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Miscommunication in the Workplace
Factors, Effects, Preventions, and Solutions
By definition, communication is a two way process that needs four components to make it successful. First, the message must have a sender as the source. Second, the channel through which communication will be sent must also be there as means to send the message. Third, the receiver should also be present as the destination of the message itself. Lastly, an encoding process must of course be there as well otherwise communication itself will be null and void. Feedback is then given by the receiver turning this element as the new sender and the old sender takes the position of the new receiver. This goes on until a conclusion is reached and communication is then terminated by both parties. All four components must work together or else it is highly possible to have miscommunication (Emery, 2012).
In a workplace,…
Brewer, E.C., & Holmes, T.L. (2009). Obfuscating the Obvious Miscommunication Issues in the Interpretation of Common Terms. Journal of Business Communication, Volume 46, Number 4,, 480-496.
Emery, R. (2012, September). Communications: Its Importance and Basic Elements. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://region3.asse.org/ :
He blames Oscar's rigid, German character and personal defects for his inability to succeed in America. This shows how even someone with a religious affinity with Oscar cannot necessarily connect with Oscar's experience. Although both men are Jews, the American assumes that with gumption and hard work, someone can find a home in America, after an initial rocky start. The individual, never the culture is at fault -- a very American, individualistic assumption. Perhaps this reflects both men's anxiety with 'the other' -- with America Oscar's part and with the sight of a foreign Jew on the part of the American.
This sense of miscommunication and frustration when the 'other' is not happy to become a part of a new culture is hardly exclusive to clashes of national perspective, however. In "Diary of an Indian Girl," the American "palefaces" cannot understand, in Chapter One of the narrative, why the American…
Barna, Laray M. "Intercultural Communication Stumbling Blocks." From Intercultural
Communications: A Reader. New York: Wadsworth, 1997.
Malmud, Bernard. "The German Refugee." From Great Immigrant Stories. New York:
Two of the most basic principles of communication include taking responsibility as a sender and receiver of messages, and cultivating respect for others and the self. From these two principles, other aspects of effective communication can flow more freely. However, human beings are fallible and occasionally revert to emotional states that impede understanding, harmony, or respect. In this example, miscommunication occurred as a result from not taking responsibility and from not remembering to practice the principle of respect. Analysis of the example reveals several barriers to communication including the presence of noise, and also self-concept. In the future, the barriers of noise and self-concept can be effectively removed with greater self-awareness and a compassionate frame of mind.
It was nine o’clock in the evening and neither my partner nor I had eaten dinner yet. He had just returned home from work and I had been taking care…
Miscommunications between Britain and China abounded in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, culminating eventually in the Opium Wars. In the 1840 document from Lord Palmerston to the Emperor of China, and the 1792 letter sent directly from King George III to the Emperor of China both reveal British desperation to trade with China. Initially motivated by access to China’s tea markets, the British East India Company soon recognized the lucrative potential of diversifying into the global opium trade as well. Even prior to the newfound hunger for opium, the British sought free trade with China, evidenced in these letters. Yet as the tone and content of these two documents show, China had little to gain from doing business with Britain. China’s concept of international diplomacy also seems qualitatively different from that of the British, although these two British documents naturally offer only a one-sided view of the situation. The conciliatory…
Twelve ESL learners who participated subsequently found that participating in text-based online chat rooms promoted a noticeable difference in their face-to-face conversations, particularly in noticing their own linguistic mistakes.
Psychologists stress little if any learning occurs without attention. "Text-based online chat, a particular form of synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) involving written oral-like conversation, has the great potential of increasing noticing for two reasons:
1. Compared to face-to-face conversations, CMC allows conversations to flow at slower speeds than face-to-face; consequently permitting "speakers" to have longer times to process receiving and producing the target language.
2. CMC can save texts (previous messages) in format that users may later access. (Lai and Zhao)
The following copy of "ESL Online Talk Community" illustrates concept Lai and Zhao present.
Practice makes perfect, but many ESL students do not have opportunities to practice speaking English. This Website is trying to establish an online community to enable…
4. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
However, the lack of internal communication, particularly as to underground communication, is a leading cause of the Sago Mining crisis.
y lack of underground communication, it is meant both a lack of direct communication between the rescue teams and the trapped miners and a lack of scientific communication as to the actual conditions of the underground mines and the ability of the rescue teams to go into the mines for the rescue. If there would have been updated technologies implemented into the mines prior to the explosion, the disaster could have been avoided. Underground communication capabilities would have made it possible for the rescue teams to communicate with the trapped miners, allowing for a more efficient finding of their location and the ability to guide them to a safe area of the mine. Underground communication between the mine's condition and the rescue teams would have allowed for the rescue process…
ABC News. "Rescuers Break Ground in Miner Mission. 3 Jan. 2006.
BBC News and Current Affairs. "Fury Over U.S. Mine Rescue Fiasco." 4 January 2006.
Dao, James. "Blast Traps 13 in a Coal Mine in West Virginia." The New York Times. 3 Jan. 2006.
McLachlan, Justin. "West Virginia Mine Explosion, My Time There." New York Times. 3 Jan. 2006.
Amy's story perfectly illustrates some of the main issues and challenges that arise in co-teaching scenarios. Especially when one or more parties are unfamiliar with co-teaching, miscommunications and misunderstandings are inevitable. Amy's story also demonstrates the importance of training co-teachers, educating them as to the various models and methods of collaborative teaching in heterogeneous classroom environments. Many of the challenges that arise during co-teaching can be solved by simple common sense communication and interpersonal skills.
The actions proposed for Amy and her co-teachers like Joe include the collaborative development of a lesson plan; regularly scheduled meetings for lesson plan development as well as constructive criticism and feedback; implementation of one or more different co-teaching styles; and improved communications with the principal of the school.
Collaboratively developed lesson plans will eliminate the discomfort Amy initially felt when she first entered Joe's classroom as a co-teacher. The rationale behind a collaboratively…
Social World and the Communication Process
Sociological imagination is the essence of sociology. This is imagining that every life of an individual is given form, meaning and significance within the historically specific cultures as well as the ways of organizing social life. Those individuals with a sociological imagination are similar to good sociologists. Social imagination is a standard against which one can judge sociology. Social imagination is therefore a sociological vision a mode of looking at the world, which sees links between the problems of an individual that seem private and important social issues. It is the ability to see things socially and how they interact and bring an influence on one another. This is a concept of being able to think ourselves away from usual routines of one's day-to-day life to view them in a new way. For one to have sociological imagination they have to pull away from…
Crossman, A., (2010).The sociological imagination. Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://sociology.about.com/od/Works/a/Sociological-Imagination.htm
Minimal language communication between couples
More often than not, we assume that what we are trying to communicate to those close to us is easily comprehended. We believe this because we are familiar with the other person and feel there is a connection that allows us to communicate with minimal language.
In fact according to Psychology Professor Boaz Keyser at the University of Chicago, most believe that communication between people they know well, as opposed to communication with a stranger, is more clearly understood. In a study Keyser co-authored he calls this phenomena "closeness communication bias." (HealthDay 2011)
However a study of 24 married couples indicates that the bias doesn't hold up. An experiment was carried out with couples sitting with their backs to one another and stating phrases which weren't exactly clear. Instead of them comprehending what their spouses were trying to communicate, they often totally missed…
Baugh, Eboni J. And Humphries Deborah (2010) Can we Talk? Improving Couples' Communication, Florida Preparation Series, Department of Family, youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Hamlett Shauntelle, (2010) Spouse Communication Techniques, Livestrong section 1.1
HealthDay News, (2011) Jan 24 Close Relationships Sometimes Mask Poor Communication
Change Plan for SBA Implementation
Change Proposal - Healthcare
The benefits of the SBA are apparent to the nursing staff in the Labor, Deliver, ecovery, and Postpartum Unit of St. Johns Hospital Birth Center. All nursing staff receives training in SBA and it has been implemented -- successfully -- for a few months at a time. However, nursing staff soon return to the historical ways of communicating about patient care, which has predominantly been by giving a verbal report.
