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Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases that continue to affect a huge population and generating devastating effects on the patients' quality of life. Actually, this condition is a major life-threatening and progressive disease characterized by numerous complications that result in lower levels of quality of life for patients as it develops. Given its prevalence and devastating health effects, self-management of this condition is emerging as an important intervention for improving patients' quality of life in light of disease progression. Actually, the disease generates significant demands in relation to devoting more time to its management as a measure of enhancing patient outcomes.
As a result of the importance of self-management in enhancing patients' quality of life, several studies have been carried out regarding self-management practices for effective management of the condition. Researchers have carried out different studies on this issue given that self-management practices tend to…
This study provides a model of various aspects relating to the disease including self-management using an Australian sample. The researchers utilized a cross-sectional study design across a sample population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and found that knowledge, attitudes, and self-management are crucial factors that can affect the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes. This study will be used to highlight the significance of self-management in coping with the condition and its complications.
Penn et al. (2015). Modelling Self-management Pathways for People with Diabetes in Primary Care. BMC Family Practice, 16(122), 1-10.
The researchers have focused on developing a model in primary care to examine and highlight the procedures for finding self-management support given the complexities in implementing self-management practices. The researchers collected data from 21 NHS general practices and collated them into a combined pathway in which they found that current practices in self-management are characterized by some limitations. The study will be used to highlight the significance of social support in self-management practices.
Diabetes Self-Management must first begin with understanding Diabetes Mellitus. Microaneurysm formation presents as the earliest expression of diabetic retinopathy. Chances for microaneurysms to form are due to the release of vasoproliferative influences, weakness within the capillary wall, or amplified intra-luminal pressures. Vascular permeability typically results from Microaneurysms. Vascular permeability can also lead to macular edema. "Vascular permeability in the macula can lead to macular edema and can threaten central vision. Obliteration of retinal capillaries can lead to intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IMAs). As capillary closure becomes extensive, intraretinal hemorrhages develop" (Zimmerman, 2013, p. 1).
Proliferative retinopathy progresses due to ischemia as well as release of vasoactive substances. This can be VEGF or vascular endothelial growth factor, which fuels new blood vessel creation as a development of non-proliferative retinopathy. Such vessels blow up through the exterior of the retina and develop on the posterior surface of the named vitreous humor.…
Glasgow, R., Kurz, D., King, D., Dickman, J., Faber, A., & Halterman, E. et al. (2012). Twelve-month outcomes of an Internet-based diabetes self-management support program. Patient Education And Counseling, 87(1), 81-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2011.07.024
Haas, L., Maryniuk, M., Beck, J., Cox, C., Duker, P., & Edwards, L. et al. (2012). National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support.Diabetes Care, 36(Supplement_1), S100-S108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc13-s100
Rothschild, S., Martin, M., Swider, S., Lynas, C., Avery, E., Janssen, I., & Powell, L. (2012). The Mexican-American Trial of Community Health workers (MATCH): Design and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing a culturally tailored community diabetes self-management intervention.Contemporary Clinical Trials, 33(2), 369-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2011.10.013
Zimmerman, R. (2013). Diabetes Mellitus: Disease Management.Clevelandclinicmeded.com. Retrieved 17 October 2015, from http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/endocrinology/diabetes-mellitus/
Diabetes Self-Management: Exercise and Nutrition
The Diabetes Association reports that it has been "…well documented that the average person who goes through a diabetes educational program reduces A1C levels by 1 and a half percentage points." (2011) In fact, the average individual who goes through the program is able to reduce their A1C levels "by 2 points." (Diabetes Association, 2011)
The purpose of this study is to ascertain the effectiveness of the Diabetes Self-Management for the individual with a focus on exercise and nutrition.
The research study proposed herein has as its primary objective and aim to conduct a research study on a sampling of individuals with diabetes in order to examine the effectiveness of the Diabetes Self-Management initiative with a focus on exercise and nutrition.
The proposed methodology for the research study proposed is one of a qualitative nature that will firstly conduct a review of literature on…
Arbuckle, K.A. (2010) Setting Goals for Diabetes Self-Management. Bright Hub. 18 Oct 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.brighthub.com/health/diabetes/articles/91661.aspx
Christensen, Nedra K., Steiner, Julianne, and Whalen, Jack (2000) Contribution of Medical Nutrition Therapy and Diabetes Self-Management Education to Diabetes Control as Assessed by Hemoglobin A1c. Diabetes Spectrum Vol.13, No.2, 2000. Retrieved from: http://journal.diabetes.org/diabetesspectrum/00v13n2/pg72.htm
Diabetes Self-Management Education Program (2011) Diabetes Society. Retrieved from: http://www.diabetessociety.org/education/3-step
Medicare Coverage of Diabetes Self-Management Training and Medical Nutrition Therapy. Retrieved from: http://www.sdhdidaho.org/hpro/pdf/coverage_self_mgmnt.pdf
persons diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes (Cadzow, Vest, Craig M., owe, & Kahn, 2014). The medical practitioners have made efforts to improve clinical treatments for patient's life with a lot being left to chance. ecently, it has been seen that patient self-management program complement the clinical treatment. Thus, patient's self-management program has a significant role to play towards the management of diabetes (Saxe-Custack & Weatherspoon, 2013). This paper presents measures of implementing a self-management plan for Diabetic patients. The plan intends to apply articulated measures of managing Type 2 Diabetes and improving the quality of life for patients (Gamboa Moreno et al., 2013).
For the purposes of arriving implementing and assessing the effectiveness of the program the subjects selected will be gathered in a training forum. The forum will undertake the task to inform the subjects the prevailing measures of care on Type 2 Diabetes and the target for the…
Cadzow, R. B., Vest, B. M., Craig M., Rowe, J. S., & Kahn, L. S. (2014). "Living Well with Diabetes": Evaluation of a Pilot Program to Promote Diabetes Prevention and Self-Management in a Medically Underserved Community. Diabetes Spectrum, 27(4), 246-255.
Gamboa Moreno et al. (2013). Impact of a self-care education programme on patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in the Basque Country. . BMC Public Health, 13(1), 521-528.
Saxe-Custack, A., & Weatherspoon, L. (2013). A Patient-Centered Approach Using Community-Based Paraprofessionals to Improve Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes. American Joumal of Health Education, 44, 213-220.
Chronic Disease Self-Management and Nursing oles
The scoping review on self-care in the third chapter of Doran's book and Zavertnik's article are clear, precise, and articulated based on the individual objectives to be outlined in the entire parts of the material. The scope covers all central concepts of the study. The scope covers all the selected study areas, notably the selected study populations and the targets populations. Nonetheless, the common difference between the two is that the Doran review offers a rather larger scope unlike that offered in Zavertnik's review (Zavertnik, 2014). Much of Doran's review is within the range of the study participants, rather convenient in nature (Doran, 2011). In contrast, the scope is dispersed in Zavertnik's review. The two reviews elicit the desire to influence audience not just within the periphery of its study but from all over the spheres of the world. The definitions are detailed since…
Doran, D.M. (2011). Nursing Outcomes. The State of the Science. Second Edition. Soudberry, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Zavertnik, J. E. (2014). Self-care in Older Adults with Heart Failure: An Integrative Review. Clinical Nurse Specialist: 19-32
A recent study conducted by Okolie et al. determined that diabetes is a current concern to the healthcare industry and that it not only would be a continuing concern for decades to come, but it would also grow in magnitude, especially among the non-developed nations as compared to the developed nations of the world where it is already a more prevalent problem. The researchers wrote that diabetes was of a very high concern and that "such a chronic condition requires self-care, which can be developed from a thorough understanding of the disease process and the management challenges by the patient and family members" (Okolie, Uchenna, Ehiemere, Ijeoma, Iheanccho, 2009, p. 354). What their study was seeking to determine was whether those patient and family challenges could be overcome by implementing an educational program that would emphasize diet and exercise.
