191 results for “Phobia”.
All subjects surveyed showed signs of anxiety that occurs specifically in relation to a certain situation or object.
The following questions were contained on the survey. Individual phobic symptoms included insects, Scores for individual phobic symptoms ranged from 0 to 4:0 = no information; 1 = no; 2 = doubtful; 3 = mild; and 4 = moderate to severe.
Frequency of reported phobias. (Males/Females) reported having greater number of phobia symptoms. The comparison was x % versus x%, which was/was not statistically significant.
More than x percent of individuals reported only one phobic symptom and more than x percent reported two or fewer symptoms; one individual reported four or more symptoms. The break down by gender was:
The top 5 phobias found for this age group where 1)fear of clowns 2) fear of the dentist-dentophobia 3)fear of the dark-achluophobia 4)fear of heights-hypsiphobia 5)fear of spiders-arachnophobia.
American Psychiatric Association (1980), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association
American Psychiatric Association (1987), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition-revised (DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association
Anderson, JC, Williams, S, McGee, R, & Silva, PA (1987), DSM-III disorders in preadolescent children: prevalence in a large sample from the general population. Archives of Gen Psychiatry 44:69-76
Costello, EJ (1989), Child psychiatric disorders and their correlates: a primary care pediatric sample. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 28:851-855
Phobias and Addictions
Families often pat their dogs and cats when they successfully catch a ball. Teachers and parents reward children with grades and gifts on their good performance with the motive that they continue to progress in a similar and a better way. At times, while travelling down the road some buildings or shops remind people about incidents or beloveds. These are some of the examples where environment is playing a major role in shaping the way individuals behave or respond. In this regard, behaviorism is a school of psychology which emphasizes the idea that learning occurs because of the environment. In other words, this school of thought says that the environment of an individual shapes his behavior. Therefore, a new behavior can be learned or unlearned by the different aspects of behaviorism; classical and operant conditioning.
There are a number of experiences and situations which almost…
Cerutti, D. (2003). Operant Conditioning. Annual Review of Psychology. Annual Reviews, Inc.
Kaplan, G. (2010). Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior: Treatment of addiction and anxiety using extinction approaches: Neural mechanisms and their treatment implications. ScienceDirect - Home. Retrieved 6th June, 2012 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T0N-50T41D4-1&_user=10&_coverDate=08%2F17%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1558864750&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=4d66a791443f6ee23b64d677575acd29&searchtype=a
Makin, P. (2004). Changing behavior at work. Routledge. New York.
Prokasy, W. (1987). Classical conditioning. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hillsdale, NJ
Social Phobia in Children
It is natural for the people to feel shy, self-conscious or nervous in front of others at certain occasions. Anyone can feel conscious or can have sweaty palms and racing heart when addressing a large audience or while presenting themselves in front of others. Most of the people can easily manage such feelings and can come over them. While for others, the anxiety that accompanies these feelings is very extreme and hence it cannot be handled easily.
Social phobia is also known as Social Anxiety disorder (SAD). It can be defined as a common anxiety disorder which is characterized by the feelings of intense fear humiliation, embarrassment and unpleasant and negative evaluation by other people in various social situations. The people suffering from this disease have a high tendency of avoiding social situations. ecent studies have indicated that social anxiety disorder is very common among adolescents,…
Advameg, Inc. (2013). Social phobia - children, causes, DSM, functioning, therapy, adults, drug, person. Retrieved from: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Social-phobia.html.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Social Anxiety Disorder May. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association. pp. 1-2. http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Social%20Anxiety%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf .
Anxiety Recovery Centre Victoria (2013). Social phobia - Better Health Channel. Retrieved from: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Social_phobia
Butcher, J., Mineka, S. And Hooley, J. (2013). Abnormal Psychology. London: Pearson Education Inc.
There is a condition in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders known as social phobia. Social phobia, a term used in DSM-IV, is now known as social anxiety disorder as contained in DSM-V. This change has been necessitated by the need to capture the broad scope of the condition. And this recent change reflects that new understanding of the subject matter (Mellings and Alden, 2000).
Before now, the primary understanding of social phobia is the uneasy and extremely discomforting feeling an individual may experience while performing in public. This definition has been judged too narrow by expert researchers. DSM-5 has brought a new dimension to the issue such that social anxiety may be diagnosed in individuals who respond to social situations in a variety of ways (Mellings and Alden, 2000).
For example, a person may find it very uncomfortable engaging in conversation with others, especially those he…
Chen, Y.P., Ehlers, A., Clark, D.M., & Mansell, W. (2000). Social phobia and attentional avoidance of faces. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Clark, D.M. (2000). Cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders. In M.G. Gelder, J. Lopez-Ibor, & N.N. Andreason (Eds.), New Oxford textbook of psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Harvey, A., Clark, D. M., Ehlers, A., & Rapee, R.M. (2000). Social anxiety and self-impression: cognitive preparation enhances the beneficial effects of video feedback following a stressful social task. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 1183 -- 1192.
Hirsch, C.R. & Matthews, A. (2000). Impaired positive inferential bias in social phobia. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Conditioning Theories: Phobias and Addiction
Phobias and Addiction
Phobias and Classical Conditioning Theory
Classical conditioning theory proposes that an individual can acquire a phobic response to a conditioned stimulus (CS), if the CS is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (UCS) of sufficient strength and/or nature to elicit a negative affective reaction (Armfield, 2006, p. 747). For example, if a golfer is hit by lightening on the 15th hole, the UCS is being hit by lightning and the CS is playing golf. If the golfer lives through the experience, he or she may be unable to overcome the fear of being hit by lightening (unconditioned response) and never be able to walk onto another golf course (conditioned response). If it was a stormy day when the CS was paired with the UCS then the golfer may be able to overcome the new phobia by playing only on clear days, but…
Armfield, Jason M. (2006). Cognitive vulnerability: A model of the etiology of fear. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 746-768.
Flora, Stephen R. (2004). The Power of Reinforcement. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Silverman, Kenneth. (2004). Exploring the limits and utility of operant conditioning in the treatment of drug addiction. The Behavior Analyst, 27, 209-230.
Villella, Corrado, Martinotti, Giovanni, Di Nicola, Marco, Cassano, Maria, La Torre, Guiseppe, Gliubizzi, Maria D., Messeri, Immacolata et al. (2011). Behavioural addictions in adolescents and young adults: Results from a prevalence study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 203-214.
Phobias are a kind of anxiety disorder that can make an individual to experience extreme irrational fear regarding a situation, object, or living creature. Phobias should not be confused with normal fears since phobias are linked to a particular situation or object and they are persistent for 6 or more months. In this paper, we will describe what a phobia is and offer the differentiation of phobias from normal fear. We will then provide the diagnosis criteria for phobias as indicated in the DSM-5 manual. The 4Ds will be analyzed as they relate to phobia and the models of abnormality will be discussed. Treatment, history, culture, and prognosis will form the later part of the paper.
