Phobia Essays (Examples)

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Expectations of Psychology Prior to

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66425707

All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General Psychology I and Abnormal Psychology were my two favorite classes at Bergen, and I wanted to pursue additional psychology classes.

I transferred to Fairleigh Dickinson and enrolled in General Psychology II with the expectation that I would learn even more about psychology. I did not have an expectation as far as what topics would be covered in the course, but I did expect the material to be harder and more complex; I was right. I did not expect to study the biology and physiology of the brain, and I struggled with understanding and memorizing the material. Memorizing and understanding the parts of the brain and their function, such as the thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, etc. did not appeal to me and…… [Read More]

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Manuscript Critique Mogg K Pierre P &

Words: 807 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19921030

Manuscript Critique

Mogg, K., Pierre P., & Bradley, B.P. (2004). Selective attention to angry faces in clinical social phobia. J Abnormal Psych, 113 (1), 160-165.

The present study investigated the time course of attentional biases to emotional facial responses in patients with diagnosed social phobia. The social phobia group showed enhanced vigilance to angry faces, relative to happy and neutral faces, compared to matched controls at 500 ms but not 1250 ms of exposure duration

The results of the present study provide evidence for initial vigilance for angry faces in patients with clinical social anxiety. These data are consistent with several studies related to cognitive bias in anxiety disorders (Mogg & Bradley, 1998). esults from this study suggest that social phobia has a different pattern of attentional bias from other anxiety disorders. Social phobia is characterized by attentional avoidance rather than vigilance for external threat cues.

The finding of attentional…… [Read More]

References

Mansell, W., Clark, D.M., Ehlers, A., & Chen, Y.P. (1999). Social anxiety and attention away from emotional faces. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 673-690.

Mogg, K., & Bradley, B.P. (1998). A cognitive-motivational analysis of anxiety. Behav Res Ther, 36(9), 809-848.

500 ms assesses initial orienting; 1250 ms assesses subsequent attentional bias

Data greater than 2 standard deviations above the mean were discarded. Statistically, this outcome may be anticipated in 1 out of every 20 tests.
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Rock Decided to Meet Lucas

Words: 3404 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89041313



Miami was where it all happened. I dated then. I guess you could say I had a life. Back then, if I were to be living under any rock, it had to be a very beautiful one, such as limestone, the kind of limestone that grew in small crevices on the road leading up to my grandfather's home on the island. I felt then that Prince Charming would come, eventually and when he did he wasn't going anywhere. After all, I am amazing; he must just not have received the memo quite yet. All of this was in the past and the time was now. I had been through enough doubt and feeling that I was some creature living under a rock. I was going to meet him and this situation would be resolved. Tonight was my coming out from under the rock.

Lucas. His name is Lucas Walker. We…… [Read More]

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Psychology Counseling

Words: 1479 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25105508

However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session

2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a…… [Read More]

Reference

Corey, G., (2009) Theory and practice of counseling & psychotherapy. (8th Edition). Belmont,

CA. Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Family systems. (2009). Genogram. Retrieved November 24, 2009 at  http://www.genopro.com/genogram/family-systems-theory/
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Tom Shulich Coltishhum a Comparative Study on

Words: 9196 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33144233

Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")

A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre

ABSACT

In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…… [Read More]

References

Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from  http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html 

Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.

Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.

Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
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School as a Young Child

Words: 1203 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1108367

The reluctance of going to the school assumed to lie at home. It is assumed that the child has an inclination to stay at home where the well being of the parent is guaranteed. In turn the parents visualize the problem of intimidation of their children to prevalent in schools. The psychologists however find that the inclination towards avoidance of the schools is the consequence of various elements with their reaction to both home and school stressors. The contemporary thought on school phobia depicts that there are some children who denies attending school as a result of separation anxiety. (School Phobia)

Most of the children reluctant to go to school are between the ages 8-13 years. In case of some the reluctance is as an effort to avoid uncomfortable feelings associated with school. The phobia is associated with the fear of being criticized or evaluated. Sometimes the particular activities like…… [Read More]

References

Anandalakshmy. S. The child at school. Retrieved at http://www.doctorndtv.com/children/detailtopics.asp?id=31. Accessed on 16 February, 2005

Bullying in schools. Retrieved at http://www.bullyonline.org/schoolbully/school.htm. Accessed on 16 February, 2005

Hogan, Maureen. School Phobia. Nassau County Psychologist. Retrieved at  http://www.fenichel.com/schoolphobia.html . Accessed on 16 February, 2005

Starting School. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved at http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/82.htm. Accessed on 16 February, 2005
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Social Anxiety

Words: 2290 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22385514

Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia

Social anxiety or social phobia is the most common anxiety disorder and affects millions of Americans. The effects of social anxiety can be quite devastating. There are several scales that have been developed to assess social anxiety in people, but there are few scales that consist of less than 20 items. The Social Anxiety Questionnaire, a 14-item scale to measure social anxiety, was tested on 89 college students and compared to the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (Mattick & Clarke, 1998) and Eysenck's Introversion Scale (Eysenck. 1970; 1971) for validity. The psychometric properties of the scale, future directions for research, and practical applications of the scale are discussed.

The Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia

Social anxiety disorder (also known as social phobia) consists of feelings of apprehension, worry, or nervousness concerning being placed in situations where…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-TR. Arlington, VA: Author.