The study's environment involved diabetic patients from Nigeria who were…
Cimbiz, A.; Ozay, Y.; Yurekdeler, N.; Cayci, K.; Colak, T.; Aksoy, C.C.; (2011) The effect of long-term exercise training on the blood glucose level and weight in alloxan administered mice, Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 6, Issue 1, pp. 68 -- 70
Hazar, S. (2010) The effect of regular moderate exercise on muscle damage and inflammation at individuals of different cardiovascular risk groups, Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 5, Issue 10, pp. 1172-1180
Okolie, V.U.; Ehiemere, O.I.; Iheanacho. N.P.; Kalu-Igwe, I.N.; (2009) Knowledge of diabetes management and control by diabetic patients at the Federal Medical Center in Umuahia Abja State, Nigeria, International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Vol. 1, Issue 9, pp. 353 -- 358
Riaz, S. (2009) Diabetes mellitus, Scientific Research and Essay, Vol. 4, Issue 5, pp. 367-373
A Concept Analysis in Behavior Management: Self-Management in Psych Nursing
In nursing, when it comes to behavior management—i.e., helping individuals to alter their behavior in order to achieve a positive aim—various strategies are available. One concept of behavior management that has been handed down over generations of nursing practice is the concept of self-management. This concept analysis paper will analyze self-management by describing a history of the concept, its defining characteristics and attributes, antecedents and consequences, various cases related to the concept, empirical measurements, and recommendations following a discussion of the analysis.
Aims and Purposes of Analysis
The aims of this analysis are:
1) to obtain better understanding of a concept;
2) to obtain clarity in terms of what the concept means and how it impacts an environment, a population, a sector, an industry or a strategy; and
3) to establish definition in terms of empirical evidence that…
Many corporations are progressively using teams in the realization of business goals because of the increased use of technology-enabled operations. Leading such groups can be particularly challenging, and much of the current literary works on team management does not translate directly to the context of leadership in virtual teams. ecent work on organizational teams indicates that, leadership in this electronic era, might be better considered as a combined effort shared among team associates recognized by the distribution and rotating of leadership positions. As such, current work on self-managed teams seems particularly significant. Associates taking liability for the quality of the work process and product as well as distributing management and leadership functions of the group characterize the self-managed work teams -- factors not unusual in virtual contexts of work where team associates and leaders are divided by time and place.
Within self-managed groups, often there is a dependency…
Blake, R. & Mouton, J. (1985). The Managerial Grid III: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co.
Buckingham, M. & Coffman, C. (1998). First, Break All the Rules. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Buckingham, M. & Clifton, D.O. (2001). Now, Discover Your Strengths. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Daft, R.L. (2011). Leadership (5th edition). Nashville, TN: Southwestern Cengage Learning.
Moreover, the strong correlation between confidence in peers and communication/problem understanding demonstrated that it is the confidence and ability of these co-workers that encourage members of self-managing teams to gather new information and knowledge, so that they may create useful decisions in relation to problem solving. Confidence in peers resulted in a negative, not positive, impact on organization and negotiation. This suggested that confidence in peers has a negative effect in the process of organizing the dissemination of knowledge in self-managing teams. Thus, it is imperative for team members to trust their peers and management and, in doing so, create and share new knowledge and further the organization's opportunity to offer best solutions to clients. Present research lacks the empirical evidence supporting the relationship between interpersonal trust and knowledge acquisition. Especially, academicians and practitioners are interested in studying whether "interpersonal trust" advances the follower's knowledge acquisition practices -- knowledge sharing…
Abbott, J.B., Boyd, N.B, and Miles, G. (2006) Does Type of Team Matter? An Investigation of the Relationships Between Job Characteristics and Outcomes Within a Team-Based Environment. The Journal of Social Psychology
Attaran, M. And Nguyen, N.U. (1999) Succeeding with self-managed work teams. CT Industrial Management. 41(4). 24-29
Brannick, M.T. And C. Prince. An overview of team performance measurement. In Team performance assessment and measurement-Theory, methods, and applications, ed. M. Brannick, E. Salas and C. Prince. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Brannick, M.T., E. Salas and C. Prince. 1997. Team performance assessment and measurement: Theory, methods, and applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Departments are interdependent and conflicts arise where solutions are needed promptly. The traditional hierarchy sometimes is not the best in offering solutions especially where time is of utmost importance. By using clear guidelines, self-management teams are given more freedom to come up with solution to their specific problems on their tasks (Beyerlein M., n, d). This reduces the time wasted whereby in a traditional model a manager would have to get all the details first and then choose the appropriate solution. Moreover, self-management team takes on the management of the work thereby removing the need for a manager or supervisor.
Self-management work teams reduce the reliance on individual's abilities and encourage learning from peers. This ensures there is free flow of information and skills are easily passed from colleague to colleague. Members are interdependent and are able to learn from each other, they are able to come up with better…
Ken Blanchard. "Go Team! Take your team to the Next Level." Berret-Koehler publishing Inc. San Fransisco, CA. 2005.
Pearce, J.H. II & Ravlin, E.C (1987). The design and activation of self-Regulating Work Groups. Human Relations, 40, pp. 751-782.
Beyerlein M., (Ed.), Advances in interdisciplinary studies of work teams., Vol. 1, Series of self-managed work teams. Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press.
Managing Professionals in Virtual Environment
As technology has evolved, the reality of virtual organizations has begun to take hold in a variety of industries. It is now commonplace for employees to work, at least in part, from offsite. Telecommuting is a reality that has allowed companies to reduce costs, become more competitive, and facilitate happier more productive employees. Virtual employees, or "telework is one of the most radical departures from standard working conditions in the suite of flexible work practices now gaining widespread acceptance." (Daniels, Lamond, & Standen, 2001)
Managing Professionals in Virtual Environment
As technology has evolved, the reality of virtual organizations has begun to take hold in a variety of industries. It is now commonplace for employees to work, at least in part, from offsite. Telecommuting is a reality that has allowed companies to reduce costs, become more competitive, and facilitate happier more productive employees. Virtual employees, or…
Allert, J.L. (2001, Mar.). You're hired, now go home. Training & Development, 55(3). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.
Broadfoot, K.J. (2001, Aug.). When the cat's away, do the mice play? Management Communication Quarterly, 15(1). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from ProQuest database.
Cascio, W.F. (2000, Aug.). Managing a virtual workplace. Academy of Management Executive, 14(3). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.
Conner, D.S. (2003, Mar.) Social comparison in virtual work environments: An examination of contemporary referent selection. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 76(1). Retrieved May 30, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.
The Manager's Basic esponsibility
It has been said that the manager's most basic responsibility is to focus people toward performance of work activities to achieve desired outcomes. Is this a true statement? Certainly, it describes part of the manager's role and that part of the manager's role is a significant one. However, focusing people towards the performance of work activities is only part of the manager's role and may not be the most crucial part. A manager might have other responsibilities that are more basic and more essential to their role. At the same time, this description of the manager's role may actually undermine the manager's ability to perform their job effectively. These issues will now be considered further.
Management is defined as "the attainment of organisational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organising, leading, and controlling organisational resources" (Daft 1997, p. 8). This definition includes…
Bruch, H & Ghoshal, S 2002, 'Beware the busy manager', Harvard Business Review, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 62-69.
Daft, R 1997, Management, The Dryden Press, Sydney.
Furedi, F 2005, 'Treat employees like adults', Harvard Business Review, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 22-23.
Mintzberg, N 1975, 'The manager's job: Folklore and fact', Harvard Business Review, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 49-61.