According to Sutherland, Middleton, Ornstein, Lawson, and Vickers (2016) a phobia is defined as a type of anxiety disorder that makes an individual experience extreme irrational fear about a living creature, situation,…
Phobias are seen to be unreasonable, and overwhelming fear of objects or situations posing little or no danger and evoke anxiety and avoidance. Specific phobias are known to last longer than the usual fears, and they cause psychological and intense physical reactions. The phobias are known to affect one's ability to function normally in the workplace, social setting and even at school. Causes, types, and symptoms of specific phobias have been presented to show readers the relevance of understanding how to go about dealing with this anxiety disorder. Specific phobias are known to be common anxiety disorders, and there are treatments and therapies for these disorders. Mental health professionals are specialists who work with patients facing phobias, and through them, they overcome their fears. It is imperative to understand that phobias are commonly treated without medications, but if a doctor prescribed the medicine, then they are to be…
"Phobias." NHS Choices. Retrieved from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Phobias/Pages/Introduction.aspx
Chong, E. S. & Hovanec, E. M. (2011). Phobias. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group.
McGill, N. (2015). Phobias: Learning how to face your fears. The Nation's Health, 45(4), 24-24.
A second phase might involve exposing to subject to motion pictures of moderate elevation, again without actually experiencing any elevation himself or herself.
A third phase of the process could involve exposing the subject to the mildest degree of stimuli that involve physical involvement, such as sitting by a closed window at an elevation well below the height at which the subject firs begins to experience a phobic response. Subsequently, the window might be opened and the subject allowed to become comfortable sitting next to it; the subject would then be encouraged to gradually increase the height of the window until it first approached the height at which the subject first begins to experience a physiological reaction. According to practicing and psychologists (Shapiro, 2002) and psychological theorists alike, (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008), the most crucial aspect of successful systematic desensitization is avoiding any dramatic increase in the degree of exposure…
Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Shapiro, D. (2002). Neurotic Styles. New York: Basic Books.
According to the principle of habituation, a fear response weakens when elicited repeatedly. According to the principle of extinction, the fear response decreases or weakens when the patient is exposed to the feared situation and does not undergo a fear experience or arousal (Porter et al.).
The therapist first determines and ranks the patient's feared situations according to severity (Porter et al., 2006). Distress is measured by the Subjective Units of Distress
Scale at a range of 0 to 100 from minimal to severe. The person should remain in the situation until his distress level decreases to at least half. Exposure should not terminate when he is at the peak anxiety level or experiencing a panic attack. Terminating exposure at this point will reinforce the phobia. It can also develop aversive arousal that can lead to escape behaviors. These behaviors can lessen the probability of overcoming the feared situation, increase…
Greist, J.H. And Jefferson, J. (2007). Phobic disorders. Merck Manual of Medical
Information: the Merck Medical Library. Retrieved on September 24, 2010 from http://www.merck.com/mmhe/print/sec07/ch100/ch100.html
Ito, L.M. et al. (2001). Self-exposure for panic disorder with agoraphobia. (178) The
British Journal of Psychiatry: the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Retrieved on September 23, 2010 from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/178/4/331
They can also measure avoidance, as there are people who are so fearful of the Muslim culture that they will go out of their way to avoid Muslims and not have to interact with them in any way. There is a social stigma to Muslims in the eyes of many people, and that stigma is not always about hatred. It is much more often about fear, but that fear can manifest itself in different ways -- and some people seem angry at a group of individuals they are afraid of, as a way to try to cover up their fear. That fear can come from a lack of understanding, which can be worked through with knowledge and information.
There are some proposed alternatives to both the term and the concept of Islamophobia. Professor Fred Halliday and other scholars have argued that it is not really Islam that people are…
Allen, Chris. Islamophobia. NY: Ashgate Publishing Company. 2011. Print.
Gottschalk, P. & Greenberg, G. Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield publishers. 2007. Print.
Greaves, R. Islam and the West Post 9/11. NY: Ashgate publishing Ltd. 2004. Print.
Kincheloe, Joe L. & Steinberg, Shirley R. (2004). The Miseducation of the West: How the Schools and Media Distort Our Understanding of Islam. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Press. 2004. Print.
clinical psychology in a real-World situation.
Overview of Agoraphobia
Agoraphobia refers to the fear of becoming embroiled in situations from which it may be difficult to escape, or situations wherein help is not available, if such a need arises. Several people believe that agoraphobia merely denotes fear of public places (open spaces); however, the condition is much more complex. An agoraphobic person may be afraid of:
travelling by any means of public transportation visiting a mall going out of home
If agoraphobics find that they are in any stressful situation, the usual panic attack symptoms they experience will be as follows:
quickening of heartbeat hyperventilation or rapid breathing feeling sick feeling warm and sweaty
Agoraphobics will avoid circumstances that may lead them to anxiety; they may only go out of home with a partner or friend. Such people would prefer ordering their groceries online to going to a supermarket. This…
[APA] American Psychiatric Association. Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with panic disorder. Am J. Psychiatry. 1998; 155(Suppl 5):1 -- 34.
Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders: recommendations from the British Association of Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2005; 19:567 -- 96.
Berger, V. (2005). Agoraphobia. Retrieved from psychologist anywhere: http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/phobias_psychologist_and_psychologists/psychologist_agoraphobia.htm
Marchesi, C. (2008). Pharmacological management of panic disorder. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 93-106.
All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General Psychology I and Abnormal Psychology were my two favorite classes at Bergen, and I wanted to pursue additional psychology classes.
I transferred to Fairleigh Dickinson and enrolled in General Psychology II with the expectation that I would learn even more about psychology. I did not have an expectation as far as what topics would be covered in the course, but I did expect the material to be harder and more complex; I was right. I did not expect to study the biology and physiology of the brain, and I struggled with understanding and memorizing the material. Memorizing and understanding the parts of the brain and their function, such as the thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, etc. did not appeal to me and…
Mogg, K., Pierre P., & Bradley, B.P. (2004). Selective attention to angry faces in clinical social phobia. J Abnormal Psych, 113 (1), 160-165.
The present study investigated the time course of attentional biases to emotional facial responses in patients with diagnosed social phobia. The social phobia group showed enhanced vigilance to angry faces, relative to happy and neutral faces, compared to matched controls at 500 ms but not 1250 ms of exposure duration
The results of the present study provide evidence for initial vigilance for angry faces in patients with clinical social anxiety. These data are consistent with several studies related to cognitive bias in anxiety disorders (Mogg & Bradley, 1998). esults from this study suggest that social phobia has a different pattern of attentional bias from other anxiety disorders. Social phobia is characterized by attentional avoidance rather than vigilance for external threat cues.
The finding of attentional…
Mansell, W., Clark, D.M., Ehlers, A., & Chen, Y.P. (1999). Social anxiety and attention away from emotional faces. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 673-690.