Anthony, M.M. (1997). Assessment and treatment of social phobia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 826 -- 834.

Brown, E.J., Turovsky, J., Heimberg, R.G., Juster, H.R., Brown, T.A., & Barlow, DH (1997). Validation of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale across the anxiety disorders. Psychological Assessment, 9, 21-27.

Campbell, D.T., & Fiske, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105
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Biological Perspective Suggests That the Tendency to

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24534196

biological perspective: suggests that the tendency to develop anxiety disorders may be partly genetic. While environment might have caused the results of the family studies, recent research on brains have shown difficulty with specific neurotransmitters that suggests a problem with the feedback system in the brain that would otherwise quell feelings of fear and panic. Anxiety isn't that simple because several neurotransmitters bind at GABA's receptor as well. Medications can help with anxiety as can relaxation training and biofeedback.

Phobias: enduring but irrational, strong fears of certain objects (ex: snakes) or situations (ex: claustrophobia). Phobias are distinguished from other fears in that they are very intense and cause the person to go to some lengths to avoid the feared thing, which can cause social or even employment problems for the person.

Specific phobia: means the fear is clearly identifiable -- a snake, or high places.

Social phobia: the person is…… [Read More]

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Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and

Words: 4199 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2973543

e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.

According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…… [Read More]

References

Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.

Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.

Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.

Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
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Panic Disorder During Pregnancy and

Words: 1880 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57684873

The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…… [Read More]

References

Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.

Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.

Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.

Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
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Enforcement of Psychology Treatment for the Mentally Ill

Words: 8451 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95839705

Psychology Treatment

For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.

Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.

Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
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Avoidant Personality Disorder

Words: 4280 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14227618

Avoidant Personality Disorder

As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.

Exploration of disorder

Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.

Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press

Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
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Hospitalizing Mentally Ill People Against

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19244987

The best psychologists are familiar with all of the main, credible theories, and they understand how these theories work. Then, they use the theory that they believe will best help the patient. Sometimes, the theories are used in combination with one another, or parts of different theories are used to make up the whole of a treatment plan. In addition, a good psychologist should also see when conventional theories are not working, and be willing to go outside the box for a particular patient who needs help. When a psychologist is able (and willing) to use a lot of different approaches, he or she will have the best chance of actually treating - and possibly curing - a patient who would otherwise not be able to be helped based on only one type of theory or style of approach. People who need therapy or treatment may have similar problem, but…… [Read More]

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Female Substance Use Disorder Gender

Words: 2505 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21550261

..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."

In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.

Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…… [Read More]

References

Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation

Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),

Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.

2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating
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Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments 10-Year Critical

Words: 14685 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28105173

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments: 10-Year Critical eview of the esearch Literature

Over ten million teenagers in the United States admit in a national survey that they drink alcohol, although it is illegal under the age of 21 in all states. In some studies, nearly one-quarter of school-age children both smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol. Over four thousand adolescents every day try marijuana for the first time. The dangers of use, abuse and dependency on each of these substances have been established. When we also consider that these three substances are considered gateway drugs, that is, drugs whose use is likely to lead to experimentation with "hard" drugs, the potential problem of such widespread use is even more severe. Additionally, use of these substances is known to co-occur with a number of other psychiatric conditions as well as health issues such as the incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies and…… [Read More]

References

Aarons, Gregory A.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hough, Richard L.; Garland, Ann F.; Wood, Patricia A. Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders Across Five Sectors of Care (Statistical Data Included). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 2001 v40 i4 p419

Adger, Hoover Jr.; Werner, Mark J. The pediatrician (role in treatment of alcohol-related disorders). Alcohol Health and Research World, Spring 1994 v18 n2 p121 (6)

Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Symptoms of Adolescents. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence of the San Fernando Valley, Inc. [Online]. Retrieved January 20, 2003 from http:/ / www.ncadd-sfv.org/symptoms/teen_symptoms.html

Alcohol use and abuse: a pediatric concern (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse). Pediatrics, March 1995 v95 n3 p439 (4)
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Panic Disorder a Branch of

Words: 1396 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18297443

The results were found to be similar with regards to the scales of CMAS (a 37 item measure), STAIC (for the 20 item state scale measure only), CDI (a 27 item measure) and FSSC- (an 80 item measure). The trait scale of STAIC showed a few variations but was not strong enough when the Bonferroni correction was applied. The CASI scale presented a higher occurrence in the second group compared to the first, regardless of Bonferroni corrections. This amounted to at least 16 of the 18 items. The remaining two items, recorded higher in the second group can be considered to be of an external nature. The origins of these differences were obtained using t-test analysis methods (Kearney, Albano, Eisen, Allan & Barlow, 1997)

Conclusions of the research

The conclusions drawn from the study participants with panic disorder revealed nausea, shivering, difficulties in breathing and increased heart rate as the…… [Read More]

References

Kearney, C, A, Albano, A, M, Eisen, A, R, Allan, W, D & Barlow, D, H. (1997) The Phenomenology of Panic Disorders in youngsters: Empirical Study of a Clinical sample, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2(1), 49-62
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2-Year-Old Case Study Two-Year-Old Child

Words: 3101 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75905361

(Broderick & Blewitt).