The vision Oracle has is one of unifying all of their enterprise applications into their Fusion architecture and creating a single unifying Service oriented Architecture (SOA) was first announced in 2006 (Krill, 13). Since that time Oracle has continually strived to create an SOA in Fusion that would appeal to its corporate customers. The proposed Fusion SOA platform has been designed to be robust and scalable enough to encompass enterprise-level applications including Enterprise esource Planning (EP) applications while also being flexible enough to provide for individualized application development. There are critics of SOA in general and Fusion specifically, with industry analysts considering it too difficult to create a process-centric model that allows for pervasive, in-depth applications necessary for mission-critical business while at the same time allowing for significant scalability (Handy, 2005). Despite these concerns however Fusion continues to gain market acceptance and provide Oracle with a path to the fulfillment…
Alex Handy. 2005. Oracle Fusion: The 'Frankenstein' of SOA? Software Development Times, October 15, 6
Paul Krill. 2006. Oracle Does SOA. InfoWorld, August 14, 11-13
One aspect of a goal attainment program researched within the content of an article by Ng & sang, is group therapy work, where individuals are offered the opportunity to self-reflect through the group process to help assimilate "normal" behaviors and reasonable goals into their own hoped for future.
raditional psychiatric rehabilitation programs focus on 'problems' and 'negatives' of individuals and tend to ignore strengths and assets (Hagedorn, 1992). Unlike the traditional approach, this program uses a holistic and client-centered approach (Rogers, 1984) which helps individuals establish future directions in home and work resettlement. he Goal Attainment Program focused on the participants' future expected life roles and social functioning in relation to the environmental context (i.e. their 'participation level', according to the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH-2) of the World Health Organization). he program emphasized the needs and positive aspects of individuals (Rogers, 1984), as well as the…
Traditional psychiatric rehabilitation programs focus on 'problems' and 'negatives' of individuals and tend to ignore strengths and assets (Hagedorn, 1992). Unlike the traditional approach, this program uses a holistic and client-centered approach (Rogers, 1984) which helps individuals establish future directions in home and work resettlement. The Goal Attainment Program focused on the participants' future expected life roles and social functioning in relation to the environmental context (i.e. their 'participation level', according to the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH-2) of the World Health Organization). The program emphasized the needs and positive aspects of individuals (Rogers, 1984), as well as the attainment of self-esteem in the self-actualization hierarchy (Maslow, 1970). The program is based on the belief that each individual has the potential to control his/her life and to choose what he/she wishes to become. With this belief, change can only take place when the individual finds the meaning in himself/herself. Positive change can occur throughout life. The role of therapist is to facilitate the willingness to change (Hagedorn, 1992). This study also used Frankl's (1946/1992) belief that the most basic human motivation is the will to meaning. (Ng & Tsang, 2002, p. 59)
Self-control and self-esteem cannot be learned in a vacuum, as individuals have little if any comparison models, which given them hope for their own future, if they are isolated from society. Group therapy settings can allow the individual to create a reasonable set of hopes that can build social health and help the individual learn how to develop coping skills for their positive, rather than negative future in the community where they live. Group therapy is an essential tool for this attainment, as the intense interaction within groups helps individuals see and feel what it might be like to confront the steps and stages of social growth while commiserating with others who have the same or similar obstacles, i.e. mental illness management, as they themselves have.
Managing Mental Illness: Variations of Group Therapies in the Literature
Lee is only the first step in the process of building a team that is able to cover all aspects of Mrs. Lee's care. The team approach involving a social worker, nurse, physician, pharmacist, and physical therapist affords Mrs. Lee a full range of professionals attending to her various needs.
Although Mrs. Lee has a number of problems that need to be addressed the one problem that must be addressed immediately is her elevated blood pressure. Hypertension is an important risk factor for the development and worsening of many complications of diabetes and an elevated blood pressure is like walking around with a detonated bomb. Within moments, and with little warning, a diabetic patient can suffer a stroke or heart attack as a result of an elevated blood pressure. Well over fifty percent of diabetics suffer from hypertension and proper treatment of hypertension can minimize most of the tangential problems…
Calle-Pascual, A.L. (2002). A preventive foot care programme for people with diabetes with different stages of neuropathy. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 111-117.
Caminal, J. And Barbara Starfield, et. al.(2004). The role of primary care in preventing ambulatory care sensitive conditions. European Journal of Public Health, 246-251.
Deichmann, R.E. (1999). Improvements in Diabetic Care as Measured by HbA1c After a Physician Education Project. Diabetes Care, 1612-1616.
Epstein, M. (1997). Diabetes and hypertension: the bad companions. Journal of Hypertension, 55-62.
Discharge Education to Promote Patient Self-Efficacy
Care and concern for the patient's health and well-being after being discharged from the hospital or clinic does not end for healthcare providers. Particularly for chronically ill patients, post-discharge care is more critical to ensure that in the course of the patient's daily routine and activities, all medical requirements are adhered to and all medications needed are complied with. This is why more often than not, patients receive discharge education as the healthcare provider's continuing effort to ensure that the patient and his/her family members or caregivers will be well-capacitated to continue care and treatment at home.
However, the above-mentioned scenario is the ideal rather than the actual. In real life, healthcare providers are often fraught with the dilemma of patients who are constantly hospitalized or have witnessed the worsening of their patient's condition as a result of non-compliance to their medications and other…
Baker, D., D. DeWalt, D. Schillinger, V. Hawk and B. Ruo. (2011). "The effect of progressive, reinforcing telephone education and counseling vs. brief educational intervention on knowledge, self-care behaviors and heart failure symptoms." Journal of Cardiac Failure, Vol. 17, No. 10.
Barnason, S., L. Zimmerman and L. Young. (2011). "An integrative review of interventions promoting self-care of patients with heart failure." Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 21.
Castelnuovo, G. (2010). "TECNOB: study design of a randomized controlled trial of a multidisciplinary telecare intervention for obese patients with type 2 diabetes." BMC Public Health, Vol. 10.
Conn, V., A. Hafdahl, S. Brown and L. Brown. (2008). "Meta-analysis of patient education interventions to increase physical activity among chronically ill adults." Patient Education Counseling, Vol. 70, No. 2.
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.
DSH is also often called parasuicide,…
Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.
Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.
Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.
Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.
Self-Help Group Observation
The purpose of the group (diabetic group) is basically to educate patients on how to sustain a healthy lifestyle in case they are diabetic. The main aim for patient education is for individuals suffering from diabetes to enhance their knowledge, confidence and skills, allowing them to have increased control of their condition and incorporate effectual self-management into their day-to-day lives. High quality structured education could have an intense impact on health outcomes and considerably enhance the quality of life (Tidy, 2014). Some of the potential benefits that patient education could have on individuals suffering from diabetes are:
Enhancing health, knowledge, beliefs, and lifestyle changes
Enhancing patient outcomes, for instance, smoking, weight, and psychosocial changes like depression levels and quality of life
Enhancing physical activity levels
Minimizing the need for, and potentially better targeting of drugs together with other items like blood testing strips.
Educational events, like community…
Mensing, C. R., & Norris, S. L. (2003). Group education in diabetes: effectiveness and implementation. Diabetes Spectrum, 16(2), 96-103.
Powers, M. A., Bardsley, J., Cypress, M., Duker, P., Funnell, M. M., Fischl, A. H., ... & Vivian, E. (2015). Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support in Type 2 Diabetes A Joint Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Diabetes Educator, 41(4), 417-430.
Tang, T. S., Funnell, M. M., & Anderson, R. M. (2006). Group education strategies for diabetes self-management. Diabetes Spectrum, 19(2), 99-105.
Team Care Approach for Diabetes Management (n.d.). Retrieved 25 February 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ndep/pdfs/ppod-guide-team-care-approach.pdf
The two basics to keep in mind is that managerial accounting should be used early and often and not just internal stakeholders should be heeded and listened to (Tutor2U.net, 2013).
In conclusion, Thai Airlines would benefit greatly from an entrenched and well-managed managerial accounting framework. It should supplement and complement both the financial accounting mechanisms of Thai Airlines as well as general process management, general product management, marketing, other accounting matters and general business decision making for Thai Airlines. Part and parcel of all of that is integrating stakeholder's expectations and conversely managing the expectations and perceptions of those same stakeholders is also vital on a number of levels. However, if all of the above is managed and managed well, then the outcomes for firms like Thai Airlines that use managerial accounting effectively will tend to be very good.