Benefits of SBA. SBA stands for Situation-Background-Assessment-ecommendation and it is a framework for communication about patients' conditions that is used by members of a healthcare team. The following discussion is from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (2011) website. The benefits to using SBA by hospital staff are: (a) It is an easy-to-use, easy-to-remember mechanism; (b) it is a concrete way to frame conversations that fosters effective and…
Ambrose, D. (1987). Managing Complex Change. Pittsburgh, PA: The Enterprise Group Ltd. Retrieved
Ducker, P.F. (1993). The New Realities. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books?id=WmAsWS9-fFsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=drucker+the+new+realities&hl=en&src=bmrr&ei=ASoRTvqyIZDUtQPs4pWADg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6wEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Golden, B. (2006). Transforming healthcare organizations, Healthcare Quarterly, 10(Spring), 10-19. Retrieved http://www.longwoods.com/content/18490 .
Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books/about/Leading_Change.html?id=ib9Xzb5eFGQC
Some of the reasons why Hyundai relocated to Alabama State of the U.S.A. include the failure that she suffered in Korea. With the influx of cheap imported cars and the violent nature of the labor unions in Korea, the company had started to suffer serious decline in profits; this necessitated the move to look for other alternatives of operation. This landed the company in the U.S. As the revolution of the manufacturing companies and industries in the country (Carmel & Tjia, 2005). This is the place that provided the utmost and best labor regulations for the company. Another significant factor is the state government's incentive package. The incentive was very attractive to Hyundai as they could abate tax if they relocated there. This was a massive boost to the process of adaptation and profit realization. Moreover, the company was offered a site for setting their operations and a good access…
Lansbury, R.D., So?, C., Kwo-n, S., & Hyo-ndae Chonghap Sangsa (Korea). (2007). The global
Korean motor industry: The Hyundai Motor Company's global strategy. London:
Motherson sumi systems limited: 2009 company profile edition 2: Chapter 6 SWOT analysis.
This is exacerbated by the problem that Carmen is close friends with the owner Kenneth. Kenneth has a similar conflict management style to Carmen. He can be extremely nice when dealing with people casually, but whenever a problem arises like Carmen he makes excuses, avoids the problem, tries to pass it on to someone else, or resorts to texting or faxing messages rather than confronting complaints. Their favorite 'nonverbal' communication strategy is simply not being there.
A failure to listen is one of the most common workplace communication problems. "When people or groups are in conflict, communication between them tends to get worse and worse. As a conflict escalates, people limit their direct contact with people on the other side, because such conflict is uncomfortable or threatening….Eventually all direct communication between parties may be cut off. Sometimes, communication is cut off in protest" (Lack of communication channels/avoided communication, 2005, OTPIC).…
Craig, Suzanne. (2012). What restaurants know (about you). The New York Times. Retrieved:
Lack of communication channels/avoided communication. (2005). Online Training Program
on Intractable Conflict (OTPIC). Retrieved:
Business Communications Final Analysis Report
In order to apply the strategies and decisions formulated in the initial phases of the communication research, they are applied in the context of business communication, particularly in group decision-making processes. In the final analysis report, the case study on the Creative Media team conflict is discussed, addressing the prevalent issues that bring about miscommunication within the team.
The case study on the Creative Media team situation has the following specifics: Gap Jeans, Inc. is planning to launch a new advertising campaign for its new product, called the Gap Washed Jeans, which features a denim-wash (faded look) feature for women, which will be available in hipster and flared styles. Gap is looking for a creative ad agency that will conceptualize and produce the ad campaign, although specific information about the nature of the ad campaign is not yet formulated. Thus, the whole advertising and marketing…
Cross-Cultural Differences and Communication
Cultural identity is a significant force that shapes the interaction between people from different cultures. The contemporary globalization has made intercultural interactions inevitable in the contemporary society. People draw conclusions about other people's culture depending on a wide range of observations about the individual's way of live, values and behavior. For instance, understanding what people from specific cultural values helps in drawing about that culture in that specific aspect of value or behavior (Byram, 2015). For example, I have drawn the conclusion that martial art is a significant cultural practice in the Chinese culture. This conclusion is informed by the several Chinese films that I have watched that have largely been characterized by Martial Arts. This predominance of martial arts in these films informed the conclusion I have drawn from the Chinese culture.
UNIT 4 DISCUSSION
I am visiting a new country within a different culture…
supervisory experience. I army implement military supervision great I ethics supervisors communicate
Military Miscommunication by Supervisors
There are a number of diverse facets which directly influence the effectiveness of supervision, which is an essential component of the preservation and structuring of order within an organization, be it for private or public interests. One of the most influential factors which helps determine the degree of efficacy achieved in a managerial or supervisory position is the concept of communication, which is vital to the transference of ideas and both the designation and completion of tasks which are essential to the propagation of an enterprise. Flawed communication is oftentimes one of the primary reasons for insufficient supervisory conduct, which may manifest itself in a variety of ways including in a lack of employee productivity, internal and external conflicts within and involving an enterprise, respectively, and in insufficient organization and management of an organization's…
Rue, L.W., Byars, L.L. (1990) Supervision: Key Link to Productivity. Boston: Irwin. 3rd Ed.
Kleiman, L.S. "Management and Executive Development." Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business (2010): n. pag. Web. 25 Mar 2011.Kotter, J.P. & Cohen, D.S. (2002). The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Gomez-Mejia, L.R.; Balkin, D.D. Cardy, R.L. (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill.
Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries (2003) The Dark Side of Leadership. Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn page 26 (2003).
Interviews can certainly be shaped by culture-specific nuances, but, at the same time misunderstandings may accrue due to other factors in other words, cultural differences may not be the only or accurate attribution to communicative difficulties in interview situations. There are too many other complexities that may be responsible for initiating miscommunication. Gomperz and Cook-Gomperz (2008) distinguish between socio-linguistics and linguistic anthropology but arangi concludes that: "A selective characterization of a communicative situation on the basis of different cultural attributes of the-participants can only serve to reify cultural differences in an essentialist way." (424). Rather what is needed is the application of discourse analysis to speech since discourse analysis functions as a two-pronged approach: on the one hand it traces individual communication to cultural background, and, on the other hand, it sources that same communication to societal and institutional role-relationships. 'Culture' may be a concept that has become exaggerated in…
Chan, B. (2004). Beyond" Contextualization:" Code-Switching as a" Textualization Cue" Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 23, 7-27
* Gumperz, J. Contextualization conventions
Gumperz, John & Cook-Gumperz, J (2008) Studying language, culture, and society: Sociolinguistics or linguistic anthropology, Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4, 532-545
Halliday, M.A.K. (2005). On matter and meaning: the two realms of human experience. Linguistics and the Human Sciences, 1, 1.
For the companies, these interviews are a cost-effective method of primary screening, and can allow for interviewees from different geographic regions. These interviews, however, eliminate some of the non-verbal cues that come from in-person interviews.
There are also lunch and dinner interviews. This type involves a more casual setting, which can reduce the stress associated with an interview and give a better impression of the candidate's actual behaviors as opposed to ones that have been cultivated specifically for the interview situation. hile such interviews can be effective, they are also more cost and time-consuming, plus they tend to be less consistent across candidates, placing some at inherent disadvantage to others.