Aside from the major issue, at least for the parents, of Jason's reserved social demeanor; there have been several other indicators of acting our behavior that he has presented. On several occasions Jason has complained of stomachaches and headaches prior to having to go to day care or even to any other playtimes where he knows his parents will not be attending. Also, if he has felt threatened by other children in outside settings he will also develop these symptoms in order to be sent home. Then, conversely, after he has been at day care he often does not want to return home and occasionally has a minor tantrum or crying fit. In instances such as these, with seemingly confusing and contradictory symptoms, one must remember that children often do not express anxieties in any direct fashion but often present with symptoms or strange ideologies that can…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P. The life span: Human Development for Helping

Professionals (2nd ed.). (2006) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Burgess, Kim B., and Alastair J. Younger. "Self-Schemas, Anxiety Somatic and Depressive

Symptoms in Socially Withdrawn Children and Adolescents." Journal of Research in Childhood Education 20.3 (2006): 175+.
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Panic Disorder Current Research on

Words: 1354 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6000535

(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect of the disorder to a large degree and are secondary problems shared by many who experience the disorder.

Other related disorders also give more clear insight into panic disorder, as post traumatic stress disorder has increased in severity as well as incidence, given the prolonged state of national crisis, war and other issues involving over stimulation in the fast paced society we share. One review work, demonstrates the conflicts and controversy that surrounds PTSD, often a precursor to panic disorder as the disorder leaves the individual with a cognitive reaction to normal events in an exaggerated panicked, fashion and in many ways correlates to panic disorder. The article states that victims in the past have been treated ineffectually due to preconceived…… [Read More]

References

Beamish, P.M., Granello, DH, & Belcastro, a.L. (2002). Treatment of Panic Disorder: Practical Guidelines. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(3), 224.

Bogels, S.M., & Zigterman, D. (2000). Dysfunctional Cognitions in Children with Social Phobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 205.

Book, S.W., & Randall, C.L. (2002). Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(2), 130.

Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 127.
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Bob Case Analysis of Anxiety

Words: 1074 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39062110

Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.

Demographic Implications:

One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010). Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. PubMed Health.

DSM IV. (2010). DSM IV Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Criteria. Biological Unhapiness.com.

Malinckrodt, B.; Porter, M.J. & Kivlighan, D.M. (2005). Client Attachment to Therepist: Depth of In-Session Exploration, and Object Relations in Brief Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 85-100.
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Challenges Facing Retirees Attending College

Words: 3546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87455481

etirees Attending College

The latest retirement planning book entitled 'Boomers: Visons of the New etirement', written by a person who is about thirty years old, Dr. Maria Maylater, PhD., states the author's opinion that it is not what an individual, or in other words, a retiree 'has' when he retires that is important; it is the ways in which he plans out this important phase in his life in which he would be able to actually're-invent' himself totally. She states that today, all the Baby Boomers of yesterday are looking forward to another twenty years of a full and productive life, and an extremely rewarding one, what with all the technological and scientific advances that have taken place in recent years, an average individual can hope to love a longer life than his father or his grandfathers before him. (3 etirement Challenges that you were Never Told)

The idea is…… [Read More]

References

Fact-sheet on older Americans. Retrieved From

http://www.civicventures.org/261.98.html Accessed on 21 January, 2005

Falcon, Michael. Sharing your Vision of Retirement. Retrieved From

http://askmerrill.ml.com/publish/marketing_centers/articles/ret_article_r058 / Accessed on 21 January, 2005
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Adolescent Learner Unique Needs the

Words: 2696 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88845591

Matching students' interests with learning objectives will increase the chances of students' learning. They tend to use it and remember it long after. Using literature relevant to adolescents, for example, will raise their literacy and capacity to address contemporary issues affecting them. Reading materials about adolescents and for adolescents are another window into their world that teachers should be looking into. This is the time when they should read about themselves rather than simply sitting down for an hour and taking notes (Chckley).

Applying Learning in the Community through Projects

Projects, which give meaning to learning in the classroom, will leave an impression in adolescents' mind (Checkley, 2004). Learning about Veterans Day as a service-learning project, for example, demonstrates this. Students may be asked to identify a veteran in their family or among their acquaintances or friends. They may be asked to write the veteran a letter of appreciation or…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Checkley, K. (2004). Meeting the needs of the adolescent learner. Vo. 46 # 5 Education

Update: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved on July

21, 2012 from http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/ed_update/ecc200408.checkley.pdf

Cherry, K. (2012). Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. About.com: The New
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Shore Case Study

Words: 4008 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31359343

Categories and Phases of Loss and Grief for Nancy

Diagnostic Statement for Nancy

Nancy is obese and reports feeling anxious and depressed. Nancy has gained 15 pounds does not sleep well, has low concentration ability and is forgetful. Nancy has a social phobia and exhibits some signs of paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, Nancy has a back injury, which contributes, to her general feeling of ill health and results in not getting the exercise she needs. Nancy is a chain smoker. Nancy feels that she has lost control of her life. Nancy's son Michael has asthma. It appears that Nancy's husband suffers from some type of behavior disorder and is likely somewhat mentally retarded.