Mogg, K., & Bradley, B.P. (1998). A cognitive-motivational analysis of anxiety. Behav Res Ther, 36(9), 809-848.
500 ms assesses initial orienting; 1250 ms assesses subsequent attentional bias
Data greater than 2 standard deviations above the mean were discarded. Statistically, this outcome may be anticipated in 1 out of every 20 tests.
Miami was where it all happened. I dated then. I guess you could say I had a life. Back then, if I were to be living under any rock, it had to be a very beautiful one, such as limestone, the kind of limestone that grew in small crevices on the road leading up to my grandfather's home on the island. I felt then that Prince Charming would come, eventually and when he did he wasn't going anywhere. After all, I am amazing; he must just not have received the memo quite yet. All of this was in the past and the time was now. I had been through enough doubt and feeling that I was some creature living under a rock. I was going to meet him and this situation would be resolved. Tonight was my coming out from under the rock.
Lucas. His name is Lucas Walker. We…
However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session
2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a…
Corey, G., (2009) Theory and practice of counseling & psychotherapy. (8th Edition). Belmont,
CA. Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Family systems. (2009). Genogram. Retrieved November 24, 2009 at http://www.genopro.com/genogram/family-systems-theory/
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
The reluctance of going to the school assumed to lie at home. It is assumed that the child has an inclination to stay at home where the well being of the parent is guaranteed. In turn the parents visualize the problem of intimidation of their children to prevalent in schools. The psychologists however find that the inclination towards avoidance of the schools is the consequence of various elements with their reaction to both home and school stressors. The contemporary thought on school phobia depicts that there are some children who denies attending school as a result of separation anxiety. (School Phobia)
Most of the children reluctant to go to school are between the ages 8-13 years. In case of some the reluctance is as an effort to avoid uncomfortable feelings associated with school. The phobia is associated with the fear of being criticized or evaluated. Sometimes the particular activities like…
Anandalakshmy. S. The child at school. Retrieved at http://www.doctorndtv.com/children/detailtopics.asp?id=31 . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Bullying in schools. Retrieved at http://www.bullyonline.org/schoolbully/school.htm . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Hogan, Maureen. School Phobia. Nassau County Psychologist. Retrieved at http://www.fenichel.com/schoolphobia.html . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Starting School. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved at http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/82.htm . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
biological perspective: suggests that the tendency to develop anxiety disorders may be partly genetic. While environment might have caused the results of the family studies, recent research on brains have shown difficulty with specific neurotransmitters that suggests a problem with the feedback system in the brain that would otherwise quell feelings of fear and panic. Anxiety isn't that simple because several neurotransmitters bind at GABA's receptor as well. Medications can help with anxiety as can relaxation training and biofeedback.
Phobias: enduring but irrational, strong fears of certain objects (ex: snakes) or situations (ex: claustrophobia). Phobias are distinguished from other fears in that they are very intense and cause the person to go to some lengths to avoid the feared thing, which can cause social or even employment problems for the person.
Specific phobia: means the fear is clearly identifiable -- a snake, or high places.
Social phobia: the person is…
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…
Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.
Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.
Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.
Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…
Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.
Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.
Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.
Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…
American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.
Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press
Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
The best psychologists are familiar with all of the main, credible theories, and they understand how these theories work. Then, they use the theory that they believe will best help the patient. Sometimes, the theories are used in combination with one another, or parts of different theories are used to make up the whole of a treatment plan. In addition, a good psychologist should also see when conventional theories are not working, and be willing to go outside the box for a particular patient who needs help. When a psychologist is able (and willing) to use a lot of different approaches, he or she will have the best chance of actually treating - and possibly curing - a patient who would otherwise not be able to be helped based on only one type of theory or style of approach. People who need therapy or treatment may have similar problem, but…
..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."
In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.
Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…
Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation
Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),
Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.
2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating
The results were found to be similar with regards to the scales of CMAS (a 37 item measure), STAIC (for the 20 item state scale measure only), CDI (a 27 item measure) and FSSC- (an 80 item measure). The trait scale of STAIC showed a few variations but was not strong enough when the Bonferroni correction was applied. The CASI scale presented a higher occurrence in the second group compared to the first, regardless of Bonferroni corrections. This amounted to at least 16 of the 18 items. The remaining two items, recorded higher in the second group can be considered to be of an external nature. The origins of these differences were obtained using t-test analysis methods (Kearney, Albano, Eisen, Allan & Barlow, 1997)
Conclusions of the research
The conclusions drawn from the study participants with panic disorder revealed nausea, shivering, difficulties in breathing and increased heart rate as the…
Kearney, C, A, Albano, A, M, Eisen, A, R, Allan, W, D & Barlow, D, H. (1997) The Phenomenology of Panic Disorders in youngsters: Empirical Study of a Clinical sample, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2(1), 49-62
(Broderick & Blewitt).
Aside from the major issue, at least for the parents, of Jason's reserved social demeanor; there have been several other indicators of acting our behavior that he has presented. On several occasions Jason has complained of stomachaches and headaches prior to having to go to day care or even to any other playtimes where he knows his parents will not be attending. Also, if he has felt threatened by other children in outside settings he will also develop these symptoms in order to be sent home. Then, conversely, after he has been at day care he often does not want to return home and occasionally has a minor tantrum or crying fit. In instances such as these, with seemingly confusing and contradictory symptoms, one must remember that children often do not express anxieties in any direct fashion but often present with symptoms or strange ideologies that can…
Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P. The life span: Human Development for Helping
Professionals (2nd ed.). (2006) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Burgess, Kim B., and Alastair J. Younger. "Self-Schemas, Anxiety Somatic and Depressive
Symptoms in Socially Withdrawn Children and Adolescents." Journal of Research in Childhood Education 20.3 (2006): 175+.
(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect of the disorder to a large degree and are secondary problems shared by many who experience the disorder.
Other related disorders also give more clear insight into panic disorder, as post traumatic stress disorder has increased in severity as well as incidence, given the prolonged state of national crisis, war and other issues involving over stimulation in the fast paced society we share. One review work, demonstrates the conflicts and controversy that surrounds PTSD, often a precursor to panic disorder as the disorder leaves the individual with a cognitive reaction to normal events in an exaggerated panicked, fashion and in many ways correlates to panic disorder. The article states that victims in the past have been treated ineffectually due to preconceived…
Beamish, P.M., Granello, DH, & Belcastro, a.L. (2002). Treatment of Panic Disorder: Practical Guidelines. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(3), 224.
Bogels, S.M., & Zigterman, D. (2000). Dysfunctional Cognitions in Children with Social Phobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 205.
Book, S.W., & Randall, C.L. (2002). Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(2), 130.
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 127.
Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.
One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…
A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010). Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. PubMed Health.
DSM IV. (2010). DSM IV Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Criteria. Biological Unhapiness.com.