Lastly, there is the standard job interview. This interview is predictable, and there has a high degree of uniformity of results. The disadvantage of the bread-and-butter interview is that many candidates are so well-prepared for such interviews that it is…
Hofstede, G, Pedersen, P., and Hofstede, G. (2002). Exploring culture: Excercises, stories and synthetic cultures. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
No author. (2010). Generic format of a formal proposal. Dartmouth College. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~osp/resources/manual/pre-award/format.html
When individuals feel honored and respected, they are more likely to take pride in their work and be as productive as possible.
Communication benefits leaders and their organizations by cutting costs. Miscommunication is at the root of interpersonal conflict, which can lead to absenteeism or a lack of productivity. Also, miscommunication can mean costly lawsuits or imbroglios with clients. Leaders often mediate problems within an organization and between the organization and third parties. Mediation depends on effective communication. When a team leader evaluates the actual time spent engaged in communication activities, he or she appreciates the need for effective communication. As Blalock (2006) notes, communication is "crucial" in the modern organization because as much as 80% of a manager's time may be spent in some form of verbal or written communication.
The global marketplace introduces complex issues that make communication skills absolutely essential for leaders to have. Gender, culture, and…
Benefits of Leadership Training." University of Calgary. Retrieved Jan 30, 2009 at http://www.ucalgary.ca/ose/uclbenefits
Blalock, M. (2006). Listen up. Wisconsin Business Alumni. Retrieved Jan 30, 2009 at http://www.bus.wisc.edu/update/winter05/business_communication.asp
Business Communication." Retrieved Jan 30, 2009 at http://www.hodu.com/business-communication-menu.html
Communication and Leadership." Retrieved Jan 30, 2009 at http://www.skagitwatershed.org/~donclark/leader/leadcom.html
The level of subject matter knowledge and argumentative ability an individual involved in an argument possesses determine rationality. Finally, the rational world paradigm presupposes that the world is composed of logical puzzles that human beings solve through rational analysis. As can be seen both paradigms offer highly differing presuppositions over what constitutes human beings and how they communicate among one another.
Although Fisher has not explicitly mentioned it, the conduit metaphor can be said to share certain similarities with the rational world paradigm. The conduit metaphor stresses that thoughts and feelings are transferred via language between individuals. This entails that senders of information put their thoughts and feelings into words, which have to then be extracted out by receivers using objective interpretation (eddy, 1979).
The metaphor's assumption that receivers will be objective while interpreting the message is similar to the rational world paradigm's assumption that individuals will objectively examine how…
Axley, S. (1984) "The study of management in terms of the conduit metaphor." AMR, 9, 428-437
Berman, D. And Russell, G. (2005, July 5). "As rancor mounts, CNOOC needs to push its offer for Unocal." Wall Street Journal. P. C1.
Conduit Metaphor Paper." Retrieved Oct. 27, 2005:
TASTES & COMMUNICATION
On a recent trip to India, Mr. Yang, a prominent Chinese executive, dined with his client Himanshu Jain. Mr. Yang commented that the food was spicy, which Mr. Jain interpreted as an opportunity to discuss Indian cuisine. After lengthy explanations, Mr. Yang commented again that the food was spicy. What happened? What barrier is likely getting in the way of clear communication and how could this barrier have been overcome?
This situation exemplifies a breakdown in crosscultural communication. There could have been several factors that contributed to their miscommunication. Language is likely a prominent factor in why they had a problem. Certainly, they must share some common language in order that they conduct business together, but because this cultural conundrum stems from a linguistic misfire, language barriers are a good place to start. There also seems to be some contextual confusion. Yang perceived his comment…
Rentz, L.F. (2008). Chapter 16 -- Techniques of Cross-Cultural Communication. Business Communication: Making Connections in a Digital World, 11th Edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies.
When instituting organizational change, emphasizing the need for that change is vital to increase the chance of acceptance of the new alterations in approach. It must be communicated that an organization cannot succeed in a global environment if it is not diverse. Multinational departments and a diversity of employees, with a wide range of skills and knowledge spheres make the organization more flexible and responsive. If employees are aware of this fact, they will be more accepting. Transmitting examples of intercultural success stories is particularly essential as an organization adjusts to its multinational status.
Conclusions: Improvements in the current environment
Diverse organizations are stronger, after the initial adjustment period, and also are able to more effectively communicate to a wide range of consumers, internationally. And common language of virtual communication may eventually be established, reducing the chances of offense in coming eras. The new global era of business has also…
Berger, Bruce K. (2008). Employee/organizational communications. Institute for Public
Relations Online Journal. Retrieved on December 8, 2010 at http://www.instituteforpr.org/essential_knowledge/detail/employee_organizational_communications/
Describe a cultural miscommunication that you experienced and how you would handle it differently now. (2007). Communication World. Retrieved from FindArticles.com on December 8, 2010 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4422/is_1_24/ai_n17093570/
Effective organizational communication: a competitive advantage. (December 2008). HR.
3. If you feel threatened by what the other person has to say, take a break and formulate a reasoned response later.
IV. The third sign of miscommunication is not appreciating differences in communication styles.
A. The popular book Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus illustrates some different communication styles.
1. Although the differences are not necessarily related to gender, they are related to healthy relationships in general.
2. Some people prefer long periods of silence, while others like to talk a lot.
3. Some people need frequent positive feedback.
B. especting the other person's unique needs is crucial for healthy relationships.
1. When in doubt, ask the other person what they need from you to be a better communicator.
2. Be patient; it takes time to learn what the other person needs
3. Become more aware of your own communication styles and express what they are.
Duerksen, C. (2009). Communication skills for lifelong relationships. Discovery Health. Retrieved Nov 18, 2009 from http://health.discovery.com/centers/loverelationships/articles/communicate.html
Gray, J. (1992). Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. New York: HarperCollins.
"Relationships and Communication" (nd). Better Health Channel. Retrieved Nov 19, 2009 from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Relationships_and_communication?OpenDocument
In addition, he perceived a direct "split" in his personality between his "self" and his "personality," something that many other patients experienced. They felt they were two people, split into two parts if you will, and that they could not effectively communicate this with others. In some people, this showed up as a feeling they were outside their own body, looking in. As Laing notes, "The body may go on acting in an outwardly normal way, but inwardly it is felt to be acting on its own, automatically" (Laing 83). Clearly, this would affect how the person viewed the world around him or her, and how they communicated as well. This dreamlike state is difficult to put into words, even in "sane" individuals.
Each of these people communicated differently, but they were all using their communications to indicate their loneliness, fear, and isolation. Because they live in a world of…
Laing, R.D. The Divided Self: An Existential Study in Sanity and Madness. London: Tavistock Publications, 1960.
hen I was putting the collection together, I knew from the beginning that this had to be the title story, because it best expresses, thematically, the predicament at the heart of the book -- the dilemma, the difficulty, and often the impossibility of communicating emotional pain and affliction to others, as well as expressing it to ourselves" ("A Conversation with Jhumpa Lahiri," From a Reader's Guide for Interpreter of Maladies, 1999). Cultural miscommunication is a metaphor for romantic miscommunication and vice versa.