Holtzman, M. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Dummies…
Holtzman, M. (2013, May 12). Managerial Accounting for Dummies Cheat Sheet - for Dummies . How-to Help and Videos - for Dummies. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/managerial-accounting-for-dummies-cheat-sheet.html
Money-Zine.com. (2013, May 12). Financial vs. Managerial Accounting. Money-zine.com Home Page. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.money-zine.com/investing/investing/financial-versus-managerial-accounting/
Singha Beer International. (2013, May 14). Singha Beer International. Singha Beer International. Retrieved May 14, 2013, from http://www.singhabeer.com/
Tutor2u.net. (2013, May 12). Accounting - Introduction to Stakeholders. tutor2u | Economics | Business Studies | Politics | Sociology | History | Law | Marketing | Accounting | Business Strategy. Retrieved May 12, 2013, from http://www.tutor2u.net/business/accounts/stakeholder_theory.htm
A cheap product will not be able to survive in this rapidly changing business environment. Organization is another extremely important aspect of the necessary managerial skills for any manager desiring guaranteed success at their individual Verizon location. Organization can be as simple as instituting training at work in a pattern that overlooks no single employee. A good manager cannot expect employees to train themselves or improve their work manners without additional help. A strong organized training program is sure to enhance even the most successful company.
A strong leadership team is another necessary important aspect for businesses engaged in the phone industry. Verizon's leadership team must be instituted and adopted without fear at the workplace, because employees who fear their supervisors simply cannot evolve into successful employees interested in the growth of the company. A strong leadership team will effectively manage the business with the overall objective of accomplishing the…
Bass, B.M. (1996). A new paradigm of leadership: An inquiry into transformational leadership. Alexandria: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Oak, C. & Schoeffler, B. (2002). Management for the 21st Century. Retrieved March 13, 2007, from Insurance Journal Web site: http://www.insurancejournal.com/magzines/southcentral/2002/03/11/mindyourbiz/18984 .
Verizon. (2007). Verizon. Retrieved March 17, 2007, at http://www.verizon.com .
When employees are managed for their potential in addition to their contribution, their willingness to openly share and contribute information significantly increases. esistance to change and fear are minimized and employees perceive their role as contributor and knowledge expert over time, not as an employee who is being automated out of a job for example. The critical factors that lead to a learning organization are put into motion by transformational leaders who seek to define a culture inside their organizations of professional growth for subordinates. The focus on autonomy, mastery and purpose is critically important for organizations to grow entrepreneurs (El Tarabishy, 2006) while at the same time overcoming resistance to change as employees don't see the need to hoard information but to add rapidly to it to master their field and be an acknowledged expert or guru in their fields. The difference in behaviors is mastery over one's position…
Li Yueh Chen, & F. Barry Barnes. (2006). Leadership Behaviors and Knowledge Sharing in Professional Service Firms Engaged in Strategic Alliances. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 11(2), 51-69.
Karina Skovvang Christensen. (2005). Enabling intrapreneurship: the case of a knowledge-intensive industrial company. European Journal of Innovation Management, 8(3), 305-322.
El Tarabishy, Ayman (2006). An exploratory study investigating the relationship between the CEO's leadership and the organization's entrepreneurial orientation. Ed.D. dissertation, The George Washington University, United States -- District of Columbia.
Ling, Y., Simsek, Z., Lubatkin, M., & Veiga, J.. (2008). Transformational leadership's role in promoting corporate entrepreneurship: Examining the CEO and Top Management Team Interface. Academy of Management Journal, 51(3), 557.
This concept originated with the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM).
The notion that only managers play a role in controlling work activities is based on two false ideas. One is the antiquated notion of totalitarian management. Modern management does not follow this style, as it is often not consistent with organizational objectives. The second false idea is that the manager can control the employee at all times. In practice, managers merely provide instruction and guidance with respect to work activities. Employees often devise their own ways of performing different tasks, and it would be near impossible for management to control this. Thus, employees do exert some control over work activities.
Q3. Operations management can be applied to any managerial function.
Operations management techniques are based around analysis of processes. Control is merely one aspect of the role, even within the operations setting. In fact, operations management also consists of…
Some or all such authority may be in fact unlimited. This is when a committee can counterbalance authority and diffuse power within an organization since effectively only a small faction is making important decisions. The best use of committees is to have limited power to make decisions but have unlimited power to make recommendations on how things should be done.
2. Identify the initial issue that should always be thoroughly addressed when the establishment of a committee is recommended.
The initial issue that should be addressed is that of making sure that those on the committee are the people capable of carrying out the agenda of the committee and that the committee will have limited power to make organizational decisions.
3. In what ways may committees be said to dilute the recognition and diffuse the blame or responsibility? Where, based on your personal experience, have you seen one of these…
Baker, L. 2002. "Managed care, medical technology, and the well-being of society," viewed 21
February 2011, < http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12055455 >
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S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…
Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.
Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov
Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
(Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
Agencies are required to develop a good understanding of their individual strengths and weaknesses so as to plan their programs to their best advantage. An agency acquires this information by evaluating the views of the employees on diversity issues. Analysis of the trends and projections of the workforce in determination of the skills gaps and necessitates and devising successive planning strategies are crucial moves for agency strategic and business planning. Such efforts facilitate the managers with the required facts so as to be aware of the assignment of resources and the making the necessary planning for the future work of the organization and the points of concentration of their energy to produce a high performance organization. (Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
The successful managers understand the necessary skills for producing a successful diverse workforce. Firstly they should be aware of the discrimination and…
Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce" (25 June 2000) Retrieved at http://www.opm.gov/Diversity/diversity-3.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Creating a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved from Retrieved at http://www.businessweek.com/adsections/diversity/diversework.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved at http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&cat_id=1102Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Green, Kelli A; L. pez, Mayra; Wysocki, Allen; Kepner, Karl. "Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools" University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved at http://www.minoritygraduate.com/feature27.asp. Accessed on 15 January, 2005
If one takes the broad generalization of the mega-environment (general environment); one finds the conditions and trends that make up the organizational culture or even the society in which one operates. This term actually encompasses a number of similar and disparate factors. The technological part of the environment tends to focus on knowledge; the economic element the means of production, distribution and consumption of wealth; the legal-political element focuses on the governmental or rule-based systems to organize the society; the international element the external relationships, and the socio-cultural environment the attitudes, values, norms, believes and behaviors of a particular group or organization (Organizational Environment and Culture, 2008). All these forces are a sum total of how organizations act and react -- whether regionally or internationally.
The legal-political element of the environment is the systems that organize that environment, the rules that are enforced, and the overall manner in…
Organizational Environment and Culture. (2008). Zainbooks.com. Retrieved from:
Bendell, T. (2005). Structuring Business Process Improvement Methodologies. Total Quality Management, 16(8-9): 969-78.
Brown, L.M. And B.Z. Posner. (2001). "Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership," Leadership and Organizational Development. May, 2001: 274-80.
Management esponsibility and Accountability
Define Accountability and esponsibility
The positions assumed by workers imply a responsibility to complete particular functions associated with those positions. A number of studies have described the term responsibility, when employed in company affairs, as referring to an area of obligation or perhaps duty designated to an individual because of the dynamics of the individual's position, function, or perhaps job. esponsibility might therefore be viewed as being a package of commitments associated with employment or operation. Narrowly outlined, role explains employment classification, which, subsequently, includes, although is not necessarily limited to, functionality (Pimpa, 2010).
Accountability is actually a notion with numerous meanings. It is almost always utilized synonymously through the use of these ideas as responsibility, answerability, as well as administration. However what specifically can this idea imply? Within the most literal meaning, the term accountability indicates simply the "ability" or perhaps the "possibility" that a…
Ackerman, J. (2004). Co-Governance for accountability: Beyond exit and voice, World Development, 32 (3), pp.447-463.