DSM-IV-T (2000) Diagnosis

The multiaxial assessment includes analysis on the following five stated Axis:

(1) Axis 1: clinical disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, learning, motor skills and communication disorder

296.xx Major Depressive Disorder

301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder

300.23…… [Read More]

References

Antonovsky, A. And Sourani, T. (1998) Family Sense of Coherence and Family Adaptation. Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 50. No. 1 Feb 1998. National Council on Family Relations. Retrieved from:  http://psych.wfu.edu/furr/362/Family%20Sense%20of%20Coherence%20Scale.pdf 

Connell, Cindi (2010) Multicultural Perspectives and Considerations Within Structural Family Therapy: The Premises of Structure, Subsystems and Boundaries. Rivier Academic Journal. Vol. 6. No. 2 Fall, 2010. Retrieved from:  http://www.rivier.edu/journal/ROAJ-Fall-2010/J461-Connelle-Multicultural-Perspectives.pdf 

Fischer, J. And Cocoran, K. (1994) Measures of Clinical Practice. Social Science. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=y2C9YvSU53sC&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Ruiz, MA (nd) Transgenerational and Structural Family Therapy, An Analysis of Both Schools. Retrieved from:  http://miguelangelruiz.webs.com/Transgenerational%20and%20Structural%20Family%20Therapy.pdf
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IQ Discrimination the Concept of General Ability

Words: 3541 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22745648

IQ Discrimination

The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually assessed by measuring performances on a test of a number of different skills, using tasks that emphasize reasoning and problem solving in a number of different areas. Early assessments of IQ were done in France by Alfred Binet in 1905, as part of an attempt to identify children who needed specialist help to make educational progress. Interest in IQ testing continued in the U.S. By researchers such as Louis Terman.

IQ was thought to be fixed in these early years and so was often used in education in an attempt to predict children's future academic progress with different levels of measured intelligence being taken to imply the need for different forms of educational experiences. More able children are supposed to need…… [Read More]

References.

Bates, Steve. (2002). Personality counts: psychological tests can help peg the job applicants best suited for certain jobs. HR Magazine. Feb. 2002

Flynn, Gillian. (2002). A legal examination of testing. Workforce. June 2002

Newitz, Annalee. (2000). The personality paradox. Industry Stand. October, 2000.
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Helplessness Coping and Health

Words: 2116 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36002418

Perception of Helplessness

Helplessness is defined in the dictionary as a "powerlessness revealed by an inability to act." Alternative definitions are: "a feeling of being unable to manage" or "the state of needing help from something." Helplessness is part and parcel of human existence. Given the natural order of life's process, helplessness is a reaction to traumatic events in our own lives. These are mental, emotional and physical anguish. In addition, helplessness is also caused by sensitivity to the sufferings of others. After the events of September 11, 2001, most Americans felt helpless. This helplessness was from the recognition of the fragility of life. Helplessness was also the inability to seek immediate retribution to the grievous loss to those even far removed from most of us. In most cases however, helplessness comes from events that are associated with self and those very near. Illness is a prime example. This is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bodner, E., & Mikulincer, M. (1998). Learned Helplessness and the Occurrence of Depressive-Like and Paranoid-Like Responses: The Role of Attentional Focus. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology., 74(4), 1010-1023.

Fredholm, L. (2003). Pavlov's Dog. Nobel.se. Retrieved December 17, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.nobel.se/medicine/educational/pavlov/readmore.html

Lindstrom, T.C. (1997). Immunity and health after bereavement in relation to coping. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 38(3), 235-259.

Minor, T.R., & Hunter, A.M. (2002). Stressor controllability and learned helplessness research in the United States: sensitization and fatigue processes. Integr Physiol Behav Sci, 37(1), 35-43.
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Stress and Anxiety Common Among Perfectionists

Words: 2038 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88860031

Perfectionism: A Good Predictor of Stress and Anxiety

Personality research has revealed a number of interactions between traits and clinically-significant mental health issues. For example, neuroticism has been shown to be predictive of anxiety and depressive disorders, while introversion is a common trait among those suffering from social phobias (reviewed by Bienvenu et al., 2004). While some these traits may be refractory to clinical intervention, insights into relationships between lower-order personality dimensions and clinically-significant psychological problems may open up new avenues for treatment. Among the more interesting personality traits is perfectionism, because it has been linked to eating, anxiety, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive disorders, in addition to personal self-efficacy and achievement (Stairs, Smith, Zapolski, Combs, & Settles, 2011). To better understand the clinical relevance of perfectionism the findings of several studies will be reviewed here.

A large (N = 731) study examined the prevalence of the big five personality domains among…… [Read More]

References

Bienvenu, O.J., Samuels, J.F., Costa, P.T., Reti, I.M., Eaton, W.W., & Nestadt, G. (2004). Anxiety and depressive disorders and the five-factor model of personality: A higher- and lower-order personality trait investigation in a community sample. Depression and Anxiety, 20(2), 92-7.

Dittner, A.J., Rimes, K., & Thorpe, S. (2011). Negative perfectionism increases the risk of fatigue following a period of stress. Psychology and Health, 26(3), 253-68.

Gnilka, P.B., Ashby, J.S., & Noble, C.M. (2012). Multidimensional perfectionism and anxiety: Differences among individuals with perfectionism and tests of a coping-mediation model. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90(4), 427-36.

Lovibond, S.H., & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
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Andrea M Is a 21-Year-Old Female in

Words: 2539 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99310236

Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…… [Read More]

References

Amir, N. & Bomyea, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In Hoffman, S.G. & DiBartolo, P.M. (2010). Social Anxiety. 2nd Edition.

Andersson, G., et al. (2012). Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 50(9), 554-550.

Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014). Social anxiety disorder. Retrieved online:  http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder 

Bogels, S.M., Alden, L. et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety 27, 169-189.
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Looking Into Social Cognitivism

Words: 2452 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68552322

Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis

Literature eview on Social Cognitivism

Social Cognitivism

Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura

The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).

Purpose of the study

Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…… [Read More]

References

Bandura A. (1989) Social Cognitive Theory. IN: Annals of Child Development (Vol 6, p1

60. (Vasta R, ed). Greenwich, CT: Jai Press LTD.

Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Panic Disorder Counseling Panic Disorder

Words: 4240 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27767876

Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).

Psychological

Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…… [Read More]

References

Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;

Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-

term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.

Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
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Childhood Stress Between a Touchy

Words: 1992 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23301403

" (p. 420).

A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students:

both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family environment variables including conflict and control, adult attachment variables, attributional style and control-related cognitive variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection. As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students.

Discussion

This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children. This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…… [Read More]

References:

Chorpita, B.F., & Barlow, DH (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 3-21. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3

Coplan, R.J., Arbeau, K.A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9183-7

Giotakos, O. (2002). Parenting received in childhood and early separation anxiety in male conscripts with adjustment disorder Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/217062069?accountid=27965 

Hortrum, P., (1994). The age of anxiety (1994). Psychology Today. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/214441790?accountid=27965
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Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual

Words: 6079 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85748070

It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.

However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,

Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.

PTSD

3.1. What is PTSD?

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/

Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse

Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at  http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html 

Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
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Overrepresentation of Minority Students With

Words: 1676 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80450440

This study has noted that educators are noting better methods to assist these students rather than placing them in special education classes which fail to assist these students in school or across the span of their lifetime endeavors.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Recommendations arising from this review of literature in this study include the recommendation that different methods be utilized in assisting culturally and linguistically diverse students in the school setting. Among these methods are those noted by Knotek (2003) and Craig, Hull, Haggart and Perez-Selle (2000) which involves educators and school counselors assisting in addressing the difficulties faced by these students in the school environment and which may include but are not limited to addressing the needs of students as well as their strengths through strategies of individualized behavior contracts, specialized counseling techniques and culturally appropriate reinforcements that serve to encourage positive behavior on the part of the culturally and linguistically diverse…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coutinho, M.J. & Oswald, D.P. (1999). Ethnicity and special education research: Identifying questions and methods. Behavioral Disorders, 24, 66-73.

Oswald, D.P., Coutinho, M.J., Best, A.M & Singh, N. (1999). Ethnic representation in special education: The influence of economic demographic variables. Journal of Special Education, 32, 194-196.

Murtagh, Damien (2003) Investigating the Overrepresentation of Ethnic Minorities in Special Education. Graduate Studies. Online available at: www.lynchburg.edu/documents/GraduateStudies/Journal/MurtaghD.doc

U.S. Department of Education. (2000). Twenty-second annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Act. Washington, DC: Author.
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Object Relation Attachment Theories and

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature eview section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.

CHAPTE II

LITEATUE EVIEW

The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.

Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic

Books.
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American Psychiatric Association Released the

Words: 1482 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16233276

According to the manual, the personality disorder 'is clinical syndrome which has more long lasting symptoms and encompass the individual's way of interacting with the world; the mental disorder includes paranoid, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders' (House, 2000). The deterioration of the physical condition is considered to be likely cause of the development, continuance, or exacerbation of clinical syndromes, developmental disorders and personality disorders. The DMS-IV manual has elaborated the conditions experienced by the patients in particular those under sever psychological trauma, and the physicians have been provided with the best possible technique to address the psychological pains and mental sufferings. The mental sufferings have their origin which is socially, politically, and naturally motivated or self-imposed (James, 2000).

The occurrences of the tragic events due the life span has the potential to create mental disorder, there have been cases where the patients have reflected their vulnerability of the mental dissatisfaction…… [Read More]

References

James Roy Morrison. The First Interview: Revised for DSM-IV. Guilford Press. 2000, pp. 34-54.

House, Alvin E. DSM-IV Diagnosis in the Schools. Guilford Press. 2000. pp. 45-76.

Michael B. First, Allen J. Frances, Harold Alan Pincus. DSM-IV: Diagnostics Differentials. 2000. pp. 187-201.

Thomas a. Widiger. DSM-IV Sourcebook. American Psychiatric Publication Inc. 2001. pp. 134-154.
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How Children Cope With Friendship and Death After Reading Charlotte's Web

Words: 3091 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96332978

children cope with friendship and death after reading Charlottes' Web?

Academic esearch:

The book, Charlotte's Web is probably the best selling paperback and is really a story about a farm, and how friendships develop between different animals and how they help each other. In this book, the most important development is the friendship that develops between Wilbur and Charlotte. Wilbur is a pig and Charlotte is a spider which turns out to be the leader of all animals. The book developed as a natural consequence to the author having resided on a farm and seen all the animals in action. In this book, Charlotte ends up saving the pig from slaughter and in practice; the author himself had tried to save a pig and not succeeded. The author has written about many such animals, but this became the most popular.