Likewise, the title of "The Third Continent" suggests the distance that often exists in relationships, and the fact that for immigrants in a relationship, America can become a third continent, a place to explore their mutual distance in a new context, for better or for ill. According to the Reader's Guide to the collection, "collapse, deterioration, or passing of once-important cultural or spiritual values," marks the tale of…
Conversation with Jhumpa Lahiri" From a Reader's Guide for Interpreter of Maladies. Published by Houghton Mifflin. 1999. [4 Apr 2007]. http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/readers_guides/interpreter_maladies.shtml#conversation
Crain, Crag. "Subcontinental Drift." The New York Times 11 July 1999. [4 Apr 2007]
Lahiri, Jhumpa. Interpreter of Maladies and Other Stories. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
Plain English Policy Considerations for KPMG Communications
The Plain English Language (PEL) movement is intended to improve the effectiveness of communications by simplifying them and making them easier to understand by their intended audiences. In modern business and administrative communications, there is a tendency to rely on industry-specific terminology and technical jargon. In many cases, those trends reduce the effectiveness of communications because they undermine comprehensibility by audiences without specific professional or technical training in those areas. Adopting the PEL approach would be beneficial for KPMG because it would greatly improve the effectiveness of communications across the full range of its client spectrum. It would allow KPMG to ensure that it all of its accounting, marketing, consulting, and legal department communications are maximally effective for their intended purpose. If the concept is applied properly, it is expected that PEL will improve productivity, revenue, and client appreciation.…
Written communication in the workplace comes in many forms, the most commonly used is memos and proposals or special reports (Beck, 1999). One manner in which written communication can be used is to negotiate (Neale & Bazerman, 1991). Business employees and even managers should be well versed in written communications and have a strong grasp of the skills necessary to be familiar and proficient in writing in order to express well defined meaning and enhance business communications (Lyons, 2002).
Having good writing skills and abilities will also facilitate improved oral communications among employees. Those employees that are able to put their thoughts down on paper accurately and precisely are more likely to engage in oral communication that is directed and focused. Because of this one of the skills that might be considered for inclusion in the workshop might be translating written word into oral communications.
Employees who are participating in…
Beck, C. (1999). Managerial communication: Bridging theory and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Lyons, C. (2002). "Integrating writing and negotiation skills." Business Communication
Marken, G.A. (2002). "Effective writing skills for public relations." Public Relations
Communication to Family and Work Relations
One of the important problems that I have always encountered at work and in my family is the inevitable misunderstanding among people due to lack of or simply through wrong communication. By the absence of communication, I refer to the conflict that arises among people when they do not communicate about a problem at all. Wrong communication, meanwhile, is the misunderstanding (and even conflict) that arise when people contemplated a problem in an inefficient manner. I referred to both absence of and wrong communication because these are the main causes of conflicts that I usually have with my family and colleagues, respectively.
At work, wrong communication is an almost everyday and common occurrence. With the advent of new communication technology such as e-mailing, teleconferencing, and mobile communications, it is not at all surprising that people become confused and disorganized when it comes to keeping…
Miscommunication between the genders results not simply in wasted time during the workday, but hurt feelings and serious consequences. Miscommunication between the genders can cause a casual remark to be taken as sexual harassment, or a serious remark being laughed off as a joke. If a man feels that he is apt to be accused of sexual harassment, he might be unwilling to befriend a female coworker in an innocent manner, and a woman might be afraid to seem friendly less her manner be misinterpreted in a sexual manner by her male colleague. The result of this state of mutual tension is a less friendly and productive working environment. If a woman feels threatened and feels as if her male colleagues cannot take her seriously, she may leave the organization, or sense that her professional efforts are being hampered by her gender, and a male might feel as if he…
People read the world differently and that explains why they respond to the world differently. For instance my mother is very tidy and neat whereas my father is the exact opposite. When my family is looked at from the social interaction perspective then it can be clearly concluded that symbolic interaction definitely can explain the divorce (Farley, 2012).
The conflict theory looks at how people within a family struggle for power; how they disagree and how they compete for resources. Wealth and prestige form the basis for most of the competitions. When my family is looked at from the conflict theory it can be said that our family underwent conflicts and disharmony. This was due to the fact that there are different dynamics and roles played by my family members. First traditionally the father are seen as the head of the family and it should come naturally. However this was…
Farley, a. (2012).What is the Symbolic Interaction Perspective in Divorce? Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_10017957_symbolic-interaction-perspective-divorce.html
Ray, L. (2010).Conflict theory and the family. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/345499-conflict-theory-the-family/
Naveed, K. (2009).Family in Sociological Perspective. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://www.slideshare.net/naveedtaji/family-in-sociology-perspective
ossellini's 1946 Paisan:
The emerging aesthetic of Neorealism in Italian postwar film
According to Andre Bazin's essay "An aesthetic of reality: Neorealism," Paisan as directed by oberto ossellini brought forth a new aesthetic in the discourse of film, that of neorealism. The 1946 film was created not long after the end of World War II and fascist Italy's defeat at the hands of the Allies. The film is told in a series of overlapping narratives in a style that recalls that of a novel with interwoven stories rather than a singular, linear storyline. The storylines would have been relatively recent for the contemporary audience, taking place from 1943-1944 during the first Allied invasion. It has been called the first Italian film to "unquestionably" resemble a "collection of short stories" (Bazin 34). Through this juxtaposition of realistic tales in a narrative technique, "Bazin suggests that we are given sense data which…
Andrew, Dudley. "Andre Bazin." Film Comment 9.2 (1973): 64-8. ABI/INFORM Complete.
Web. 4 Nov. 2012.
Bazin, Andre. "An aesthetic of reality: Neorealism."
Brunette, Peter. "Rossellini and Cinematic Realism." Cinema Journal 25.1 (1985): 34.
Our interpretations, Mediation Strategies and Communication Types
The Nature of Conflict -- an introduction
hat is Conflict?
Conflict as Perception
Conflict as Feeling
Conflict as Actions
hat causes conflict?
Link between Interpersonal Conflicts and Effective Communication
Mediation and Dispute Resolution
The Nature of Conflict -- An introduction:
Conflict is a naturally existing problem in our society and the world as a whole. Conflict exists at all levels and it is so a certain extent quite natural and inevitable. ith a functionalist approach, it can be said that the existence of conflict is somewhat important for the society. It is however an understatement to say that we live amidst conflict. Conflict is present at every level in society and people at every second are reassuring each other as to how they are having a "discussion" instead of a conflict when…
Bellafiore, Donna. 2010. Interpersonal Conflict and effective communication. Journal.
Bolton, R. (1986). People skills: How to assert yourself, listen to others, and resolve conflicts
(2nd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 067162248X
Cesaratto, T., (2006). The Good Will Hunting technique. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 3, 307.328.
Poetry of Othello
Emilia is the person speaking, and she is the wife of Iago. She is speaking to Desdemona, and she is discussing the faults of men, and how they tend to blame them on women. Desdemona replies that one must not counter bad with bad, thus reiterating the meaning of the play.
But I / do think / it is / their hus / bands' faults
If wives / do fall. / Say that / they slack / their duties
And pour / our trea / sures in / to for / eign laps;
Or else / break out / in pee / vish jeal / ou sies,
Throwing res / traint upon / us; or / say they / strike us,
Or scant / our form / er hav / ing in de / spite
Why, we / have galls; / and though / we have…
Whether at work, school, home, or in our own life, conflict is inevitable. We are bound to experience situations in which we are disappointed by or disagree with others. While some conflict situations end well, others turn out to be bad experiences. Personally, I have had a number of bad experiences with conflict. One situation that comes to mind occurred during my first job. At some point, my supervisor and I had a miscommunication regarding an assignment that involved a new client. The assignment turned out to be more complex than I anticipated. I requested for more time to work on the assignment and the supervisor approved the deadline extension. Nonetheless, closer to the initial deadline, she asked whether the task was complete. She was annoyed that some of the work had not been completed. I was disappointed as she had forgotten that she had granted me a deadline extension.…
The first issues to address are the core issues with respect to offshoring that apply to all companies. The company must identify the strategic objective that it hopes to meet through offshoring. At this point, that has taken place. The decision to look at offshoring has been undertaken on the basis of a television show. This is not a good way to decide corporate strategy. The decision to pursue offshoring should be made on the basis of fulfilling a broader corporate strategy. In the case of this company, there is little reason to believe that there is another benefit to the company to offshoring other than cost reduction. Therefore, cost cutting must be congruent with the company's broader strategy.