Bazerman, M.H., & Banaji, M.R. (2004). The social psychology of ordinary ethical failures. Social Justice Research, 17(2), 111 -- 115.
Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., & Rhodes, C. (2007). Business ethics as practice. British Journal of Management, 17, 1 -- 16.
Fisscher, O., Nijhof, A., & Steensma, H. (2003). Dynamics in responsible behavior. In search of mechanisms for coping with responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2 -- 3), 209 -- 224.
In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).
In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.
The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.
Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…
Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.
Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.
Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Motivation Theory, http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/motivation-theory.htmllast accessed on September 15, 2008
2008, Official Website of the Microsoft Corporation, http://www.microsoft.com/en/us/default.aspxlast accessed on September 15, 2008
Managing Across Cultures
Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):
a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.
b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.
c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…
Drucker, P. (1988) The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review issue
Fadel, J. & Petti, M (1997). International HR policy basics.
Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
' The researchers did include one anecdote of a South African woman of Indian ancestry, and how she dealt with the unconscious racism of her colleagues, drawing upon a positive sense of community solidarity and avoiding some of the negative emotions such conflicts spawned in others. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.
The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context. Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…
Mayer, Claude H. (2009). Managing conflicts through strength of identity. Management Revue.
Retrieved through FindArticles.com on January 21, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5454/is_200907/ai_n42039398/
Taking the relationship of employee morale and its linkage with organizational culture to the most extreme case, Yaghi (2007) studied how decision-making processes are implemented in companies where there is a dominant organizational culture. Selecting a faith-based organization as one of the cases for the study, the author determined how decision-making is mainly influenced by the organizational culture, influenced by the values of solidarity, guardianship, and (belief in a) mission (361). While from an organizational effectiveness perspective, this kind of decision-making is not recommended, Yaghi ultimately pointed out that organizations with a highly-organized and dominant culture results to improved employee morale and commitment, mainly because subsistence to the values of solidarity, guardianship, and commitment to the mission "strengthen (the) relationship among organization's members" (357).
From this review of literature relevant to employee morale and its link with organizational culture, it was established how person-to-job fit or subjective fit in the…
Deem, J. (2010). "The relationship of organizational culture to balanced scorecard effectiveness." SAM Advanced Management Journal.
Dixon, M. And D. Dougherty. (2010). "Managing the multiple meanings of organizational culture in interdisciplinary collaboration and consulting." Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 47, No. 1.
LaGuardia, D. (2008). "Organizational Culture." T+D (Training and Development).
Liu, S. (2009). "Organizational culture and new service development performance: insights from knowledge intensive business service." International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 3.
Another trait of leadership Zinni and Klotz (2009) explore is the ability of a leader to communicate clearly and articulately with the organization and the public. He can no longer afford to be the faceless top of a chain of command. It behooves the modern leader to develop a variety of decision making skills, such as honing his intuition, learning to quickly recognize developing patterns and trends, and quickly communicating his directions and intentions. This also means that today's leader must be able to show the way through times of crisis and change. A leader's ability to calmly steer a course in times of turmoil is crucial to the survival of any enterprise. Finally, a modern leader needs to think and act strategically. He must plan out the future course of action and guide the organization toward achieving the vision he has articulated. He must be able to hold fast…
Cooper, I.D., (2007, May/June). The impotence of importance -- reflections on leadership. Annals of family medicine, 5:261-262. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from www.annfammed.org (25)
Li, C., (2010). Open Leadership: How social technology can transform the way you lead. San Fransico, CA: Jossey-Bass Wiley.
Shulstad, R.A., (2009, summer). Perspectives on leadership and management. Air & space power journal, 11-17. Superintendent of Documents. Retrived June 28,2010, from http://www.airpower.au.af.mil (24)
Spurgeon, P., & Cragg, R., (2007). Is it leadership or management? Clinician in management. 15: 123-125. In R. Chambers, K. Mohanna, P. Spurgeon, & D. Wall, (Eds.). How to succeed as a leader. Oxford, U.K.: Radcliffe Publishing. (21)
Since, this one lacks structure means that many employees can become confused about their responsibilities. Once this occurs, it can often lead to employee issues, where this confusion can become an issue of contention between the staff and management. As management is telling them to engage in particular activity, yet they don't understand why they are doing such tasks. Over time, this can cause moral to drop as those employees who do not thrive under such a system, begin to lower the overall positive attitude in the work environment. ("Contingency Theory," 2010)
Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, the contingency theory is effective for those organizations that are small. This is because the in formalized structure allows managers / owners the opportunity to adapt to changes that are occurring in real time. Where, they can use their experience and common sense to adjust to various business conditions. As a result,…
Building Emotional Capital. (2004, June 24). Retrieved April 10, 2010, from Executive Education website: http://executive.education.insead.edu/programme/documents/Nissan_004.pdf
Contingency Theory. (2010). Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Values-Based Management website: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_contingency_theory.html
Babineck, M. (2006, March 13). The Enron Trial. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Chron website: http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/special/enron/3718892.html
Bissonette, Z. (2008, August 1). How Does General Motors CEO Rick Wagoner Still Have a Job. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Blogging Stocks website: http://www.bloggingstocks.com/2008/08/01/how-does-general-motors-ceo-richard-wagoner-still-have-a-job/
Again, this might seem like simple good sense; making decisions based on the factual merits of the situation rather than on face-saving or boss-pleasing seems like the only rational way of doing business. Not paying attention to political whims, however, can have serious repercussions for individuals and organizations alike, and truly depoliticizing decisions requires a great deal of introspection, honesty, and self-awareness in the top management officials and decision makers in a company (Hamel 2009).
Achieving this depoliticization is certain to be even more difficult than establishing a democracy of information, as it is difficult to convince people to relinquish power willingly once they have it. The problem is that politicized decision making is only a hair's breadth away -- one might even say is simply a euphemism for -- corrupt decision making. Few debates or issues are more heavily politicized than long-term (and even short-term) government planning, and though…
Burk, M. (1999). "Knowledge Management: Everyone Benefits by Sharing Information." Public roads 63(3).
Hamel, G. (2009). "Moon shots for management." Harvard business review (February), pp. 91-8.
Newman, P. (2009). "Markets, experts and depoliticizing decisions on major infrastructure." Urban research and practice 2(2), pp. 158-68.
Evaluation & Discussion of a Quotation
"Managers who believe that the psychological needs of their subordinates, rather than the objective requirements of the task determine what is to be done, destroy the integrity of the manager/subordinate relationship and with it respect for their authority."
Managers that acknowledge the existence of the psychological needs of their subordinates, yet ignore those needs are making a serious managerial error with such a decision. Managers who do not value their subordinates are not fit to be leaders or managers. Proper managers would know that one of their greatest assets in any work related task is the staff they manage. People are the most valuable resources within any company or organization. When those who are appointed to lead are not aware of this, their actions will follow suit, as will disaster quite likely. The subordinates that any manager supervises and leads have needs. Certainly…
First of all, they are aimed to remove any barriers from the path to formation of an entrepreneur. This could easily refer to an increased and easier access to education or the removal of discriminatory practices. The second set of initiatives is oriented towards the specialization of the entrepreneurs and could refer to specialized courses, training or the sharpening of the senses and the skills it takes to become a good entrepreneur.