Malinckrodt, B.; Porter, M.J. & Kivlighan, D.M. (2005). Client Attachment to Therepist: Depth of In-Session Exploration, and Object Relations in Brief Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 85-100.
etirees Attending College
The latest retirement planning book entitled 'Boomers: Visons of the New etirement', written by a person who is about thirty years old, Dr. Maria Maylater, PhD., states the author's opinion that it is not what an individual, or in other words, a retiree 'has' when he retires that is important; it is the ways in which he plans out this important phase in his life in which he would be able to actually're-invent' himself totally. She states that today, all the Baby Boomers of yesterday are looking forward to another twenty years of a full and productive life, and an extremely rewarding one, what with all the technological and scientific advances that have taken place in recent years, an average individual can hope to love a longer life than his father or his grandfathers before him. (3 etirement Challenges that you were Never Told)
The idea is…
Fact-sheet on older Americans. Retrieved From
http://www.civicventures.org/261.98.html Accessed on 21 January, 2005
Falcon, Michael. Sharing your Vision of Retirement. Retrieved From
http://askmerrill.ml.com/publish/marketing_centers/articles/ret_article_r058 / Accessed on 21 January, 2005
Categories and Phases of Loss and Grief for Nancy
Diagnostic Statement for Nancy
Nancy is obese and reports feeling anxious and depressed. Nancy has gained 15 pounds does not sleep well, has low concentration ability and is forgetful. Nancy has a social phobia and exhibits some signs of paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, Nancy has a back injury, which contributes, to her general feeling of ill health and results in not getting the exercise she needs. Nancy is a chain smoker. Nancy feels that she has lost control of her life. Nancy's son Michael has asthma. It appears that Nancy's husband suffers from some type of behavior disorder and is likely somewhat mentally retarded.
DSM-IV-T (2000) Diagnosis
The multiaxial assessment includes analysis on the following five stated Axis:
(1) Axis 1: clinical disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, learning, motor skills and communication disorder
296.xx Major Depressive Disorder
301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder
Antonovsky, A. And Sourani, T. (1998) Family Sense of Coherence and Family Adaptation. Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 50. No. 1 Feb 1998. National Council on Family Relations. Retrieved from: http://psych.wfu.edu/furr/362/Family%20Sense%20of%20Coherence%20Scale.pdf
Connell, Cindi (2010) Multicultural Perspectives and Considerations Within Structural Family Therapy: The Premises of Structure, Subsystems and Boundaries. Rivier Academic Journal. Vol. 6. No. 2 Fall, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.rivier.edu/journal/ROAJ-Fall-2010/J461-Connelle-Multicultural-Perspectives.pdf
Fischer, J. And Cocoran, K. (1994) Measures of Clinical Practice. Social Science. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=y2C9YvSU53sC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Ruiz, MA (nd) Transgenerational and Structural Family Therapy, An Analysis of Both Schools. Retrieved from: http://miguelangelruiz.webs.com/Transgenerational%20and%20Structural%20Family%20Therapy.pdf
The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually assessed by measuring performances on a test of a number of different skills, using tasks that emphasize reasoning and problem solving in a number of different areas. Early assessments of IQ were done in France by Alfred Binet in 1905, as part of an attempt to identify children who needed specialist help to make educational progress. Interest in IQ testing continued in the U.S. By researchers such as Louis Terman.
IQ was thought to be fixed in these early years and so was often used in education in an attempt to predict children's future academic progress with different levels of measured intelligence being taken to imply the need for different forms of educational experiences. More able children are supposed to need…
Bates, Steve. (2002). Personality counts: psychological tests can help peg the job applicants best suited for certain jobs. HR Magazine. Feb. 2002
Flynn, Gillian. (2002). A legal examination of testing. Workforce. June 2002
Newitz, Annalee. (2000). The personality paradox. Industry Stand. October, 2000.
Perception of Helplessness
Helplessness is defined in the dictionary as a "powerlessness revealed by an inability to act." Alternative definitions are: "a feeling of being unable to manage" or "the state of needing help from something." Helplessness is part and parcel of human existence. Given the natural order of life's process, helplessness is a reaction to traumatic events in our own lives. These are mental, emotional and physical anguish. In addition, helplessness is also caused by sensitivity to the sufferings of others. After the events of September 11, 2001, most Americans felt helpless. This helplessness was from the recognition of the fragility of life. Helplessness was also the inability to seek immediate retribution to the grievous loss to those even far removed from most of us. In most cases however, helplessness comes from events that are associated with self and those very near. Illness is a prime example. This is…
Bodner, E., & Mikulincer, M. (1998). Learned Helplessness and the Occurrence of Depressive-Like and Paranoid-Like Responses: The Role of Attentional Focus. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology., 74(4), 1010-1023.
Fredholm, L. (2003). Pavlov's Dog. Nobel.se. Retrieved December 17, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.nobel.se/medicine/educational/pavlov/readmore.html
Lindstrom, T.C. (1997). Immunity and health after bereavement in relation to coping. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 38(3), 235-259.
Minor, T.R., & Hunter, A.M. (2002). Stressor controllability and learned helplessness research in the United States: sensitization and fatigue processes. Integr Physiol Behav Sci, 37(1), 35-43.
Perfectionism: A Good Predictor of Stress and Anxiety
Personality research has revealed a number of interactions between traits and clinically-significant mental health issues. For example, neuroticism has been shown to be predictive of anxiety and depressive disorders, while introversion is a common trait among those suffering from social phobias (reviewed by Bienvenu et al., 2004). While some these traits may be refractory to clinical intervention, insights into relationships between lower-order personality dimensions and clinically-significant psychological problems may open up new avenues for treatment. Among the more interesting personality traits is perfectionism, because it has been linked to eating, anxiety, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive disorders, in addition to personal self-efficacy and achievement (Stairs, Smith, Zapolski, Combs, & Settles, 2011). To better understand the clinical relevance of perfectionism the findings of several studies will be reviewed here.
A large (N = 731) study examined the prevalence of the big five personality domains among…
Bienvenu, O.J., Samuels, J.F., Costa, P.T., Reti, I.M., Eaton, W.W., & Nestadt, G. (2004). Anxiety and depressive disorders and the five-factor model of personality: A higher- and lower-order personality trait investigation in a community sample. Depression and Anxiety, 20(2), 92-7.
Dittner, A.J., Rimes, K., & Thorpe, S. (2011). Negative perfectionism increases the risk of fatigue following a period of stress. Psychology and Health, 26(3), 253-68.
Gnilka, P.B., Ashby, J.S., & Noble, C.M. (2012). Multidimensional perfectionism and anxiety: Differences among individuals with perfectionism and tests of a coping-mediation model. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90(4), 427-36.
Lovibond, S.H., & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…
Amir, N. & Bomyea, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In Hoffman, S.G. & DiBartolo, P.M. (2010). Social Anxiety. 2nd Edition.
