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Spanish as World Language in the Field of Media
There are approximately 400 million people who can speak Spanish by the end of the twentieth century; this makes Spanish the 4th most commonly used language in the world. The first three languages are Mandarin Chinese, English and Hindi. There are 21 countries in which Spanish is the official language and in most of them it is the only official language. Spanish is a language that is spoken not only as a mother tongue but in many places as a significant second language along with being a vehicular language or 'lingua franca'. Although the Spanish language is obviously associated with Spain, the country that it originated from, but majority of the people who speaks this language live in Latin America and as, the population is growing at a steady pace in that area so is the number of Spanish speakers (Stewart,…
Albarran, A.B. (2009). The Handbook of Spanish Language Media. Routledge, London.
Ball, R. (1997) The French speaking world, London: Routledge.
Cintas, J. And Anderman, G. (2009). Audiovisual Translation. Palgrave Macmillan.
Clyne, M. (1995) The German Language in a Changing Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
However, as officials issued these directives, they were convinced that the initial scheme was defective principally because it had relied excessively on the educational efficacy of model settlements which would be erected within an Irish environment (Leerssen, 1986). Therefore, it came to be assumed that such settlements could never endure if left in isolation, and Spenser's idea, that the entire country would have to be subjected to a scheme of plantation which would be promoted by the army, was adopted as a matter of principle by those who upheld the crown's interests in the country, even if this idea was not endorsed as official government policy. Therefore, this first experience at plantation in Munster was to have a lasting influence on the formulation of English policy for Ireland until well into the seventeenth century.
Once account is taken of the designs of continentally trained priests to dismantle the cultural barriers…
Hernan, Garcia Enrique. Ireland and Spain in the Reign of Philip II. Dublin: Four Courts, 2009.
Canny, Nicholas. The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland: A Pattern Established, 1565-1576. Brighton, 1976.
McDermott, James. England and the Spanish Armada: The Necessary Quarrel by; the Confident Hope of a Miracle: The True Story of the Spanish Armada. The Journal of Military History, Vol. 70, No. 3. Jul., 2006, pp. 821-824
Morgan, Hiram. 'Never Any Realm Worse Governed': Queen Elizabeth and Ireland. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 14. 2004, pp. 295-308.
Spanish influenza epidemic of 1918 was truly a world-shaking event. The numbers of dead are estimated to be somewhere between 50 and 100 million people, and it is estimated that the numbers of those who were infected and survived may have reached as high as five to ten times the number of dead. Almost one in three human beings alive in 1918 would be infected by the virus. But in particular, the epidemic had a number of longer lasting effects on the history of America, which it is worth examining in closer detail.
From a scientific standpoint, the Spanish influenza was nothing remarkable: it followed the standard path of an influenza virus, in making the leap from an animal host population into infecting humans. The best contemporary efforts to reconstruct the disease's origin suspect that it either leapt directly from birds to humans, or else the avian flu transmitted to…
Barry, John M. The Great Influenza: The story of the deadliest pandemic in history. New York: Penguin Books, 2005.
Crosby, Alfred W. America's Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918. New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Pettit, Dorothy A. A Cruel Wind: Pandemic Flu in America 1918-1920. Murfreesboro: Timberlane Books, 2008.
IDENTIFICATION: GENERAL "BLACK JACK" PERSHING.
With the changes of gender relationships in the workplace, the problems of the patriarchal authority in the Spanish household become underlying themes in gothic literature. Questions of feminism and reconciliation within the Spanish household are brought forth and posed to the public.
Gothic theorist and English author Ann Radcliffe has pinpointed the metaphorical importance of gothic themes to the woman's home predicaments. Like the Western gothic literature, Spanish "[gothic] literature [portrays the] dark side of the domestic haven, showing that while man's home might be his castle, it could also be woman's prison." (Perez) During the Franco era, gothic literature showed a woman distressed, saved by the masculine hero of that castle or manor. The Spanish authors began their own gothic movement much later than their English counterparts (a slow start because of the nation's political problems). Early writers such as Ana Maria Matute and Concha Alos alighted the beginning…
"Pilar Miro - Film Society of Lincoln Center." Film Society of Lincoln Center. 7 Dec. 2007. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. .