E: Example: the list of examples in the field of entrepreneurs' initiatives is rather broad, moreover since the contemporary business and scholarly communities are increasingly focused on the role and responsibilities of the entrepreneur. The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation has set the basis for numerous such initiatives, the most relevant examples in this sense being offered by the Advancing Innovation Initiative, the Initiative for Closing the Gap for omen and Minority Entrepreneurs or the Urban Entrepreneur Partnership Initiative.…
Schaper, M., Volery, T., 2004, Entrepreneurship and Small Business: A Pacific Rim Perspective, Wiley
2008, Grants and Initiatives - Entrepreneurship, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, http://www.kauffman.org/initiatives.cfm?topic=entrepreneurshiplast accessed on June 4, 2008
2008, Fragments of Donald Trump's Speech, Retrieved from You Tube, http://youtube.com/watch?v=HXYURZOwbtg&feature=related , June 4, 2008
2008, Michael Dell's Advice to Entrepreneurs, Retrieved from You Tube, http://youtube.com/watch?v=bBsCZpomy24&feature=related , June 4, 2008
Let's say the original company will usually take a primarily leadership dominated approach to its business organization, allowing its employees to have many freedoms and responsibilities. The merging company, however, has a motivation approach that places more emphasis on management and incentives. In order to ensure that both performance and job satisfaction remain high for all employees in the newly merged corporation, steps will have to be taken to implement both styles of motivation.
Thus, according to the theory of Covey, a management approach will have to have a strategy that lays out goals and incentives for those employees who prefer this style of management. However, within this structure opportunities for leadership will be created. For example, one motivational incentive could be more independence for the employee. In other words, in order to get the newly merged company efficiently operating quickly, the business managers will best be served by trusting…
Covey, Stephen M.R. The Speed of Trust the One Thing that Changes Everything. New York: Free Press, 2006.
Managing Diversity in the Workplace
The modern business environment is marked by numerous people-oriented variables brought to organizations. These variables include gender, race, age, and religion, and socioeconomic background, regional and national origin. All these factors form the current workforce in the market place. Diversity is widely recognized as one of the world's greatest strengths. Diversity continues to affect the society and the organizational workforce in the process of shaping the 21st century workforce (Konrad, 2006). Organizations appreciate individual sensitivity and differences to enable them discharge the organizational mission. Sensitivity and training on diversity focuses on changing valid standards and expectations of people. This paper gives details on understanding diversity. Although the scope is limited, it highlights how the understanding of diversity is a challenge in managing the current workforce. It remains a fact that the contemporary workforce does not have the same desires as the previous workforce.
Albrecht, M.H. (2011). International HRM: Managing diversity in the workplace. Oxford [u.a.: Blackwell.
Cornelius, N. (2012). Building workplace equality: Ethics, diversity and inclusion. London: Thomson Learning.
Dansby, M.R., Stewart, J.B., & Webb, S.C. (2011). Managing diversity in the military: Research perspectives from the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Jackson, S.E. (2012). Diversity in the workplace: Human resources initiatives. New York: Guilford Press.
Yes, managers are important to organizational success. But this is a logical fallacy question. All organizations, both the successful ones and the utter failures, have managers. So the question isn't about whether managers are important to success -- mathematically there is 100% correlation between having managers and being successful, but also 100% correlation between having managers and being unsuccessful.
Then there is the issue of where organizational success comes from. First, one must define success -- is it profitability? Or exceptional profitability? Short-term, long-term? And there are a lot of variables that contribute to organizational success, not just the actions of management. Further, to determine whether managers are integral to success, and to what degree, would require a control. It is almost impossible to define a control. You could say the managers at Google are really good, but unless there is a parallel universe Google with different managers, how…
Burns, T. & Stalker, G. (1961). The management of innovation. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship
Courtright, J., Fairhurst, G. & Rogers, L. (1989). Interaction patterns in organic and mechanistic systems. The Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 32 (4) 773-802.
Eyre, E. (2015). Mintzberg's management roles. MindTools.com. Retrieved July 5, 2015 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/management-roles.htm
MSG (2015). Steps in strategy formulation process. Management Study Guide. Retrieved July 6, 2015 from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/strategy-formulation-process.htm
The importance of training is as such crucial for all professional individuals, but even more so for those who intend to launch a new venture on their own. At a generic level, the training programs would generate the same benefits for the entrepreneur as well as for the average organizational managers. As a parenthesis, the average organizational manager is understood as the individual occupying a managerial position within a company or even a corporation, and being paid by the respective entity to assume the role and responsibility of organizational manager.
Nevertheless, aside from the traditional aspect and importance of training the manager, the individual who launches a new venture is in a more imperative need of training. And this situation is the result of various particularities of the new entrepreneur, such as the following:
The new entrepreneur is often confronted with more severe resource limitations than the corporate manager.
Bloom, E.P., 2009, Manager mechanics: tips and advice for first-time managers, iUniverse, ISBN 1440133506
Charney, C., Conway, K., 2005, the trainer's tool kit, AMACOM, ISBN 0814472680
Meek, H., Meek, R., Nicholson, F., Sherratt, 2009, CIM coursebook: managing marketing, Butterworth-Heinneman, ISBN 9711202514
Silos, L.R., 2003, the power of the leader: mind and meaning in leadership, Goodwill Trading Co., ISBN 9711202514
Effectively, time management in the opinion of Imundo (1993) boils down to activity management. For this reason, the better an individual is able to manage his or her own activities, the more effective the said individual is likely to be when it comes to time management. Managers must therefore ensure that monkeys do not keep being transferred to their backs. In the words of Oncken and Wass, "managers should try to increase the discretionary component of their self-imposed time by minimizing or doing away with the subordinate component." This way, they can get all the time they require to better manage their other more pressing duties.
It is important to note that in most cases, managers as Lussier and Achua (2009) note believe that they can accomplish tasks more effectively than their subordinates and for this reason, they refuse to delegate. Indeed, effective delegation of tasks has always been a…
Imundo, L.V. (1993). The Effective Supervisor's Handbook (2nd ed.). New York, NY: AMACOM.
Lussier, R.N. & Achua, C.F. (2009). Leadership: Theory, Application, and Skill Development (4th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
c) Change support
In the context of the closing of the Orlon manufacturing operations, a useful approach to the problem would be constituted by the action research. This type of research specifically implies that the individual assesses the situation, but in doing so, also seeks solutions to resolving the problem (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). This type of research combines the theoretical stance with the practical stance. Through its lenses then, the following steps would be implemented:
Assessment of the means in which the stakeholder perceive the change
edesign of the means in which change is handled in order to ensure that it is understood and embraced by as many stakeholder categories as possible.
d) Fictional change
An important change which could impact DuPont is represented by the need to entirely replace the technological system. Such a change would generate employee reticence due to the elements of novelty, but also…
Blecker, T., 2005, Information and management systems for product customization, Springer
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, a., 2009, Research methods for business students, 5th edition, Pearson Education
Case study: change at DuPont
Inducements motivate employees and can also distribute power effectively. A third recommendation would be for Green to admit that he was wrong, take the consequences and work to improve.
The disproportionate use of power conflicted in a bad relationship between two colleagues. Each person sought advice from outside group members. Thomas Green and Frank Davis' issues developed into a great conflict. Power strategies are effectual when properly used, and people of lower status can hold a great amount of power upon higher status employees. Organizational issues influence a person's political performance as well as the amount of power that they hold. Power and political disparity should always be kept within the concerned group.
Secondary tension is the tension that occurs as group members struggle for influence, develop roles, and norms, and explore differences in approaching the group task (Jenkin, 2010). This concept is a summary of what was happening between…
Jenkin, Kate. (2010). Workplace Stress. Retreived August 3, 2010, from docstoc Web site:
McShane, Stephen L. And Von Glinow, Mary Ann. (2010). Organizational Behavior, 5th ed.
Boston: McGraw Hill Irwin
These are the systems in which people are eager to utilize all of their capabilities for their jobs and carry out their task effectively. (Lancioni, 2002) These Workshop engage all the participants rapidly in the simulations. Throughout these simulations participants agree upon the fact that everyone -- every individual -- at different times, experience being on the Top, or sometimes in the Middle, sometimes in the Bottom, we are sometimes Customer and sometimes Supplier -- and our position changes a lot of times even in one day. The Organizational Workshops are highly effective in increasing knowledge and giving insight of systemic conditions that are present in an organization and how everyone react individually towards such conditions. They provide an opportunity to learn latest leadership and other related strategies to handle these systemic conditions as soon they take place. These workshops teach how to improve team collaboration, job performance every day…
Collins, J., (2001) Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap... And Others Don't, HarperBusiness; 1 edition, 50- 70.