In terms of difficulties, one difficulty is that of finding the right cultural fit. Most company do not adequately address this as they tend towards the lowest bidder, a function of…
Malos, S. (2010). Regulatory effects and strategic global staffing profiles: Beyond cost concerns in evaluating offshore location attractiveness. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal. Vol. 22 (2) 113-131.
Hahn, E. & Bunyaratavej, K. (2010). Services cultural alignment in offshoring: The impact of cultural dimensions on offshoring location choices. Journal of Operations Management. Vol. 28 (3) 186-193.
Maertz, C. (2010). Downsizing effects on survivors: Layoffs, offshoring and outsourcing. Industrial Relations. Vol. 49 (2) 285-285.
Tafti, M., Sledgianowski, D., Kierstead, J. (2008). Lessons learned from outsourcing practice in an SME. Proceedings for the Northeast Region Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI). p445-450.
This would include creation of goals and benchmarks that are important to the workers and their issues as well as the company's bottom line (Collingsworth, 2002). This would also likely involve the upper levels of management and the cultural liaisons that Coca Cola would need to hire and direct to help solve these cultural miscommunication issues.
Coca Cola needs to act decisively in order to stop the accusations of human rights and labor abuses in order to maintain a positive brand image throughout the world. The company will need to begin to better understand the cultural and legal considerations specific to each country and population of workers. It will also need to meet the workers in the middle so as to shore up and discourage the demand for labor unions, which would be very costly to the company, as well as provide a safe and healthy work environment and…
Collingsworth, Terry. (2002). "The Key Human Rights Challenge: Developing Enforcement
Mechanisms." Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1. Pp. 183-199.
Killer Coke Homepage. (2010). Accessed online at: http:/ / killercoke.org on October 22,
Id. At 118. Additionally, refraining from attacking another party's reliability, but instead, reducing risks and praising honorable activity will help to engender an incentive for the other party to develop trustworthiness. Id. At 119-21. According to the authors, "people are more likely to behave reliably if they know their reliability is appreciated." Id. At 121. However, the authors stress that one must not place trust in an individual when it is unwarranted.
In contract law, as in relationships, coercion takes away an individual's free will and thus negates formation of an agreement (since an agreement requires a meeting of the minds). In negotiations, coercion may in the short-term get the opposition to succumb to one's demands, but will negatively impact any future relationship. The authors focus on the importance of persuading the opposition instead of coercing them to action. Persuasion tactics differ from coercion in that they (i)…
In principle, there is a very good reason for the standardization of medical terminology: it reduces one of the most common and preventable potential causes of serious error: miscommunication.
Non-Standard Medical Terminology in the Insurance eview Process
From the perspective of the medical insurance claims professional, non-standard medical terminology is equally problematic. The insurance claims process is highly codified (literally) into numerical designations for specific procedures and expenses. In combination with the degree to which the process relies on computer functions and databases encoded with those specific designations, that process is even more susceptible to error from non-standard communication than healthcare delivery, although rarely with comparable harm to patients. However, in some cases, the miscommunication caused by unnecessary non-standard language can indeed result in serious harm or even death, such as where crucial services are denied for coverage improperly as the result of issues of terminology that are not discovered…
Fawcett, J. (2005). Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing, Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
Taylor, C., Lillis, C., and LeMone, P. (2005). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.
" Independent will is defined by Covey as "the ability to make decisions and choices and to act in accordance with them. It is the ability to act, rather than be acted upon" (148). This goes back to Covey's original principle regarding being proactive.
hile the ideas of being proactive and prioritizing are widely accepted as essential parts of effective management, where Covey seems to go off track a bit in this chapter is his downgrading of the importance of efficiency. Covey believes that there is too much focus on efficiency and not enough focus on developing rich relationships. This may very well be the case, but in today's technology-driven environment, efficiency is king, and it is highly unlikely that it will be dethroned anytime soon.
here Covey's model does make sufficient sense for the working world of the 21st century is in regard to prioritizing. Certainly not a new…
Covey, Stephan R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Simon and Schuster, 1989.
Impact of the Issue on the Profession of Nursing
As the patient population of America continues to become increasingly diverse, nurses will be forced to find ways to overcome the language barriers that separate them from their ability to provide optimum care. Nurses will not only need to learn how to communicate effectively with non- or limited English speakers, but will need to become comfortable with the use of interpreters.
Suggestions for Addressing the Issue
Hospitals need to devise training and development programs designed to reduce cross-cultural communication barriers. Obviously healthcare personnel cannot be expected to learn to speak every language fluently. However they need to learn the basics of the languages that they encounter most often. Hospitals also need to work more closely with interpreters and have interpreters for every language they may encounter available on-call.
The population of America is becoming increasingly diverse, with more and more…
Dressler, D. & Pils, P. (2009) A qualitative study on cross-cultural communication in post-accident in-patient rehabilitation of migrant and ethnic minority patients in Austria. Disability & Rehabilitation, 31,1181-1190
Flores, G., Milagros, A., Tomany-Korman, S.C. (2005, July/August) Limited English proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters, Public Health Reports, 120, 418-430
Hagman, L.W. (2006) Cultural self-efficacy of licensed registered nurses in New Mexico. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 13, 105-112.
Langlie J.K. (2005). Social networks, health beliefs, and preventive health behavior. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 18, 244-260.
e. non-conflict) situations. Applying the same techniques of maintaining a loving relationship and still communicating your own issues, while remaining calm and open to hearing the other person's complaints and issues, is a simplified way of viewing the majority of conflict management techniques.
Prioritization during conflicts, even those that ultimately lead to the dissolution of a relationship, is also essential to successfully managing the conflict (Chapman 340). Though conflicts ending in dissolution may make prioritization even more important (especially when there are kids involved), the same basic principles can be applied to any conflict. Instead of getting hung up on minor details or secondary problems, having the bravery, honesty, and insight to tackle the real underlying problems in the relationship is far more likely to lead to a satisfactory and frequently even a relationship-strengthening ending than petty bickering. Though this might seem quite obvious on the printed page, it can…
Chapman, Gary. The World's Easiest Guide to Family Relationships. New York: Northfield, 2001.
Parrott, Leslie & Parrott, Les. Saving Your marriage Before it Starts. New York: Zondervan, 1995.
Often, in fact, there can be an overabundance of communication without any effective organization or leveraging of the information thus obtained, which can lead to serious detriments to any organization or endeavor (Lager 2006). It is bad enough when one arm of an organization doesn't seem to know what the other is doing, but the problem seems somehow conceptually worse when the various arms have information regarding the rest of the organization, but don't utilize it. This is, unfortunately, partly occurring in my organization, and is also an issue I need to deal with personally as I incorporate the organization's goals and actions into my own thinking and methods.
This concept of the correct processing and utilization of information goes further than simply making the organization run more efficiently on an internal level. Especially as new regions of the world are becoming increasingly important for business, the use of communication…
Fitzgerald, Neil. (2006). "Mind the gap." Information week 28 August, pp. 8.
Friedrich, N. (2008). "Disparate solutions work to fill communications gap." Microwaves & RF 47(6), pp. 44.
Lager, M. (2006). "Overcoming a bear of a communications gap." Customer relations management 10(7), pp. 51.
Bouncken and Winke (2008) explain that challenges include global innovation teams being confonted with the team membes' vaious national cultues.