Davies, Catherine. "Feminist Writers in Spain since 1900: From political strategy to personal inquiry," in Textual Liberation: European Feminist Writing in the Twentieth Century. Helena Forsas Scott, ed. London: Routledge, 1991
Ferran, Ofelia and Kathleen Glenn. Women's Narrative and Film in Twentieth Century Spain. New York: Routledge, 2002
Glenn, Kathleen M. And Mercedes Mazquiaran, eds. Spanish Women Writers and the Essay: Gender, Politics and the Self. Columbia: U. Of Missouri Press, 1998.
About 140 Irish rebels were drowned as they tried to cross the Blackwater, and another 200 Irish were "lost in the river Moy and at Owen Abbey" (McGurk, 20). The defeat of the Irish rebels took just two hours, according to McGurk's reckoning, and clearly the English had prevailed which made Mountjoy a hero because so many previous English attacks had failed. Notwithstanding their victory, the English lost a reported 8,000 men (some by sword, others because of hunger, disease and the bitter cold winter in Ireland) (McGurk, 20).
In addition to the bloodshed and the embarrassment of the beating the Irish took, there were unanswered questions left behind, McGurk notes. as that battle at Kinsale the official end "…of the Gaelic order in Ireland?" And was the Spanish effort so half-hearted that it really amounted to a fraud -- too little, too late? (McGurk, 21). The question regarding del…
Bartlett, Thomas. "History." The Linen Hall Library, 3.4 (1986): p. 37.
Silke, John J. "Spain and the Invasion of Ireland, 1601-2." Irish Historical Studies, 14.56 (1965):
State, Paul F. A Brief History of Ireland. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009.
The defeat of King Philip and the Spanish Armada brought forth several consequences for both sides of Spain and England. Even with the minimal loss of the English fleet, diseases have threatened to demoralize the English Navy aside from the irregular payments to its soldiers which is opposite to the experiences of Spain's remaining sailors who received their benefits amidst Spain's loss.
The victory of England brought supremacy to the English Navy which will be later on challenged by different countries in the anals of naval history. This victory also placed Queen Elizabeth to a pedestal of greatness in the English history until her death. The continuous pursuit of Spain due to religious differences has only empowered the stand of Protestants within all countries of Europe thus lessening the hold of Spanish Catholicism in English-dominated countries. Peace was later on declared between England and Spain in 1604 with the Treaty…
The Spanish Armada.
Retrieved on October 18, 2006, from Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2006). Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_defeat_of_Spanish_Armada#Consequences
Spanish Missions in California
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the Spanish missions in California between 1700 and 1800. Specifically, it will look at how the missions were founded, the Spanish motivation to found them, and the secularization of the missions.
One of Spain's traditional ways of conquering a new country was to establish missions to bring the "savages" who lived there the "true" faith. Jesuit missionaries traveled with Cortez, and after their domination of Mexico, they established missions across Mexico and into the desert Southwest of what is now the United States. Jose de Galvez came from Spain to serve as the "commandancy-general" of the northern area of Mexico. One of his first aims was to expand Spain's influence into Alta California, to gain more land, more converts to Catholicism, and more world power for Spain. He determined the best way to do…
Chapman, Charles E. A History of California: the Spanish Period. St. Clair Shores, MI: Scholarly Press, 1971.
Jackson, Robert H. Indian Population Decline: The Missions of Northwestern New Spain, 1687-1840. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994.
Lavender, David. California: Land of New Beginnings. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.
Lippy, Charles H., Robert Choquette, and Stafford Poole. Christianity Comes to the Americas, 1492-1776. 1st ed. New York: Paragon House, 1992.
Also, families have become smaller over the years, and people are less likely to live with their grandparents or extended families as they were in the past.
