meet the requirements of the Department of Defense insofar as credentials and other necessary qualifications.
DATA ANALYSIS and SYNTHESIS
The data, qualitative in nature will be analyzed through review of the information collected as to the skills of the…
Eisenhower Army Medical Center () Hospital Education and Training
Army Practical Nurse Assessment Online available at http://www.dns.amedd.army.mil/deploy.htm
Nursing Education and Training: Alternative Federal Approaches (1978) the Congress of the United States Congressional Budget Office May 1978. Online available at http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/67xx/doc6711/78-CBO-003.pdf .
Grade Level: 3rd
Lesson: The Cell (3 Day Lesson Series)
The study of living things is known as Life Science. Since the basic unit of all living things is the cell, all things like plants human beings and animals have cells. As the basic unit of life, cells represent the foundational underlining that drives scientific research. In emphasizing their importance to the study of living things, cells abound the composition of life, and embody a key to new advancements in science. Elementary understanding and familiarity with this basic life unit gives school-aged students the exposure and fundamentals to help their learning of Life Science. Early introduction to understanding the function and parts of the cell helps students move toward more advance cellular topics and concepts in Life Science.
Goals & Learning Outcomes
The following statements encompass the learning outcomes for this lesson.
• Students will gain early…
West Virgina Department of Education. (2014, January 1). Inquiry-based lesson plans. Retrieved December 8, 2014, from http://wvde.state.wv.us/teach21/Inquiry-BasedLessonPlans.html
Elementary Special Education Teachers Place Value in the use of Technology Resources for Students?
Technology is an integral part of society. Students learn through use of technology like personal computers, tablets, and e-books (Garland & Tadeja, 2013). Computers can provide access to videos, documents, and other forms of data that students have the choice of absorbing via visual or auditory methods. Tablets provide the same access but with a light-weight, touch responsive interface. Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and analyze information, collaborate and communicate, and solve problems (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013). Comment by Steve Moskowitz: Yes, this is the reason
Technology helps provide other benefits. Integrating technology in schools, especially in other areas like special education enable staff to develop new ways of teaching and…
Lesson Plan Literacy
Literacy Need: Community and Family Involvement
Lesson Title: Sharing the esponsibility
This lesson will be a lecture followed by an assignment. The lecture will be designed to promote ways of thinking that promote community involvement in literacy. The lesson will demonstrates the benefits of a literate community and where the student resides in this system. The students will be then asked to reflect on the lecture and provide a written essay that demonstrates their understanding.
Standards: The lecture will be 45 minutes. The written essay will be 3-4 pages.
Objectives/Learning Outcomes: The objectives of the lesson is that students gain an appreciation and awareness of the many resources that can support their literacy skills.
Materials, esources and Technology: The necessary components of this lesson include a classroom, chalkboard, pen, pencil paper.
Instructional Procedures: Three strategies will be used to help promote the objective of this…
Lipoff, L (2011). Observational Learning and the Young Child. Funderstanding.com 26 April 2011. Retrieved from http://www.funderstanding.com/theory/child-development/observational-learning-and-the-young-child/
Orey, Garland, L., Martin, L., Xiong, M. (2002). Scenarios for Using Behaviorism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved , from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/
Lesson Plan Template.
Naturally, visual learners do not enjoy reading books as auditory learners would, as written information is mostly processed in the mind's ears rather than by visualizing the text. Finally, a Kinesthetic or Tactile learner will predominantly learn information through touch and movement. In other words, kinesthetic learners would enjoy hands on laboratory session more than a routine class lecture. They also like to simulate events to understand them better. [Marcia L. Conner, pg 47]
Advantages of Knowing the Learning Style
Now that we have seen the domination of different modalities resulting in different learning styles among students, it is pertinent to understand the implications of such differences in context of their academic performance. Several studies have attested to that fact that only 20% of students learn through their auditory modality while 80% are either visual or kinesthetic. [Donna Walker, pg 16] However, in stark contrast, most of higher education is…
1) Marcia L. Conner, (2004) 'Learn More Now: 10 Simple steps to Learning Better, Smarter and Faster',
2) Richard M. Felder, (2005), 'Understanding Student Differences', Journal of Engineering education, 94(1) 57-72, available online at, http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Understanding_Differences.pdf
3) Donna Walker Tileston, (2005) 10 Best Teaching Practices: How Brain research, Learning Styles and Standards Define Teaching Competences', Published by Corwin Press.