Heath, C., (2010) Switch: How to Change Things When Change Is Hard, Crown Business, 300- 310.
Kouzes, J, M and Posner, B, Z., (2012) The Leadership Challenge: How to Make Extraordinary Things Happen in Organizations, Jossey-Bass; 5 edition, 315- 350.
Lancioni, P., (2002) The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A Leadership Fable, Jossey-Bass; 1st edition (April 11, 2002, 170- 180.
Self-Monitoring in Education
Putting individuals with "intellectual disabilities" and "challenging behaviors" into regular classrooms is clearly a good idea - the educational literature supports this. But what happens once they are in the classroom? How does one then improve the social behavior and learning opportunities of these students? One idea, cooperative learning (also called peer tutoring), does show some promise; however, another idea based around the technique of self-monitoring/self-recording is specifically highlighted in the article under discussion. This method (which trains a student to identify, record and modify inappropriate behavior) was introduced to a certain thirteen-year-old girl named Pauline who had lived in a Romanian orphanage for ten years and had suffered "severe deprivation and abuse." The specific behaviors targeted in Pauline were stereotypic in quality (body-rocking and hand gazing) as well as consistent in quantity (they occurred consistently throughout the school day).
This "targeting" of behavior took the form…
I will address the group with a general overview of the problems the company is facing, with the assertion that I believe it can be rectified. I will ask each employee to work together for the good of the company and its survival in the e-business world. The purpose of the conference will then be to involve every employee in restructuring the company in a more effective way.
To achieve this, I would divide the employees into smaller groups of 10 members or so each. The first issue to address is the vision, mission and goals. Each group will be asked to come up with suggestions. The second step will be to identify the various actions to reach the goals, and the third step will be to more effectively restructure the company. For the latter, the groups will be provided with a list of the divisions within the company. They…
Management and Leadership
Impact of management and leadership
The aspect of management and leadership are very crucial in the success of any organization as long as they are practiced in the right manner and leadership as well as management tenets are put into proper use. These two principles cannot do without each other and they have a kind of symbiotic relationship where one cannot efficiently operate without the presence or influence of the other.
A leader is noted to be that person who has the ability to influence others in order to achieve a common goal that has been agreed upon. A true leader for that matter is one who does not have selfish interests but the interests of those whom he or she relates with and leads in the process of achieving a required goal (Woodroffe Noel, 2012).
The issue of leadership has for long been the subject of…
Center for Creative Leadership, (2009). Developing a Leadership Strategy: A Critical Ingredient for Organizational Success. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/research/LeadershipStrategy.pdf
Drew Stevens, 2003. Finish Line Leadership - Qualities for Successful Leadership. Retrieved May 13, 2012 from http://www.expertmagazine.com/EMOnline/030103/finishline.htm
George Ambler (2008). Leaders vs. Managers….. Are they really different? Retrieved May 11, 2012 from http://www.thepracticeofleadership.net/2008/04/08/leaders-vs.-managers-are-they-really-different/comment-page-2/
Larry C. Spears, (2010). Character and Servant Leadership: Ten Characteristics of Effective,
If she indicates an interest in promotion and leadership, I will connect her existing behavior and its effects to her relatively slim chances of ever attaining such dreams.
Another problem is that ue is relatively new in the company and feels that she has to make an impression as a highly ambitious person. I will talk to ue about this and ask her about her definitions of ambition, and whether this should necessarily include aggression. I will impress upon her the necessity of honesty and teamwork. When she leaves my office, ue needs to be aware that her behavior is to change if she hopes to excel in a leadership position. I would therefore attempt to persuade sue by using her own beliefs and dreams.
In the case of Alice, I would also call her to my office and ask her whether she is aware of the opinions surrounding her…
Capadanno, Stephanie, Zapanta, Liezel & Buccoli, Molly. Prompting Plus Choice of Target Behavior Increase Compliance with Behavioral Self-Monitoring. Organizational Behavior Network. http://www.obmnetwork.com/resources/articles/main/Capadanno_PromptPlusChoice/
ChangingMinds.org (2007). Self-Monitoring Behavior. http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/self-monitoring.htm
Holtzhausen, Derina. (2001, Jan 1). The Effects of Workplace Democracy on Employee Communication Behavior: Implications for Competitive Advantage. http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/workforce-management/817419-1.html
Mehra, Ajay, Kilduff, Martin & Brass, Daniel J. (2001, March). The Social Networks of High and Low Self-monitors: Implications for Workplace Performance. Administrative Science Quarterly. Database: FindArticles.com:
As a top manager, the person possesses three distinct categories of self-efficacy beliefs (Yun, 2007). These are his individual participant's abilities, his team's capabilities, and the organization's capabilities. Team capabilities are not simply the sum of the abilities of the individual members. And organizational capabilities are different from team capabilities. These being distinct from one another, the top manager can build his efficacy beliefs on himself, the team and the organization. Organizational efficacy can then proceed from the top manager's belief in the organization's capabilities to create competitive advantage as well as attain high performance (Yun).
Self-Efficacy in the Work Environment
According to Newstrom and Davis, self-efficacy is the conviction that one can successfully perform a given task and make meaningful contributions (Edralin, 2004). Causes of powerlessness and low self-efficacy in the workplace are job-related, boss-related, and reward system-related. Unclear roles and expectations, lack of opportunity to…
Bandura, a. (1994). Self-efficacy. Vol 4: 71-81 Encyclopedia of Human Behavior:
Academic Press. Retrieved on March 24, 2010 from http://www.des.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html
Beckman, R.H., et al. (2007). Effect of workplace laughter groups on personal efficacy beliefs. 28: 167-182 The Journal of Primary Prevention: Springer Science- Business
Media. Retrieved on March 23, 2010 from http://www.laughterlinks.com/research/AuthorsFullText.pdf
They offer the same flexibility and costs saving available to people at larger organizations. According an article published by Physicians Care,
"hen we set up a self-funded plan for a smaller employer, we help them select the appropriate level of stop-loss or excess-loss insurance, which provides reimbursement for large catastrophic claims. Stop-loss insurance allows smaller employers to consider this very economical approach to providing employee health benefits because it protects them from large claims ("Is Self-Funding or Fully Insured Right for Your Company?")."
Although self-funding can offer many organizations with the chance to reduce costs there are instances when this option is simply not appropriate. The inappropriateness of the option has a great deal to do with the demographics of the employees. If a company has a significant number of older workers or workers with chronic illnesses, such a plan would not be advantageous. The main reason for the lack…
Advantages of Self-Funding. Retrieved September 30, 2009 from; http://www.physicianscare.com/content/public/default.aspx?id=327
Gammon, R.B. (2009) Self-funded health care could lower costs. The Business Journal of Milwaukee - by Retrieved September 30, 2009 from; http://milwaukee.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/stories/2006/02/27/focus4.html
Self-funded health insurance: It's about risk, vulnerability, cost savings
Schreck, Tom the Business Review (Albany) - by for the Business Review Retrieved September 30, 2009 from; http://albany.bizjournals.com/albany/stories/2005/12/05/focus4.html
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…
Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php
Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/
Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
Management of Stress and Tension
Goals-- What do you wish to complete?