National cultues, Bouncken and Winke point out (2008), influence the behavio, cognitive models and values of the individual. These same cultues, albeit may also contibute to challenges elating to the individual's undestanding, along with his/he woking elationship. Divesity on team membes' backgounds may incease ceativity. Nevetheless, team functioning and team pocesses constant significant factos that fom the outcome: Innovation. On the othe hand, when divesity stats to theaten goup pocesses, the ensuing actions may, in tun, spoil ceativity and the intended implementation of innovation. A manage who does not include all team membes in the decision making pocess o allows paticula individuals on a team to dominate discussions inceases the potential fo challenges with/in a multi-cultual team to incease. The cohesion connecting the team membes, as well as thei commitment…
references pertinent to those in the team and find the best fit for the group" (Mulkeen, 2008, ? 6). This process involves the manager identifying and understanding the impact individual's communication style makes. Mulkeen points out:
A principal difference in communication style is whether a culture is 'high' or 'low' context. Cultures vary in the extent to which the context of their communication is implicit or explicit, which also influences the value they place on their relationships or on rules. In a high-context culture (found in countries such as Spain, Mexico and France), communication relies on body language and assumed knowledge, and the context is left unsaid. Conversely, in a low-context culture (found in countries such as Germany, Canada, the UK and the USA), communication is much more direct and words are used to explain the context explicitly (Mulkeen, 2008, ?? 7- 8).
To avoid causing offence or misunderstanding when a person from a high-context culture communicates with another individual from a low-context culture, he/she needs a particular amount of accommodation or adaptation. A person from a low-context culture may feel he/she is not being caught up to speed by a team member from a high-context culture, who assumes all members share the same knowledge. A high-context individual, on the other hand, may feel he/she is being patronized or perhaps feel bored by the level of detail given his/her low-context counterpart give him/her. An international team manager needs to be cognizant of these and other challenges and also secure salient solutions to minimize conflict in the team and maximize successful group communication within the group (Mulkeen, 2008).
One primary difference in business practices across cultures involves the amount of emphasis the individual or the group or team as a whole merits. This type tension between individualism (noted in countries like the USA, the UK, Australia and Germany) and collectivism (noted in countries in the Middle East as well as Singapore and Mexico) may impact the way individuals perceive their roles in the team. To effectively counter this challenge, expectations regarding the team member needs to be mutually understood from the start (Mulkeen, 2008).
Mulkeen (2008) asserts that attitudes towards risk, hierarchy, collectivism and individualism, as well as communication styles, represent a few vital areas the competent multicultural team manager regularly addresses to counter the development or friction within the team and/or permitting it to flourish. Cross-cultural competency proves to be an essential characteristic for managers in multinational companies. Whether or not a manager possess this trait may make the difference between an organization succeeding or failing in today's global economy. With a myriad differences to consider in managing a multicultural team, the manager also has to determine which strategy for managing the diverse individuals works best, yet simultaneously creates an effective framework for running the team so each person feels comfortable in his/her environment.
Multi-Cultural Team Cohesion Benefits.
Luo & Shenkar point out a number of ways global language design benefits performance in an organization:
Global language design affects corporate performance via several channels. First, it improves inter-unit and intra-network communication, enhancing the accuracy, speed and effectiveness of intra-corporate information exchange. Second, global language design improves coordination and integration, which are compounded by the use of multiple languages and their cultural correlates When a language system is incorporated into a global information system, headquarters can better calibrate local feedback and integrate globally allocated activities. Coordination costs are reduced directly as a result of lower translation requirements and indirectly via minimization of the misinterpretations associated with linguistic barriers. Third, global language design improves inter-unit learning, which is essential to capturing synergies from inter-unit collaboration and knowledge transfer (Luo & Shenkar, 2006, Theory development section, ? 8).
Mulkeen (2008) concludes that currently, a number of significant opportunities exist for international collaboration between organizations. Along with the increasing number of individuals with international responsibility, cross-cultural teams will become more common throughout the world. Training help participants, particularly team members, understand both their own and their international counterparts' cultures prove vital. To develop strategies that will enable team members to work more effectively across cultures, managers must maximize teamwork, while they also strengthen the group's performance. When for
2. Approach Clearances
According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.
Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).
The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…
Airmen, Iraqi air traffic controllers work together. (2007). U.S. Fed News Service, Including U.S. State News. HT Media Ltd. Retrieved March 25, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com /doc/1P3-1286415771.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The initial exchange between aj and Sally illustrate the importance of sensitizing employees to the delicate nature of even benign social overtures, particularly in connection with coworkers of the opposite gender.
Whereas innocent social invitations are not necessarily inappropriate in the workplace, coworkers must be acutely aware of the dangers posed by these types of miscommunications and the use of words or gestures susceptible to more than one interpretation. On the other hand, that training would stress that repeated unwanted social overtures, (even where the actual content of the communications themselves are not inherently offensive), can be considered sexual harassment under certain circumstances. With respect to the situation between aj and Sally, even an otherwise innocent social invitation could constitute sexual harassment where it takes place in the context of multiple previous similar requests by the same individual.
6. Human esource esponse to Threats of Violence
While aj was not…
Resources, I would immediately schedule sexual harassment training for all employees in addition to a similar training program with regard to appropriate avenues for initiating complaints against coworkers.
One of the most important aspects of that training would be awareness of potential areas for misunderstandings in words and gestures that could be interpreted in a manner that is unintended by the speaker or actor. Another crucial area that I would include in this training would be the absolute prohibition about ever resorting to "self- help" such as the physically violent response initiated by Sally upon her taking offense (whether rightly or wrongly) to the Raj's hand gesture.
Other aspects of that training would include awareness of personal sensitivities relating to cultural differences as well as those that are potentially attributable to gender differences. The initial exchange between Raj and Sally illustrate the importance of sensitizing employees to the delicate nature of even benign social overtures, particularly in connection with coworkers of the opposite gender.
Whereas innocent social invitations are not necessarily inappropriate in the workplace, coworkers must be acutely aware of the dangers posed by these types of miscommunications and the use of words or gestures susceptible to more than one interpretation. On the other hand, that training would stress that repeated unwanted social overtures, (even where the actual content of the communications themselves are not inherently offensive), can be considered sexual harassment under certain circumstances. With respect to the situation between Raj and Sally, even an otherwise innocent social invitation could constitute sexual harassment where it takes place in the context of multiple previous similar requests by the same individual.
6. Human Resource Response to Threats of Violence
The project manager must effectively utilize all of the communication methods available to them. They must choose the most appropriate method of communication for the workers and for the managers. The more workers and managers hear the messages, in as many sensory modes possible, the more likely the message will be to make an impact on a reduction in accidents on the job.
Language proved to be a problem in Australia's construction industry. Many of the safety programs are conducted in English, although a significant portion of workers in the industry are non-English speakers. Communication proved to be a significant problem in the successful implementation of safety programs. The key factors were the inability to understand government safety regulations and the inability to communicate these standards to the workers (Trajkoevski & Loosemore, 2005). Project managers must be aware of language barriers that may hinder the ability to communicate safety messages…
Abudayyeh, O., Fredericks, T., Butt, S., & Shaar, a. (2006). An investigation of management's commitment to construction safety. International Journal of Project Management. 24 (2); 1767-174.
Building Chaos: An International Comparison of Deregulation in the Construction Industry. Contributors: Gerhard Bosch - editor, Peter Philips - editor. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Publication Year: 2002. Page Number: iii.
Boyd, C. (2003). Human Resource Management and Occupational Health and Safety. Routledge: New York.
Chiang, Y., Anson, M., & Raftery, J. (2003). The Construction Sector in the Asian Economies. Spon Press: New York.
They cannot ignore the socioeconomic issues of adversity so often present and, where necessary, need to act as advocates, mediators and social brokers (Compton, Galaway, & Curnoyer, 2005).