4) Steve Garnett, (2005), 'Using Brainpower in the Classroom: Five steps to accelerate Learning', Published by Routledge
eflect upon the concept of 'the learning organisation' and discuss the claim that it is an 'undelivered promise'
Learning organizations refers to an organization that obtains knowledge and uses it innovatively to thrive and survive in a rapidly changing business environment (Senge 2006). Learning organizations critically think and take risks with new ideas; they create an organizational culture that encourages employees' skill development and knowledge acquisition. Moreover, the firms value employees' contribution and incorporate the new information or knowledge in the operations of the company. Learning organizations develop due to the competitive business environment (Senge 2006). This organization need to be creative and relevant to sustain long-term profitability.
Development of learning organizations is not achieved by internal organic growth of an organization alone. esearch indicates that the there are a number of factors that prompt the development of a learning organization. As most organizations grow, it becomes difficult…
Senge, P.M. (2006). The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization. New York, N.Y., Currency Doubleday.
Koontz, H., & Weihrich, H. (2007). Essentials of management: an international perspective. New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill.
Marquardt, M.J. (2011). Building the learning organization achieving strategic advantage through a commitment to learning. Boston, MA, Nicholas Brealey Pub. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10478037 .
The development and delivery of curriculum can take many approaches. One of the most effective approaches used in the creation of lesson plans is integrated, unit-themed curriculum, in which a central theme chosen by the teacher is utilized to tie together various areas of study. It has been shown that these types of lessons foster learning in students by breaking down barriers between disciplines through problem solving involving different areas of study (McGehee, 2001). It is even suggested that failure to provide students with authentic, integrated education experiences may result in decreased learning, poor academic performance, and diminished confidence (Caskey, 2001). Developing integrative lesson plans increases creativity among students and teachers, which only serves to improve learning (Coyne, 2002). The following is a description of integrated, unit-themed lesson plans developed for grade five students in the subject areas of social studies, math, and music and the outcomes in learning…
Caskey, M. (2001). A lingering question for middle school: what is the fate of integrated curriculum? Childhood Education, 78(2), 97-99.
McGehee, Jean J. (2001). Developing interdisciplinary units: a strategy based on problem solving, School Science and Mathematics, 94(1), 5-10.
No Author Given, (2002). Jazz up your class with a yearlong theme: an interview with Ann Litzler Coyne. Curriculum Review. Retrieved from Highbeam http://www.highbeam.com .
Evolution of RTI and Its Purpose
The response to intervention (RTI) initiative is a multi-tiered program that is designed to facilitate the early identification of students with special educational and behavioral needs (What is RTI?, 2016). The purpose of the RTI initiative is two-fold, with the first being the provision of high-quality educational services and the second being the screening of all young learners in general education classrooms (What is RTI?, 2016). The evolution of the RTI initiative was based on early experiences with differentiated instruction as an alternative to conventional practices. In this regard, Fisher and Frey (2010) report that, "In many schools, instruction and time are constant -- they do not vary on a student-by-student basis. RTI was designed as a way to encourage teachers to vary instruction and time to create a constant level of learning" (2010, p. 15). The RTI program also includes the key assumption…
This way of thinking and taking action has been evolving over many decades, but it reached its widest audience with the 1990 publication of 'The Fifth Discipline' by Peter Senge." (2003)
The Charter school has a unique opportunity to implement the principles of Peter Senge, and most particularly the principles associated with the 'learning organization' and from a perspective noted in the statement of Senge that it is very unlikely that the "deep systemic problems that afflict our institutions and society..." will find correction until "the ability to honor and integrate theory, personal development and practical results..." has been rediscovered since it is seemingly a lost ability. (Senge, 1997)
Senge states that change may very well involve "returning to an older model of community: traditional societies that gave respect to elders for their wisdom: teachers for their ability to help people grow, and warriors, weavers, and growers for their life…
Five Disciplines: Peter Senge (2008) Value-Based Management 25 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_senge_five_disciplines.html
Larsen, Kai, et al. (1996) the Learning Organization. Leader Values. Online available at http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=186
Senge, P (1990). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Currency Doubleday.
Senge, Peter M. (1997) Communities of Leaders and Learners. Harvard Business Review September-October 1997. 75th Anniversary Edition. Reprint Online.