Animals were dear to the author and though the animals…… [Read More]

References

Children and Grief. American Academy of Child. July, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/grief.htm Accessed on 8 June, 2005

Hartman, Holly. Charlotte's Web. Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/spot/charlotte1.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005

Helping Children Cope with Loss, Death and Grief: Response to a National Tragedy. National Association of School Psychologists. 22 October, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/NEAT/grief.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005

Information for the Media on Childhood Traumatic Grief. The National Child Traumatic Stress. Retrieved from www.nctsnet.org/nccts/asset.do?id=361 Accessed on 8 June, 2005
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Nursing Consideration for Patients With

Words: 4208 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56689240

Behavioral approaches alone or combined cognitive behavior therapy may be used. Behavioral techniques might include simply not buying trigger foods or avoiding certain shops; that is, building up new habits to replace existing ones. Another example would be modifying eating behavior such as eating in the same place each day, or concentrating solely on eating and not watching television at the same time (Fiona Mantle, 2003)."

It is worth noting here that research has shown that people will change and transform their eating habits, once they learn the advantages and disadvantages of their eating behavioral patterns. However, at the same time, it is also worth noting here that since eating habits can be transformed through learning, they can also be unlearned, however, the process of unlearning may take place through a lengthy passage of time. As Fiona Mantle (2003) writes, "Eating behaviors are learned behaviors therefore they can be unlearned,…… [Read More]

References

Abraham S, Llewellyn-Jones D (2001) Eating Disorders: the facts. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Bruch H (1973) Eating Disorders: Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa and the Person Within. New York, Basic Books.

Bunnell, D.W., Shenker, I.R., Nussbaum, M.P., Jacobson, M.S., & Cooper, P. (1990). Sub-clinical vs. formal eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 357-362.

Cathie E. Guzzetta. (2001). Developing and implementing a comprehensive program for children and adolescents with eating disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing.
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Compare and Contrast Psychological Impact of Katrina and Lusitania

Words: 2352 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88239008

psychological impact of Katrina & Lusitania

Hurricane Katrina which took place in the year 2005 is said to be one of the worst storm disaster that took place in the history of the United States. It led to loss of many lives, and it was unavoidable. The winds both from Louisiana to Alabama caused the level of water to arise at about 80% of the New Orleans and neighborhoods. The tragedy left many people with worries asking how the tragedy like that could happen to threaten the lives of many Americans (Brinkley, 2006).

The sinking of Lusitania on the other hand, contributed to various impacts on America as well as, the World War One. However, the Americans were never interested in joining the war unless they had finished another two years. The Lusitania sinking also enraged many Americans as well as, hastening the people from United States' entrance into the…… [Read More]

References

Brinkley, D. (2006). The great deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. New York: Morrow.

Guterman, P. (2005). Psychological preparedness for disaster. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from  http://www.academia.edu/233646/Psychological_preparedness_for_disaster 

Gant, P.G., & Gantt, R. (2011). Disaster Psychology. October 10, 2012 from http://www.asse.org/professionalsafety/pastissues/057/08/042_049_F1Gan_0812.pdf.

Ballard, R.D., & Dunmore, S. (2003). Exploring the Lusitania: probing the mysteries of the sinking that changed history. New York: Warner Books.
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Theories of Psychology in Group Work

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79630563

Psychology in Group Work

Learning Theory

There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).

The learning theory of Bandura

The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:

10.1093/sf/64.1.151

Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
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Omniverous vs Vegan Diet Omnivorous

Words: 1503 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25120473



eferences

Acheson, K.J. (2012). Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved from PubMed: doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.194.

Austin et al. (2011). Trends in carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals:

1971 -- 2006. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved:

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2011/02/09/ajcn.110.000141.full.pdf+html

Barnard, Neal D. (et al. 2009). A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5): 1588S -- 1596S. etrieved from Pub Med:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2677007/

Davis, N., Forbes, B., & Wylie-osett, J. (2009). Nutritional Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes.

Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 76(3), 257-268. etrieved from EBSCOhost

doi:10.1002/msj.20118

Foster, G.D., Wyatt, H.., Hill, J.O., Makris, a.P., osenbaum, D.L., Brill, C., & ... Klein, S.

(2010). Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2…… [Read More]

References

Acheson, K.J. (2012). Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved from PubMed: doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.194.

Austin et al. (2011). Trends in carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals:

1971 -- 2006. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved:

 http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2011/02/09/ajcn.110.000141.full.pdf+html
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DSM IV TR

Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40167120

DSM IV-T

Grade course

Alcohol intake, getting high, cocaine addiction and withdrawal symptoms are some of the terms widely heard by everyone in their day-to-day lives. Although they may sound interesting, habitual or a source of entertainment, they can transform into serious illnesses. Due to this fact, substance-related disorders are listed in the DSM IV-T which includes the disorders associated with drug intake, related to the side effects of a medicine and also to the exposure of toxins.

The symptoms of substance related disorders commonly occur due to high dosage of medication. However, it may lower down as soon as the dosage reduces or is put to an end. The examples of some of these medicines include anesthetics, anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, anti-depressants, and more (Durand, M. 2009).

As mentioned earlier, apart from medications, there are a number of other chemical substances which might also be the factor in causing the…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Text Revision. Washington DC

Brooks, B. (2006). "DSM-IV-TR for Clinicians: Accurate Diagnosis and Treatment

Planning." Pesi Training.