The answer to attain a postgraduate degree can develop into a very long journey. For me, the contending aspects of time and financial resources constantly appeared to present problems and control the situation. In truth, it would be considerably much easier to provide every single argument present against returning to institution at this time. One can say that numerous considerable life-changing occasions experienced just recently would be cause or motive enough to put off the commencement of the Master's of Business Administration (MBA) program. Concerns associated with household loss and task modification can be made use of as proof in support of delay. Financial pressures can likewise exist yet an additional motive that the moment in time, endeavor, and cost needed for an MBA would not be a required use of resources. Nonetheless, regardless of every one of…
Center for Applications of Psychological Type, Inc.. (2011). What are archetypes. Retrieved from http://www.capt.org/discover-your-archetypes/about-archetypes.htm
Cohen, B. (2001, April 21). Average Salary for First Year Accountants. Retrieved from eHow Money: http://www.ehow.com/info_8271661_average-salary-firstyear-accountants.html
Curtis, J. (2009). Life change stress test. WebMD. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/hw-popup/life-change-stress-test
Hansen, R.S. (n.d.). The Master of Business Administration: Is the MBA Worth the Time, Effort, and Cost? Retrieved from Quint Careers: http://www.quintcareers.com/MBA_degree.html
Many people, including myself, can coast through life, without giving much thought to personal goals or planning. However, after taking this course I realized the value in thinking deeply about my future, especially in relation to my talents, dreams, and desires. The lessons have opened my mind and broadened my horizons in many areas, as I can apply the lessons to almost every aspect of my life, from relationships to personal finances. Moreover, I have begun to appreciate more fully the meaning behind much of the rhetoric I often hear. For instance, while I always heard that a college education could be beneficial for me, I never truly grasped what a higher education actually entailed. After taking this course, I will pursue a degree not only because I feel I "should," but because I genuinely desire to experience college life. In addition to the networking and social opportunities college…
Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.
According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no…
Bolm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory-at the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res., vol 4, 277-285 Retrieved from http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468274.
Dartey-Baah, K. & . (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management 3(9).
Peters, R.M. (2010). Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care. Res Theory Nurs Pract, 24(3), 172-186 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm, nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728772.
Sukato, N. & . (2009). A Model of Male Consumer Behavior in Buying Skin Care Products in Thailand. ABAC Journal, 29(1), 39-52 Retrieved from http://www.abacjournal.au.edu/2009/jan09/article03_JanApr2009.pdf .
What steps does Ritz-Carlton take to control the quality of its service?
To control the quality of service, Ritz-Carlton pursues the goal of being the best in the industry, providing its customers with well-trained and certified workers, and offering more than the usual services offered by other businesses in the same industry.
Ritz-Carlton implements different management programs to allow improvements and excellence in their services. Among the factors in Ritz-Carlton's management programs are participatory leadership, thorough information gathering, coordinated planning and execution, and a trained workforce. With all these, it can be deducted that the hotel's management is working towards the achievement of its goal - true excellence in service.
Aside from the management programs that Ritz-Carlton takes to control its quality of service, it also provides focus on the skills and capabilities of its employees. The hotel sees to it that its employees are empowered to respond to…
I need to acknowledge that I can only control how I react with an environment, but that I cannot control the environment itself, and I can try to ensure that my reactions are consistent across time and space. Finally, I need to make some changes to how I deal with stress in general, which may make me more resilient in my professional life. I need to learn to laugh at myself, and I need to embrace a more optimistic outlook. Finally, because resiliency is linked to personal stress levels, I need to engage in healthy behaviors, such as eating right and exercising.
Title of the Assessment: Assessing Your Creative Personality
Purpose of the Assessment: The purpose of the assessing your creative personality assessment is to estimate the subject's creative potential.
Actual Score: +1
Interpretation of Score: I have an average creative personality.
Improving Effectiveness / Efficiency: With all of the…
Managing People -- Wal-Mart
Summary of the Company and Facts
Wal-Mart is among many multi-national retail businesses that are well-known. It runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouses all over the world though it's an American multinational retailer corporation. It is also the biggest private employer in the world, to employ such a big number of workers can be very challenging and hence the employee relationship with the management requires thorough evaluation. With corporations such as Wal-Mart always chasing to grow higher and getting better returns come with the temptations to go really wrong in many ways. Wal-Mart does a lot right; it has expanded its productivity by being more efficient and leaner when compared to many companies. Shoppers accrue a lot of benefits from the expansion of Wal-Mart. Like all this retail businesses the employees in Wal-Mart are given low wages, they work on part-time conditions…
Ludensky, A. (2008).Wal-mart's Labor problem. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://campusprogress.org/articles/wal-marts_labor_problem
Cherry, K. (2009).Hierarchy of needs. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds.htm
Unlimited marketing. (2012). Walmart Workers For Change.Retrieved November 23, 2012 from http://www.walmartworkersforchange.org/2012/08/walmart-works-to-empower-women/
DE-DE Group LLC (2012). Wal-Mart Workers on Strike. Retrieved November 23, 2012 from https://www.thunderclap.it/projects/653-walmart-workers-on-strike
Employees blamed management for the perceived lack of opportunities created by new employees, while management blamed employees for the lack of customer orders filled. This conflict seems to have reached a deadlock, as feelings are so volatile that effective communication is all but impossible. However, by considering some basic elements of communication, both management and employees can return to their previous level of effectiveness, and the Words Unlimited can become effective again.
Resolution and Recommendations
According to harland, the above situation is an example of conflict being suppressed. Nobody is willing to admit to making mistakes, with both management and employees blaming each other for the company's current situation. Communication is marked by resentment and blame, without any sector of the company attempting to understand the points of the other. This suppresses the creativity and intercultural effectiveness that were previous hallmarks of the company.
In order to remedy this, communication…
Johanssen, Rob. Tips for Effective Workplace Communication. 2006, Sept 5. http://searchwarp.com/swa94412.htm
Kwintessential Ltd. Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace. 2008. http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/cultural-services/articles/intercultural-communiction-global-workplace.html
Sharland, Alan. Workplace Communication and Conflict. 2008. http://www.communicationandconflict.com/workplace.html
In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them…
Alexander, Kenneth O. "Worker Ownership and Participation in the Context of Social Change: Progress Is Slow and Difficult, but it Need Not Wait upon Massive Redistribution of Wealth. " the American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44.3 (1985): 337. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 25 Oct. 2008
Timothy Bartram, Gian Casimir. "The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader:the mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. " Leadership & Organization Development Journal 28.1 (2007): 4-19. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008
Douglas Brownlie, Paul Hewer, Beverly Wagner, Gran Svensson. "Management theory and practice: bridging the gap through multidisciplinary lenses. " European Business Review 20.6 (2008): 461-470. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008
Huei-Fang Chen, Yi-Ching Chen. "The Impact of Work Redesign and Psychological Empowerment on Organizational Commitment in a Changing Environment: An Example From Taiwan's State-Owned Enterprises. " Public Personnel Management 37.3 (2008): 279-302. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 27 Oct. 2008
Management Action and Productivity
usinesses in developed countries tend to think of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a characteristic that is centered in their own businesses or, failing that, situated in the industries of wealthier nations. The CSR movement is substantively skewed in the direction of the developed world where the motivation for adopting a CSR initiative is driven more by altruism -- or "enlightened self-interest" (Vogel 2006: 18) -- than profit margins. It is unusual to find a perspective that considers CSR from the perspective of a sourcing company. In the centrically-oriented corporate arena of the developed world, CSR is seen as originating with the company that establishes a supply chain with a multinational company -- not the other way around. In order to manage and control ethical issues arising from doing business with overseas markets, many corporations rely on a social compliance model (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2007).
The social compliance…
Buying your way into trouble? The challenge of responsible supply chain management. 2004. Insight Investment, HBOS. London, UK: Acona Investment Consulting. Retrieved http://www.acona.co.uk/reports/Buying+your+way+into+trouble.pdf
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. 2008. Business Research Methods, 10th Ed. Edition, McGraw-Hill.
Environics International 3rd Annual CSR Monitor. 2002. (In November of 2003, Environics became GlobeScan Incorporated. [Press release] Retrieved http://www.globescan.com/news_archives/csr02_press_release.html
Eslenshade, J. 2004. Monitoring Sweatshops: Workers, Consumers, & the Global Apparel Industry. Temple University Press.