Andersson, G., et al. (2012). Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 50(9), 554-550.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014). Social anxiety disorder. Retrieved online: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder
Bogels, S.M., Alden, L. et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety 27, 169-189.
Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis
Literature eview on Social Cognitivism
Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura
The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).
Purpose of the study
Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…
Bandura A. (1989) Social Cognitive Theory. IN: Annals of Child Development (Vol 6, p1
60. (Vasta R, ed). Greenwich, CT: Jai Press LTD.
Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…
Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;
Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-
term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.
Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
" (p. 420).
A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students:
both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family environment variables including conflict and control, adult attachment variables, attributional style and control-related cognitive variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection. As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students.
This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children. This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…
Chorpita, B.F., & Barlow, DH (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 3-21. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3
Coplan, R.J., Arbeau, K.A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9183-7
Giotakos, O. (2002). Parenting received in childhood and early separation anxiety in male conscripts with adjustment disorder Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/217062069?accountid=27965
Hortrum, P., (1994). The age of anxiety (1994). Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214441790?accountid=27965
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
This study has noted that educators are noting better methods to assist these students rather than placing them in special education classes which fail to assist these students in school or across the span of their lifetime endeavors.
Recommendations arising from this review of literature in this study include the recommendation that different methods be utilized in assisting culturally and linguistically diverse students in the school setting. Among these methods are those noted by Knotek (2003) and Craig, Hull, Haggart and Perez-Selle (2000) which involves educators and school counselors assisting in addressing the difficulties faced by these students in the school environment and which may include but are not limited to addressing the needs of students as well as their strengths through strategies of individualized behavior contracts, specialized counseling techniques and culturally appropriate reinforcements that serve to encourage positive behavior on the part of the culturally and linguistically diverse…
Coutinho, M.J. & Oswald, D.P. (1999). Ethnicity and special education research: Identifying questions and methods. Behavioral Disorders, 24, 66-73.
Oswald, D.P., Coutinho, M.J., Best, A.M & Singh, N. (1999). Ethnic representation in special education: The influence of economic demographic variables. Journal of Special Education, 32, 194-196.
Murtagh, Damien (2003) Investigating the Overrepresentation of Ethnic Minorities in Special Education. Graduate Studies. Online available at: www.lynchburg.edu/documents/GraduateStudies/Journal/MurtaghD.doc
U.S. Department of Education. (2000). Twenty-second annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Act. Washington, DC: Author.
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
According to the manual, the personality disorder 'is clinical syndrome which has more long lasting symptoms and encompass the individual's way of interacting with the world; the mental disorder includes paranoid, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders' (House, 2000). The deterioration of the physical condition is considered to be likely cause of the development, continuance, or exacerbation of clinical syndromes, developmental disorders and personality disorders. The DMS-IV manual has elaborated the conditions experienced by the patients in particular those under sever psychological trauma, and the physicians have been provided with the best possible technique to address the psychological pains and mental sufferings. The mental sufferings have their origin which is socially, politically, and naturally motivated or self-imposed (James, 2000).
The occurrences of the tragic events due the life span has the potential to create mental disorder, there have been cases where the patients have reflected their vulnerability of the mental dissatisfaction…
James Roy Morrison. The First Interview: Revised for DSM-IV. Guilford Press. 2000, pp. 34-54.
House, Alvin E. DSM-IV Diagnosis in the Schools. Guilford Press. 2000. pp. 45-76.
Michael B. First, Allen J. Frances, Harold Alan Pincus. DSM-IV: Diagnostics Differentials. 2000. pp. 187-201.
Thomas a. Widiger. DSM-IV Sourcebook. American Psychiatric Publication Inc. 2001. pp. 134-154.
children cope with friendship and death after reading Charlottes' Web?
The book, Charlotte's Web is probably the best selling paperback and is really a story about a farm, and how friendships develop between different animals and how they help each other. In this book, the most important development is the friendship that develops between Wilbur and Charlotte. Wilbur is a pig and Charlotte is a spider which turns out to be the leader of all animals. The book developed as a natural consequence to the author having resided on a farm and seen all the animals in action. In this book, Charlotte ends up saving the pig from slaughter and in practice; the author himself had tried to save a pig and not succeeded. The author has written about many such animals, but this became the most popular.
Animals were dear to the author and though the animals…
Children and Grief. American Academy of Child. July, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/grief.htm Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Hartman, Holly. Charlotte's Web. Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/spot/charlotte1.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Helping Children Cope with Loss, Death and Grief: Response to a National Tragedy. National Association of School Psychologists. 22 October, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/NEAT/grief.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Information for the Media on Childhood Traumatic Grief. The National Child Traumatic Stress. Retrieved from www.nctsnet.org/nccts/asset.do?id=361 Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Behavioral approaches alone or combined cognitive behavior therapy may be used. Behavioral techniques might include simply not buying trigger foods or avoiding certain shops; that is, building up new habits to replace existing ones. Another example would be modifying eating behavior such as eating in the same place each day, or concentrating solely on eating and not watching television at the same time (Fiona Mantle, 2003)."
It is worth noting here that research has shown that people will change and transform their eating habits, once they learn the advantages and disadvantages of their eating behavioral patterns. However, at the same time, it is also worth noting here that since eating habits can be transformed through learning, they can also be unlearned, however, the process of unlearning may take place through a lengthy passage of time. As Fiona Mantle (2003) writes, "Eating behaviors are learned behaviors therefore they can be unlearned,…
Abraham S, Llewellyn-Jones D (2001) Eating Disorders: the facts. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Bruch H (1973) Eating Disorders: Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa and the Person Within. New York, Basic Books.
Bunnell, D.W., Shenker, I.R., Nussbaum, M.P., Jacobson, M.S., & Cooper, P. (1990). Sub-clinical vs. formal eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 357-362.
Cathie E. Guzzetta. (2001). Developing and implementing a comprehensive program for children and adolescents with eating disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing.
psychological impact of Katrina & Lusitania
Hurricane Katrina which took place in the year 2005 is said to be one of the worst storm disaster that took place in the history of the United States. It led to loss of many lives, and it was unavoidable. The winds both from Louisiana to Alabama caused the level of water to arise at about 80% of the New Orleans and neighborhoods. The tragedy left many people with worries asking how the tragedy like that could happen to threaten the lives of many Americans (Brinkley, 2006).
The sinking of Lusitania on the other hand, contributed to various impacts on America as well as, the World War One. However, the Americans were never interested in joining the war unless they had finished another two years. The Lusitania sinking also enraged many Americans as well as, hastening the people from United States' entrance into the…
Brinkley, D. (2006). The great deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. New York: Morrow.
Guterman, P. (2005). Psychological preparedness for disaster. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://www.academia.edu/233646/Psychological_preparedness_for_disaster
Gant, P.G., & Gantt, R. (2011). Disaster Psychology. October 10, 2012 from http://www.asse.org/professionalsafety/pastissues/057/08/042_049_F1Gan_0812.pdf .