Durand, M. (2009). Abnormal Psychology. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
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Biopsychosocial Assessment on Child

Words: 2163 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89816550

Fresh: A Biopsychosocial Assessment

In the Yakin-directed film Fresh, a 12-year-old boy -- "Fresh" -- struggles to balance school and a tumultuous home life with the drug-running activities that allow him to make and save money. Though Fresh is intelligent, ambitious, and highly motivated to rise above his current station in life, as an African-American living in the crime-driven projects, his perceived opportunities for advancement are limited. As a result, Fresh makes money in the only way he knows how; as an inner-city drug mule for the number one suppliers of heroin -- "smack" -- and cocaine, referred to as "base." The money he makes, he saves in a tin can hidden by the tracks on the city's outskirts. Says Fresh to his friend osie in scene two, "If I had me a million dollars, I'd get me a Porshe 959." And when osie says it doesn't matter because he'll…… [Read More]

References

Baker, F.M., & Bell, C.C. (1999). Issues in the Psychiatric Treatment of African-Americans. Psychiatric Services, 50 (3), 362-368.

Bender, L. (Producer), & Yakin, B. (Screenwriter/Director). Fresh [Motion Picture]. (1994). United States: Miramax Films.

Howard, D.E., Feigelman, S., Xiaoming, L., Cross, S., & Rachuba, L. (2002). The relationship among violence victimization, witnessing violence, and youth distress. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31 (6), 455-462.
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Jesus' Teachings Prayer & Christian Life He

Words: 35411 Length: 109 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95862373

Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life

"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]

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Selective Mutism

Words: 1511 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16973602

Mutism

Parents not with great joy as their children meet important developmental milestones. oth first steps and first words are celebrated and described in detail to friends and family. ut sometimes as a child gets older, changes occur. Inexplicably, sometimes children who have talked for several years suddenly stop talking. Typically the child becomes selectively silent, talking animatedly with family and known friends but becoming mute at school or with strangers. When the problem is severe and exists over a period of time, the child may be diagnosed with selective mutism.

In one example, a child who was almost five years old started preschool, and after two weeks, refused to speak either to the teacher or his classmates. He also cried at arrival and would ask his parents to take him home. At home he spoke, but only to his mother, but clearly and in complete sentences. He communicated only…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fairbanks, Janet A. 1997. Systematic assessment of 50 children with selective mutism." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, May.

McCracken, James T. 2002. "Prevalence and description of selective mutism in a school-based sample." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aug.

Rapin, Isabelle. 2001. "Selective mutism." Pediatrics, April.

Roberts, Susan Jo. 2002. "Identifying mutism's etiology in a child." The Nurse Practitioner 27:10, Oct.
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Cognitive Unconscious by John F Kihlstrom 1987

Words: 1291 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71149554

Cognitive Unconscious, by John F. Kihlstrom (1987) addresses the idea that many processes and mental structures that affect what happens in a person's conscious mind are actually processed in the unconscious mind. That would mean that a lot of the things people do, they are doing based on information they may be processing without realizing it (Kihlstrom, 1987). In other words, people take in information about the world around them all the time, but much of it is unconscious information they do not realize they are collecting. Even though they have not realized the collection of this information, they use the information to help them make decisions and to determine how they feel about things (Kihlstrom, 1987). There has been a great deal of past research that does indicate mental functions can be altered by information that was provided subliminally or even under hypnosis, as opposed to information the person…… [Read More]

References

Fernald, L.D. (2008). Psychology: Six perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Gazzaniga, M. (2010). Psychological science. NY: W.W. Norton & Company.

Kihlstrom, J.F. (1987). The cognitive unconscious. Science, 237(4821): 1445-1452.

Sun, R. (2008). The Cambridge handbook of computational psychology. NY: Cambridge University Press.
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Theories of Behavior Applied

Words: 1009 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37297642

Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory

Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…… [Read More]

References

Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682

Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm

Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
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Influence and Presence Professional

Words: 4372 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42805495

Professional Presence and Influence

Professional Presence

Discuss the differences between two models of health and healing (e.g., physical body, body-mind, body-mind-spirit/bio-psycho-social,) as they relate to what it means to be human.

Analyze differences between one of the models discussed in part A1 and your professional presence (i.e., current beliefs, attitudes, and actions regarding health and healing).

Discuss how your professional presence (mindful or distracted) influences your nursing practice.

Personality Preferences

Submit your results from the Keirsey Temperament personality test.

Analyze your test results, including areas that may or may not align with how you view yourself.

Evaluate how the preferences identified by the test align with your relationships, favorite activities, and career choices.

b. Discuss two potential challenges or barriers (e.g., barriers in communication, decision-making) that could be minimized by your enhanced self-awareness when working with opposite personality types. 13

C. Mindfulness Practice 14

1. Develop a mindfulness practice plan…… [Read More]

References

Buckner, J., Heimberg, R., Ecker, A., & Vinci, C. (2012). A Biopsychosocial Model of Social Anxiety and Substance Use. Depression and Anxiety, 30(3), 276-284. doi:10.1002/da.22032

Samsel, M. (2014). A Mind-Body Look at the Concept of Asperger's Syndrome, pp. 1-33. London. Retrieved from http://www.michaelsamsel.com/Content/Asperger/Asperger's%20Mind%20Body%20Approach.pdf

Staff Members of the Institute of Internal Auditors, (2010). Professional Presence: Managing Non-verbal Communications, pp. 2-27. Altamonte Springs: Institute of Internal Auditors.