The concern is that the issue of healthcare for culturally diverse individuals is so complex, there are no exact rights and wrongs. For example, in Fadiman's book, no person(s) can be said to be ultimately correct or incorrect in his/her behavior or actions; everyone did what he/she thought was right. In order to help others who have different cultural backgrounds and experiences, as the Hmong, it is essential to be 1) proactive. That is, to forecast the transforming demographics in the U.S. over the coming decades and put plans into place that will best serve these individuals and 2) collaborative. The best results occur when professionals from different backgrounds and expertise share best practices and learn from each other. What could have…
Compton, B., Galaway, B., & Curnoyer, B.R. (1994). Social work processes (7th ed.).
Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Fadiman, Anne (1997) the Spirit Catches You, and You Fall Down. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Gladwell, M. (2002). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Boston: Little Brown
For example, women are taught to collaborate, and affirm rather than subvert other people in conversation. But women can recognize that the need to speak up when provoked, if they are conscious of their conversational tendency. A woman whose idea is stolen by a male co-worker in an aggressive, male-dominated firm that praises competition cannot simply complain to her boss after the meeting where the co-worker claimed 'their' idea was 'his,' or assume that the truth will eventually be revealed about the theft. Likewise, a male who wishes to maintain a good relationship with a female boss can benefit from engaging in conversation that is not stereotypically 'facts' related (like baseball scores) but is more relational, such as inquiring about how the boss' day is going (Simon & Pedersen, 2005).
Again, stereotyping is never valid, and if you meet someone who differs from these generalizations, or if you yourself do…
Buchanan, Holly. "Male vs. female: Communication Styles." Marketing to Women.
2006. 8 Nov 2007. http://marketingtowomenonline.typepad.com/blog/2006/02/male_vs_female_.html
Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand. New York: Quill, 2007.
Simon, Victoria & Holly Pedersen. "Communicating with Men at Work: Bridging the Gap with Male Co-Workers and Employees." Male / Female Communication Newsletter. March 2005. 8 Nov 2007. http://www.itstime.com/print/mar2005p.htm
I would incorporate much in the way of nonverbal communication to entice the students to remain engaged while listening to what I had to say. I think the best method of deliverance would be the use of live communication followed up by literature the students would take with them. The use of media, including interviews with other students and their experiences with drug and alcohol abuse would be relevant and useful in this context.
Using the Yale attitude changing approach, I would establish credibility by approaching students as a peer and victim of abuse; the messages I provided would allow for two sides of the argument, meaning students could offer their own objections to what it is I had to say. The messages given would be of support rather than designed to persuade students directly, so I would take a peripheral route to persuasion. Using these methods and approaches will…
Atwood, K.D. (2006,) Recognition of facial expressions of six emotions by children with specific language impairment. Brigham Young University. Retrieved November 2, 2007: http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/ETD/image/etd1501.pdf
Block, L.B. & Keller, P.A. (1997), Effects of self-efficacy and vividness on the persuasiveness of health communications. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 6(1): 31.
Murphy, N.A. (2007). Appearing smart: The impression management of intelligence, person perception accuracy, and behavior in social interaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(3): 325-39.
More studies related to the impact of Internet use in various scenarios; among different age groups; comparing time spent online, this researcher recommends, are needed. Future considerations related to these and other aspects of Internet use are needed to help counter potential negative challenges prior to them evolving into crises.
A group of individuals who share through communication, this researcher concludes, most effectively answers this study's number one (literally and figuratively) research question: What is an e-community? In addition, as this study relates the impact of e-communities, the data/information consequently validates the hypothesis: When an e-community consists of positive components; constructs; consensuses, then the impact this virtual community wields upon its members will consequently prove to be positive.
auserman, R. (2003). Child Pornography Online: Myth, Fact, and Social Control. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 219+. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001963434
ritain Online; as TV…
Bauserman, R. (2003). Child Pornography Online: Myth, Fact, and Social Control. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 219+. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001963434
Britain Online; as TV Becomes a Turnoff, Families Spend More and More Time Surfing the Net. (2004). 39. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006643943 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001177709
Haney, S.P. (2000). Pharmaceutical Dispensing in the "Wild West": Advancing Health Care and Protecting Consumers through the Regulation of Online Pharmacies. William and Mary Law Review, 42(2), 575. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001177709 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001161722
Making People Online a Reality. (2000, December 18). New Statesman, 129,. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001161722
People come into an organizational culture from vastly different backgrounds and with very different experiences and cultural attitudes towards the right way to view a leader and to do business. Furthermore, mergers are also more common, meaning that different corporate cultures are more frequently being combined. Although a lack of clarity about group goals, leadership, and cultural miscommunication may be the main sources of group conflict, organizations do not exist in a vacuum, and external conflicts about culture, race, gender roles, and conflicts about personal dynamics may create a permanent sense of division and a lack of unity in the workplace that cannot be healed by simply finding a common corporate mission. As workers work more hours and the divide between home and work becomes more and more blurred, personality conflicts may be just as much of factor as uncertainty about power, group rules, and rewards. Thus, although Schein is…
Schein, Edgar. Organizational Psychology. 3rd edition Englewood Cliffs: Prentice
" (Piot 2003)
hile this might seem true on the surface, especially if using the mess that is the current Zambia's Copperbelt area as an example, Robin would argue that it was the development projects themselves that led to failure not governmental influence as proscribed by Ferguson and others.
Robin states; "Development packages are resisted, embraced, reshaped or accommodated depending on the specific content and context." (Robin 2003-page 265)
Robin also states that, "In addition, in many parts of the developing world, it is the retreat of the neo-liberal state, rather than 'the tyranny of development', that poses the most serious threat to household livelihood strategies and economic survival." (Robin 2003-page 265)
In discovering developmental projects that are taking place across Africa it is interesting to note that there are a number of regional projects taking place.
These combined projects could enhance the entire continent's status. Ferguson espoused the fact…
Bank Group Set to Fund Infrastructure Projects (2007) African Development Bank Group, http://www.afdb.org/portal/page?_pageid=293,174339&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&press_item=12184235&press_lang=us , Accessed March 10, 2007
Baird Private Equity explores India strategies (2007) the Business Journal of Milwaukee, http://milwaukee.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/stories/2007/02/26/daily4.html , Accessed Mar 10, 2007
Development and Change (2002) Institute of Social Studies, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK, Vol. 33, Issue 2, pp 361-379
Macmillan, H. (1996) More Thoughts on the Historiography of Transition on the Zambian Copperbelt., Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 22, Issue 2, p 309-312
Many of Hemingway's men turn to the drink. The men in "Out of Season" and "The Doctor and the Doctor's Wife" exhibit thinly-veiled aggression.
Masculinity is an especially problematic subject for Hemingway. On the one hand, masculinity is a sign of health and success. Pedro Romero in the Sun Also Rises would represent the healthy type of masculinity. Interestingly, however, Hemingway implies that women sap the natural and positive masculinity from men. Brett claims leaving Romero specifically so that she would not hinder his potency, which he should channel into his bullfighting. The idea that women sap the potency of men is common in of Hemingway's stories. For instance, Mr. Elliot built up his male potency through years of celibacy, only to lose his manliness to marriage and the bottle. Marriage seems especially poisonous for male-female relationships largely because marriage enforces traditional gender roles that place the male in a…
Operational communication is basically considered as the daily interaction between departments and functional processes in the workplace within an organization.
For operational communication to be effective and ensure that there is profitability within the organization; there needs to be a balance between directness and indirectness. Based on speech acts, directness is explained as harmonizing speech act with the natural grammatical structure. Using directness in operational communication basically means that statements are easily recognizable and can be understood at face value. The use of directness in operational communication is desirable because it results in the easy interpretation of statements. Direct commands or statements sometimes sound like bossing people around since this directness requires a good knowledge of the situation. hen stating an opinion during operational communication may seem like an insult particularly if the hearer views you as being lower in the social or organizational hierarchy.