Ballard, R.D., & Dunmore, S. (2003). Exploring the Lusitania: probing the mysteries of the sinking that changed history. New York: Warner Books.
Psychology in Group Work
There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).
The learning theory of Bandura
The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:
Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Acheson, K.J. (2012). Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved from PubMed: doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.194.
Austin et al. (2011). Trends in carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals:
1971 -- 2006. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved:
Barnard, Neal D. (et al. 2009). A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5): 1588S -- 1596S. etrieved from Pub Med:
Davis, N., Forbes, B., & Wylie-osett, J. (2009). Nutritional Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes.
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 76(3), 257-268. etrieved from EBSCOhost
Foster, G.D., Wyatt, H.., Hill, J.O., Makris, a.P., osenbaum, D.L., Brill, C., & ... Klein, S.
(2010). Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2…
Acheson, K.J. (2012). Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved from PubMed: doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.194.
Austin et al. (2011). Trends in carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals:
1971 -- 2006. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved:
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
Parents not with great joy as their children meet important developmental milestones. oth first steps and first words are celebrated and described in detail to friends and family. ut sometimes as a child gets older, changes occur. Inexplicably, sometimes children who have talked for several years suddenly stop talking. Typically the child becomes selectively silent, talking animatedly with family and known friends but becoming mute at school or with strangers. When the problem is severe and exists over a period of time, the child may be diagnosed with selective mutism.
In one example, a child who was almost five years old started preschool, and after two weeks, refused to speak either to the teacher or his classmates. He also cried at arrival and would ask his parents to take him home. At home he spoke, but only to his mother, but clearly and in complete sentences. He communicated only…
Fairbanks, Janet A. 1997. Systematic assessment of 50 children with selective mutism." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, May.
McCracken, James T. 2002. "Prevalence and description of selective mutism in a school-based sample." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aug.
Rapin, Isabelle. 2001. "Selective mutism." Pediatrics, April.
Roberts, Susan Jo. 2002. "Identifying mutism's etiology in a child." The Nurse Practitioner 27:10, Oct.
Cognitive Unconscious, by John F. Kihlstrom (1987) addresses the idea that many processes and mental structures that affect what happens in a person's conscious mind are actually processed in the unconscious mind. That would mean that a lot of the things people do, they are doing based on information they may be processing without realizing it (Kihlstrom, 1987). In other words, people take in information about the world around them all the time, but much of it is unconscious information they do not realize they are collecting. Even though they have not realized the collection of this information, they use the information to help them make decisions and to determine how they feel about things (Kihlstrom, 1987). There has been a great deal of past research that does indicate mental functions can be altered by information that was provided subliminally or even under hypnosis, as opposed to information the person…
Fernald, L.D. (2008). Psychology: Six perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gazzaniga, M. (2010). Psychological science. NY: W.W. Norton & Company.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (1987). The cognitive unconscious. Science, 237(4821): 1445-1452.
Sun, R. (2008). The Cambridge handbook of computational psychology. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory
Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…
Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
Gamification in Mental Healthcare
There is no doubt that we have had decades of research geared at developing new and more effective treatments for mental conditions ranging from autism to anxiety, from schizophrenia to depression and so on. What is rather worrying, however, is that we have very little to show for it. Mental disorders such as these continue to impact on the quality of life of a significant proportion of the population, costing the taxpayer millions of dollars every year. Currently, approximately 90 million Americans, which translates to approximately one-third of the population, suffers from some form of anxiety disorder, yet a majority of these fail to seek out treatment for the same owing to the stigma, burden and cost associated with such evidence-based treatments. Mental health professionals are, thus, focusing their attention towards the development of low-burden, effective interventions for mental illness. Gamification, the introduction of game-like elements…
Arthur, G., 2015. Cellphone Therapy: New Apps Help Track and Treat Mental Illness. Aljazeera.com [online] Available at http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/5/15/cell-phone-therapy-new-apps-help-track-and-treat-mental-illness.html [accessed 22 May 2015]
Bolluyt, V., 2013. How Apps are Tackling Important Mental Health Issues. Cheatsheet. [online] Available at http://www.cheatsheet.com/technology/how-apps-are-tackling-important-mental-health-issues.html/?a=viewall [accessed 21 May 2015].
Chan, S.R., Torous, J., Hinton, L., and Yellowlees, P., 2014. Mobile Tele-Mental Health: Increasing Applications and a Move to Hybrid Models of Care. Healthcare, 2(1), pp. 220-233
Cugelman, B., 2013. Gamification: What it is and why it Matters to Digital Health Behavior Change Developers. JMIR Serious Games, 1(1), pp. 1-6.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…
Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm
DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.
Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9
Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
Stress is delineated as demand that is made on a being for adaptation, coping, or adjusting. There is stress that is healthy and is referred to as eustress. Prolonged stress impacts moods, ruins capacity to have pleasure and is also harmful to the body. Some of the aspects that generate a great deal of stress include everyday hassles, changes in life and also health problems. According to a survey undertaken by the American Psychological Association, the two biggest sources of stress are money and work and this causes people to become irritable, angry and fatigued. There are four kinds of conflict. Approach-approach conflict is the least stressful, having two objectives that can be attained whereas avoidance-avoidance conflict has more stress as one is enthused to evade two adverse objectives. Approach-avoidance encompasses objectives that generate mixed intentions and lastly multiple approach-avoidance conflict include numerous alternative actions that have upsides and downsides.…
Audience views can also be discussed at this time.
The students have written their first draft. The teacher tells them that after the peer review, they will take the suggested comments and rewrite the paper. This step is another step in the writing process. As the students are learning the process, it is natural with less stress. At the same time, the instructor can continue exposing the students to the masters but in another way. As mentioned above, the teacher is there to answer questions from the students about possible errors in the writing. During the time, the students can spend a portion of their time in examining sentence build from different styles of writing. From this writing, they can have assignments where they clarify their knowledge of the rudiments of grammar, such as subject, predicate, noun, and verb, etc. This can be done using the writings to which they…
1. Beulah, J. "Contemporary Composition: The Major Pedagogical Theories." Cross Talk in Composition Theory: A Reader (1st ed). Ed. Victor Villanueva. Urbana, IL. 1997. 265-280.
2. Hiemstra, R. Uses and Benefits of Journal Writing. New Directions for Adults and Continuing Education. 2001. n. 90. p. 19-26.
3. Murray, M. "Teaching Writing as a Process, Not Product." Cross Talk in Composition Theory: A Reader (1st ed). Ed. Victor Villanueva. Urbana, IL. 1997. 21-24.
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
This confusion would have been intolerable for him, creating disorganized patterns of thought. Out of this disorganization developed delusion. The boy came to imagine that the father killed the mother.