Staff Members of the College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia, (2014). Professional Presence and Registered Nurses in Nova Scotia, pp. 1-4. Nova Scotia: College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia. Retrieved from http://www.crnns.ca/documents/ProfessionalPresence2014.pdf
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Benefits and Costs of Gamification in Mental Health

Words: 2862 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12695880

Gamification in Mental Healthcare

There is no doubt that we have had decades of research geared at developing new and more effective treatments for mental conditions ranging from autism to anxiety, from schizophrenia to depression and so on. What is rather worrying, however, is that we have very little to show for it. Mental disorders such as these continue to impact on the quality of life of a significant proportion of the population, costing the taxpayer millions of dollars every year. Currently, approximately 90 million Americans, which translates to approximately one-third of the population, suffers from some form of anxiety disorder, yet a majority of these fail to seek out treatment for the same owing to the stigma, burden and cost associated with such evidence-based treatments. Mental health professionals are, thus, focusing their attention towards the development of low-burden, effective interventions for mental illness. Gamification, the introduction of game-like elements…… [Read More]

References

Arthur, G., 2015. Cellphone Therapy: New Apps Help Track and Treat Mental Illness. Aljazeera.com [online] Available at http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/5/15/cell-phone-therapy-new-apps-help-track-and-treat-mental-illness.html [accessed 22 May 2015]

Bolluyt, V., 2013. How Apps are Tackling Important Mental Health Issues. Cheatsheet. [online] Available at http://www.cheatsheet.com/technology/how-apps-are-tackling-important-mental-health-issues.html/?a=viewall [accessed 21 May 2015].

Chan, S.R., Torous, J., Hinton, L., and Yellowlees, P., 2014. Mobile Tele-Mental Health: Increasing Applications and a Move to Hybrid Models of Care. Healthcare, 2(1), pp. 220-233

Cugelman, B., 2013. Gamification: What it is and why it Matters to Digital Health Behavior Change Developers. JMIR Serious Games, 1(1), pp. 1-6.
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CBT Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Case Study

Words: 5334 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41705783

Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study

Case report

K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…… [Read More]

References

Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm

DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.

Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9

Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
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Beck and Cognitive Therapy

Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48327615

cognitive therapy is a widely accepted, empirically validated treatment for a number of conditions, including most especially depression. The theorist who responsible for developing cognitive therapy is Aaron T. Beck, a nonagenarian who is currently the University of Philadelphia Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and a member of The Institute of Medicine. To date, Dr. Beck has been the recipient of countless awards and honors in recognition of his contributions to the field of psychotherapy and he continues to research and write despite his advanced age. This paper provides a biographical description of Dr. Beck, followed by an analysis of an application of his cognitive therapy to depression. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning Dr. Beck and cognitive therapy are presented in the paper's conclusion.

Aaron T. Beck and Cognitive Therapy

Introduction

One of the early pioneers of research into psychoanalytic theories of depression is Aaron Temkin…… [Read More]

References

Beck, J. (2012). Cognitive therapy for a client with depression [streaming video]. Retrieved from PsycTHERAPY database.

Beck, A. T. & Freeman, A. (2004). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders (2nd ed). New York: Guilford Press.

Beck biography. (2015). Aaron T. Beck official site. Retrieved from http://www.med.upenn.edu / suicide/beck/biography.html.

Freeman, H. (1999). A century of psychiatry. London: Mosby.
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Childhood Developmental Disorders and Their Treatment

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78204851

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Difficulties Associated ith the Assessment and Treatment of Psychological Childhood Disorders

By any measure, childhood is a challenging period in human development where young people are forced to actively participate in the educational process while developing human relationship skills that they will need for the rest of their lives. Against this backdrop, it is not surprising that many young people experience behavioral difficulties that detract from their ability to attain their full academic and social potential including one of the most commonly diagnosed conditions, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To gain some new insights into this condition, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning attention deficit hyperactivity disorder followed by a discussion concerning the difficulties that are associated with assessing and treating psychological childhood disorders. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the conclusion.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Facts about ADHD." (2016). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web.

Mash, Eric J. and Barkley, Russell A. (1999, May 1). "Treatment of Childhood Disorders, Second Edition." Behavioral Disorders 24(3): 258-261. Print.

McCabe, Paul C. (2009, Annual). "The Use of Antidepressant Medications in Early Childhood: Prevalence, Efficacy, and Risk." Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology 5: 13-15. Print.

McLoone, Jordana and Hudson, Jennifer L. (2006, May). "Treating Anxiety Disorders in a School Setting." Education & Treatment of Children 29(2): 219-223. Print.
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Analyzing the Summary Chapters

Words: 1210 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17665140

Stress is delineated as demand that is made on a being for adaptation, coping, or adjusting. There is stress that is healthy and is referred to as eustress. Prolonged stress impacts moods, ruins capacity to have pleasure and is also harmful to the body. Some of the aspects that generate a great deal of stress include everyday hassles, changes in life and also health problems. According to a survey undertaken by the American Psychological Association, the two biggest sources of stress are money and work and this causes people to become irritable, angry and fatigued. There are four kinds of conflict. Approach-approach conflict is the least stressful, having two objectives that can be attained whereas avoidance-avoidance conflict has more stress as one is enthused to evade two adverse objectives. Approach-avoidance encompasses objectives that generate mixed intentions and lastly multiple approach-avoidance conflict include numerous alternative actions that have upsides and downsides.…… [Read More]