Examples of the use of…
"Directness vs. Indirectness: Speech Acts." Insightings. WordPress.com., 14 Jan. 2009. Web. 13 May 2011. .
"EMAIL: What to Do When You Can't Send or Receive Messages." Interface Technologies: Windows Solutions - Email Solutions. Interface Technologies. Web. 13 May 2011. .
Gibson, David. "Email Security Risks and How To Reduce Them." David Gibson & Associates, LLC. Davidgibson.com, 16 May 2002. Web. 13 May 2011. .
Harrison, Kim. "How You Can Use Better Communication to Improve Operational Performance." Cutting Edge PR: Ideas and Inofrmation to Boost Your PR Career. Cutting Edge PR. Web. 13 May 2011. .
e. according to American norms and conventions. Part of this, incidentally, was due too to the fault of government itself that failed to provide them with the land, which the Hmong could have fertilized.
I realized that even thoguh America has gone a long way in attempting to appreciate other cultures and in refraining from foisting their own way of life on cultures other than they; they still do so to a certain extent.
I also wonder why people found it so hard to understand that others coming from lives so different than they would need time to acclimate and learn their 'language'.
Most of all I was impressed with the steadfastness, courage, and resilience of the Lees to resolutely cling to her traditions and way of life despite recrimination and hardship.
There are some things that are better in the Hmong culture than in the Western culture, such as…
Fadiman, A. The spirit catches you and you fall down. Farrar & co., 1997
Ethics in the Helping Professions
egardless of what specific profession a practitioner is engaged in, there are certain malpractice vulnerabilities that are germane to industries in which people seek the help of others. One of the most eminent of such vulnerabilities, and possibly the one that most frequently results in litigation, is miscommunication, which is an integral component of customer service and is at the heart of every practitioner's business. Far too often, practitioners leave themselves vulnerable to claims of malpractice by failing to communicate effectively with customers. This simple mistake can lead to a variety of exacerbating situations including the formation of unrealistic expectations to misunderstandings regarding the results and manner of treatment and may lead to customers believing that practitioners have deliberately mistreated them (No author, 2010).
Billing is another common area in which malpractice litigation may be sought. Discrepancies or inconsistency in billing -- which…
Berry, W.H. (2011). Minimizing Vulnerability to Medical Malpractice Claims. Elements of Contemporary Practice. Retrieved from http://www.acpmedicine.com/bcdecker/pdfs/acs/part00_ch09.pdf
Denham, T.E., Denham, M.L. "Avoiding malpractice suits in pastoral counseling." Pastoral Psychology. Volume 35, ( 2) 83-93. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/p72l385507832856/
No author. (2010). Preventing Malpractice Cases. Medical Matters.org. Retrieved from http://www.medicalmatters.org/prevention.html
Virtual project teams have become increasingly important, and they deliver many benefits to organization. However, there are difficulties associated with virtual project teams that managers need to be aware of. These revolve around communication issues, including trust, information flow, communication styles and sociological issues such as personal culture and the political nature of communication. It is recommended that managers develop a keen understanding of the differences between virtual team communication and conventional business communication. In addition, managers need to be clearer with respect to responsibilities, time frames, types of information that should flow and other aspects of team management. In general, virtual team management needs to be more regimented than conventional team management in order to be effective and deliver to the organization the benefits that virtual project teams promise.
The information superhighway has allowed for the emergence of virtual project teams as a viable means of bringing together…
Bergiel, B., Bergiel, E. & Balsmeier, P. (2008) Nature of virtual teams: A summary of their advantages and disadvantages. Management Research News. Vol. 31 (2) 99-110.
Bryce, T. (2006). Managing virtual project teams. ProjectSmart.co.uk. Retrieved March 21, 2011 from http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/managing-virtual-project-teams.html
Chen, T.; Yuh, C. & Hui, C. (2008). Developing a trust evaluation method between co-workers in virtual project teams for enabling resource sharing and collaboration. Computers in Industry. Vol. 59 (6) 565-579.
HBS. (2001). Communicating with virtual project teams. HBS Working Knowledge. Retrieved March 21, 2011 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/2122.html
Progistix, one of anada's largest thirst-party logistics service providers, specializes in providing companies with complete logistics in the technology, telecommunications, and retail industries. Progistix designs and executes customer-designed supply chain solutions for their client's business-to-business projects, for their business-to-technician projects, and for their business-to-consumer ventures. Progistix specializes in dealing with businesses that require rapid-order time, precise order selection and delivery, and information-rich typefaces. It handles more than $2 billion worth of products and parts per year, accomplishing approximately 1.1million business-to-customer and business-to- business orders and approximately 350,000 business-to technician requirements. Its three prominent companies include Bell anada as well as Xerox and Amazon.
This case involves Xerox.
In 1999, Xerox looking for ways to reduce inventory, whilst maintaining their level of customer service, employed Progistix to improve their service. Xerox became Progistix's largest client representing approximately 80% of their ritical Part's Network revenue. Progistix re-designed and ran the 14 parts…
Cooperrider, D., Whitney, D. & Stavros, J. (2007). Appreciative Inquiry handbook, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler
French, W.L. & Bell, C. (1973). Organization development: behavioral science interventions for organization improvement. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Weick, K.E. & Quinn, R.E. (1996). Organizational change and development, Annu. Rev. Psychol. 50, 361-86
d.). For example, in the U.S., decisions are frequently delegated, that is, an official assigns responsibility for a particular matter to a subordinate. In many European nations, like Germany, there is a strong value placed on holding decision-making responsibilities oneself. When decisions are made by groups of people, majority rule is a common approach in the U.S. while in Germany consensus is the preferred mode. One should be conscious that peoples' expectations about their own part in shaping a resolution may be influenced by their cultural orientation (Spang & Ozcan, 2009).
The fifth difference is in attitudes toward disclosure. In some cultures, it is not fitting to be forthright about emotions, about the reasons behind a disagreement or a mix-up, or about personal information. When one is involved in a dialogue or when they are working with others or when they are dealing with a conflict, they should be mindful…
Air Force Brake Case
The Air Force was providing a contract that featured the manufacture of brakes to be implemented in an aircraft. The B.F. Goodrich Wheel and Brake Plant in Troy, Ohio won the contract, on June 18, 1967, and the organization agreed to supply wheels and brakes for the new Air Force light attack aircraft.
However, the clause in the contract was that the testing that was to be done before the product was accepted must adhere to the stipulated standard. On failure of the trial test done on the provided products a controversy arose. A former employee, Kermit Vandivier, took the role of a whistle blower and it was claimed that the organization falsified reports undermining the ethical codes of the contract. A full investigation was conducted under governmental supervision and it was realized that the Air Force A7D Aircraft Brake Problem was the tip…
To him, his approach was perfectly acceptable, while my place in the social group was such that I did not associate with strange people like him.
Some examples of applied symbolic interaction are creating reality, naming, and self-fulfilling prophecy. According to Erving Goffman, social interaction is like a dramaturgical performance where we are all actors, and all constantly negotiating with everyone else to publicly define our identity and the nature of the situation. "the impression of reality fostered by a performance is a delicate, fragile thing that can be shattered by minor mishaps." (62)
Baal has actually identified himself as that mishap which shatters the impression of reality. He rather specifically chooses to ignore the definitions that other people are trying to achieve, which is part of why he dresses so strangely and takes on an odd demeanor. Because he did cooperate with me or my associates to sustain the…