Another way cognitive (and psychodynamic) approaches explain the genesis of schizophrenia is by reference to childhood trauma. Things such as abuse, divorce, a domineering mother, or witnessing murder are seen as major factors in schizophrenic development (Koehler & Silver, 2009, p. 225). Traumatic events lead to dissociation from parents and from reality. Other related factors are stress, fear, anxiety, and social isolation that lead to schizophrenia. In other words, it is how the person is embedded in extreme and dysfunctional social relations that may shape their development. Here Spider's malady would be discussed in terms of intense family strife. There is evidence for severe marital tension in the film, exemplified by the man's having an affair. Combined with poor family…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: author.
Beck, A.T., Rector, N.A., Stolar, N., & Grant, P. (2009). Schizophrenia: Cognitive theory, research, and therapy. New York: Guilford Press.
Bellack, A.S., Mueser, K.T., Gingerich, S., & Agresta, J. (1997). Social skills training for schizophrenia: A step-by-step guide. New York: Guilford Press.
Chavez, M.G. (2009). Group psychotherapy and schizophrenia. In Psychotherapeutic approaches to schizophrenic psychoses: Past, present and future, eds Y.O. Alanen, M.G. Chavez, A.-L. Silver, & B. Martindale, pp. 251-266. London: Routledge.
Yet, when you go beyond the generalities, it is obvious that this a taking a one size fits all approach when it comes to society. Where, you are assuming that everyone will react the same to the various rules / laws that have been established. However, the pessimists argue that such thinking does not take into account how various experiences and personal relationships will determine someone's morals and values. This is troubling because when you apply such thinking to the person who committed the act. They can be able to claim that they are excused from the different forms of punishment, because they qualify for a special consideration. This, the critics argue is the biggest flaw of determinism, where you are assuming that ample amounts of punishment / penalties would serve as a deterrent. Then, once someone breaks various laws you are allowing the special considerations to give them the…
Determinism. (2010). Retrieved April 27, 2010 from Free Dictionary website: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/determinism
Linder, D. (2002). The Trial of John Hinckley. Retrieved April 27, 2010 from Famous American Trials website: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/hinckley/hinckleytrial.html
Linder, D. (2008). The Trial of John Hinckley Jr. Retrieved April 27, 2010 from Famous American Trails website: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hinckley/hinckleyaccount.html
Strawson, P. (n.d.). Freedom and Resentment.
These include Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Thioridazine (Mellaril), Haloperidol (Haldol), Fluphenazine (Prolixin), Mesoridazine (Serentil), Perphenazine (Trilafon) and Trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
(b). Atypical Medications-is the newer medication to schizophrenia. The atypical drugs affect different areas from those affected by the antipsychotic drugs. These include Clozapine (Clozaril) -particularly effective in younger people, isperidone (isperdal) and Olanzapine (Zyprexa).
(c). other significant medication-these can also help suppress the symptoms and include Antidepressants, Antianxiety drugs, Lithium (for bipolar disorder) and Antiepileptic drugs.
(d). Electroconvulsive ("Shock") Therapy-where low voltage electric current is induced into the patient to cause seizure. It is of late considered to be safer than drug therapy.
(e). Psychotherapy- this is where the different professionals like the psychologists, some nurses, psychiatrists and social workers work together to study and help treat the patient along side using drugs. It exploits the cognitive behavior of the individual where the normal positive behavior is emphasized. It follows on the…
All Psych, (2004). Psychiatric Disorders: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/dsm.html
Health Information Publications, (2011). What Is Schizophrenia? Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://ehealthmd.com/library/schizophrenia/sch_whatis.html
Grohol, M., (2006). Schizophrenia Treatment. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx31t.htm
Discuss the criteria used to define abnormality (abnormal behavior / mood disorders)
There are no established criteria to define what is abnormal. On the other hand, every individual trait can be said as abnormal on some social plane. (Oracle think quest, 2010) Some of the preferred ideas to define abnormality are as given below:
Statistical Norms Deviation: Certain population facts such as height, weight and intelligence are measured and recorded. Most of people come in the middle range of intelligence. Those who fail in general terms and falls below the so-called intelligence scale are termed as abnormal. But then, the people with extra intelligence also become abnormal. Furthermore, intelligence is a subjective issue. (Oracle think quest, 2010)
Social Norms Deviation: People going again social norms and trying to make their idiosyncratic identity are also termed as abnormal. Galileo was abnormal and he was brutally punished for his abnormality, he suggested…
Baker, B.L., Blacher, J., & Pfeiffer, S. (1993). "Family involvement in residential treatment of children with psychiatric disorder and mental retardation" Hospital and Community Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 6, pp: 561-566.
Chan, Jeffery; Hudson, Colin. (2002) "Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness:
A Literature Review," Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 37, no. 1, pp: 31-40.
Davidson, P.W., Cain, N.N., Sloane-Reeves, J., Giesow, V.E Quijano, L.E., Van Heyningen, J., & Sholam, I. (1995). "Crisis intervention for community-based individuals with developmental disabilities and behavioral and psychiatric disorders" Mental Retardation, vol. 33, no. 1, pp: 21-30.
The third type of response is the prolonged response also referred to as chronic stress which is a response to a trigger that is unrelenting or repetitive that can be caused by work related situation, the domestic stress, unsolved financial stress and such prolonged triggers.
Stress, if not checked can be harmful to the individual but also the immediate family or those living around the victim. Hence, there is absolute need to tackle stress as soon as it shows signs as discussed above. These responses may include though not restricted to; a) Talking about it, this should be encouraged. The victim should talk about it with the family members, friends, colleagues, counselor etc. b). Taking a break, which may include going to a place one rarely goes to or doing some activities they rarely do but enjoy, it may also involve indulging in picnics or long travel holidays, engaging in…
Stressfocus, (2009). Discover the Basics of Stress. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from http://www.stressfocus.com/stress_focus_article/stress-and-its-causes.htm
Thebreastcancersite, (2010). Ten ways to tackle stress. Retrieved June 9, 2010 from http://www.thebreastcaresite.com/tbcs/Renewal/EmotionalRecovery/TenWaystoTackleStress.htm
Gill T.S., (2009). Top 7 Tips to cure stress and anxiety revealed. Article snatch. Retrieved June
9, 2010 from http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Top-7-Tips-to-Cure-Stress-and-Anxiety-Revealed-/1163642
All subjects surveyed showed signs of anxiety that occurs specifically in relation to a certain situation or object. The following questions were contained on the survey. Individual phobic symptoms…Read Full Paper ❯
Phobias and Addictions Grade Course Families often pat their dogs and cats when they successfully catch a ball. Teachers and parents reward children with grades and gifts on their…Read Full Paper ❯
Social Phobia in Children It is natural for the people to feel shy, self-conscious or nervous in front of others at certain occasions. Anyone can feel conscious or can…Read Full Paper ❯
Social Phobia There is a condition in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders known as social phobia. Social phobia, a term used in DSM-IV, is now known as…Read Full Paper ❯
Conditioning Theories: Phobias and Addiction Phobias and Addiction Phobias and Classical Conditioning Theory Classical conditioning theory proposes that an individual can acquire a phobic response to a conditioned stimulus…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychology - Abnormal
Abstract Phobias are a kind of anxiety disorder that can make an individual to experience extreme irrational fear regarding a situation, object, or living creature. Phobias should not be…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychology - Behaviorism
Managing Phobias Phobias are seen to be unreasonable, and overwhelming fear of objects or situations posing little or no danger and evoke anxiety and avoidance. Specific phobias are known…Read Full Paper ❯
A second phase might involve exposing to subject to motion pictures of moderate elevation, again without actually experiencing any elevation himself or herself. A third phase of the process…Read Full Paper ❯
According to the principle of habituation, a fear response weakens when elicited repeatedly. According to the principle of extinction, the fear response decreases or weakens when the patient is…Read Full Paper ❯
They can also measure avoidance, as there are people who are so fearful of the Muslim culture that they will go out of their way to avoid Muslims and…Read Full Paper ❯
clinical psychology in a real-World situation. Overview of Agoraphobia Agoraphobia refers to the fear of becoming embroiled in situations from which it may be difficult to escape, or situations…Read Full Paper ❯
All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General…Read Full Paper ❯
Manuscript Critique Mogg, K., Pierre P., & Bradley, B.P. (2004). Selective attention to angry faces in clinical social phobia. J Abnormal Psych, 113 (1), 160-165. The present study investigated…Read Full Paper ❯
Miami was where it all happened. I dated then. I guess you could say I had a life. Back then, if I were to be living under any rock,…Read Full Paper ❯
However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist…Read Full Paper ❯
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum") A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy…Read Full Paper ❯
The reluctance of going to the school assumed to lie at home. It is assumed that the child has an inclination to stay at home where the well being…Read Full Paper ❯
biological perspective: suggests that the tendency to develop anxiety disorders may be partly genetic. While environment might have caused the results of the family studies, recent research on brains…Read Full Paper ❯
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models…Read Full Paper ❯
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychology Treatment For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local…Read Full Paper ❯
Avoidant Personality Disorder As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent…Read Full Paper ❯
The best psychologists are familiar with all of the main, credible theories, and they understand how these theories work. Then, they use the theory that they believe will best…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues." In the…Read Full Paper ❯
The results were found to be similar with regards to the scales of CMAS (a 37 item measure), STAIC (for the 20 item state scale measure only), CDI (a…Read Full Paper ❯
(Broderick & Blewitt). Aside from the major issue, at least for the parents, of Jason's reserved social demeanor; there have been several other indicators of acting our behavior that…Read Full Paper ❯
(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect…Read Full Paper ❯
Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life.…Read Full Paper ❯
etirees Attending College The latest retirement planning book entitled 'Boomers: Visons of the New etirement', written by a person who is about thirty years old, Dr. Maria Maylater, PhD.,…Read Full Paper ❯
Categories and Phases of Loss and Grief for Nancy Diagnostic Statement for Nancy Nancy is obese and reports feeling anxious and depressed. Nancy has gained 15 pounds does not…Read Full Paper ❯
IQ Discrimination The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually…Read Full Paper ❯
Perception of Helplessness Helplessness is defined in the dictionary as a "powerlessness revealed by an inability to act." Alternative definitions are: "a feeling of being unable to manage" or…Read Full Paper ❯
Perfectionism: A Good Predictor of Stress and Anxiety Personality research has revealed a number of interactions between traits and clinically-significant mental health issues. For example, neuroticism has been shown…Read Full Paper ❯
Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she…Read Full Paper ❯
Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis Literature eview on Social Cognitivism Social Cognitivism Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura The core of the social cognitive theory is…Read Full Paper ❯
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds…Read Full Paper ❯
" (p. 420). A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students: both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies. However, the issue of…Read Full Paper ❯
This study has noted that educators are noting better methods to assist these students rather than placing them in special education classes which fail to assist these students in…Read Full Paper ❯
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary…Read Full Paper ❯
According to the manual, the personality disorder 'is clinical syndrome which has more long lasting symptoms and encompass the individual's way of interacting with the world; the mental disorder…Read Full Paper ❯
children cope with friendship and death after reading Charlottes' Web? Academic esearch: The book, Charlotte's Web is probably the best selling paperback and is really a story about a…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Behavioral approaches alone or combined cognitive behavior therapy may be used. Behavioral techniques might include simply not buying trigger foods or avoiding certain shops; that is, building up new…Read Full Paper ❯
psychological impact of Katrina & Lusitania Hurricane Katrina which took place in the year 2005 is said to be one of the worst storm disaster that took place in…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychology in Group Work Learning Theory There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nutrition
eferences Acheson, K.J. (2012). Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved from PubMed: doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.194. Austin…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life "He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given…Read Full Paper ❯
Mutism Parents not with great joy as their children meet important developmental milestones. oth first steps and first words are celebrated and described in detail to friends and family.…Read Full Paper ❯
Cognitive Unconscious, by John F. Kihlstrom (1987) addresses the idea that many processes and mental structures that affect what happens in a person's conscious mind are actually processed in…Read Full Paper ❯
Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major…Read Full Paper ❯
Gamification in Mental Healthcare There is no doubt that we have had decades of research geared at developing new and more effective treatments for mental conditions ranging from autism…Read Full Paper ❯
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study Case report K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has…Read Full Paper ❯
Stress is delineated as demand that is made on a being for adaptation, coping, or adjusting. There is stress that is healthy and is referred to as eustress. Prolonged…Read Full Paper ❯
Audience views can also be discussed at this time. The students have written their first draft. The teacher tells them that after the peer review, they will take the…Read Full Paper ❯
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that…Read Full Paper ❯
This confusion would have been intolerable for him, creating disorganized patterns of thought. Out of this disorganization developed delusion. The boy came to imagine that the father killed the…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Yet, when you go beyond the generalities, it is obvious that this a taking a one size fits all approach when it comes to society. Where, you are assuming…Read Full Paper ❯
These include Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Thioridazine (Mellaril), Haloperidol (Haldol), Fluphenazine (Prolixin), Mesoridazine (Serentil), Perphenazine (Trilafon) and Trifluoperazine (Stelazine) (b). Atypical Medications-is the newer medication to schizophrenia. The atypical drugs affect…Read Full Paper ❯
Discuss the criteria used to define abnormality (abnormal behavior / mood disorders) There are no established criteria to define what is abnormal. On the other hand, every individual trait…Read Full Paper ❯
The third type of response is the prolonged response also referred to as chronic stress which is a response to a trigger that is unrelenting or repetitive that can…Read Full Paper ❯