In many traditional cultures, family plays a far more important role in people's lives than it does in the United States. Many people have small families and are estranged from cousins, aunts, uncles, and siblings. When children grow up and leave home for college, they begin new lives in cities far from home. In some cases, the child who attends college in another state does not return home after graduation but rather makes a new life in a new city. Families are therefore not as close as they were in the past, and in the United States, families are not as unified as they are in more traditional cultures. However, most people in America do try to retain family values as best they…
Spanish collections were, in fact, a national enterprise. "Collections were assembled all over the Iberian peninsula on the basis of objects acquired throughout Italy, in the Low Countries, in England, from the Americas, and even from India and the Philippines" (Brown, Elliott 104). Madrid became the art center of Spain "because the Spanish collectors of the Golden Age...managed to inculcate in their society, and, more importantly, in their heirs, a sense of the value of art objects" (Brown, Elliott 104). Elsewhere in Europe, art collections have been subject to various misfortunes, seizures, sales, dispersals, etc. Yet, Spain is unique in its attachment to the works of art collected by its patrons during the Golden Age. "In spite of palace fires, Napoleonic rapacity, dynastic struggles, and tremendous social changes, the collected art remained. Even when dispersed, the best pieces often went to the king. The contrast between the collections of Charles…
Brown, Jonathan. Painting in Spain: 1500 -- 1700. Yale University Press, 1998. Print.
Brown, Jonathan; Elliot, John Huxtable. The Sale of the Century: artistic relations between Spain and Great Britain. Yale University Press, 2002. Print.
Collins, Marsha Suzan. The Soledades: Gongora's masque of the imagination.
Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2002. Print.
One of the things that I find to be most interesting is how widely dispersed Spanish is. I had to look up Malabo -- Africa! I did not know that there were Spanish speakers in Africa. So for me, this was quite interesting. But the exercise on page 24 also highlighted that just because a country is Spanish-speaking does not mean that everybody speaks Spanish. People in these countries often have complex histories, and many other regional languages are spoken. You can see this in Mexico, too, where in many parts of the country there are native groups that speak their own language. This is the case in a lot of Spanish-speaking countries.
So this is something that one has to bear in mind when dealing with Spanish-speaking people. One must remember that the Spanish-speaking world is very large, and diverse. Even people from Spain might otherwise speak a…
Koc, A., Morton, D., Popova, E., Hess, S., Kee, E. & Richards, D. (2008). Optimizing project prioritization under budget uncertainty. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering
Kulkami, R., Miller, D., Ingram, R., Wong, C. & Lorenz, J. (2004). Need-based project prioritization: Alternative to cost-benefit analysis. Journal of Transportation Engineering. Vol. 130 (2) 150-158.
ithin the history and context of modern Spain there are many truths and questions. The divisive nature of the cultural and regional divides of Spain have long been thought to be the seeds of conflict and violence. Yet, it is clear that the strength of the nation lies in its ability to stay solidified as one, regardless of the diversity of language, history and political opinion. Each culture within the dynamic of the larger body, has troubles and difficulties arising from differences and standards, yet it is clear that Spain must remain unified in order to continue to compete with the other fast moving and highly competitive countries of estern Europe. ithin Spain there a four major cultural minorities, Basque, one the smallest yet most vocal, Catalan, the largest minority yet the most vividly amicable to cohesion, Asterias and Gallegan. "The Catalan experience clearly illustrates the strengthening of…
Astrain, Luis Nui±ez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997.
Fine, Elizabeth C. And Jean Speer Haskell, eds. Performance, Culture, and Identity. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1992.
Hakli, Jouni The Politics of Belonging: Complexities of Identity in the Catalan
Borderlands Department of Regional Studies and Environmental Policy,
Spanish Conquests of Inca and Aztec Empires
The Spaniard's conquest of Inca and Aztec Empires are two of the most important chapters regarding the history of colonization in Americas. After Christopher Columbus had discovered America in 1492, he was able to convince the European traders to see America as a land of great opportunity. Even though there were other European countries like France, England and Italy who were setting up colonies in the new world, Spaniards were initially the most successful of them all and the reason of it was Spanish was already able to gain of Control of Cuba which served as its base from where military activities were handled something which was not enjoyed by the colonies set in North Section of Americas where Dutch, French, Italian and English were continuously fighting to save established colonies from each other.
The Cuban governor Diego Velazquez de Cuellar, sent an…
Conquistadors. Directed & Narrated by Michael Wood. 2002.
Williamson, Edwin. History of Latin America. Paperbacked. New York: Penguin Publishers Ltd., 1993.
Spanish and Project Management for Healthcare Classes
The project should proceed by requiring everyone on the team to commit more time and effort. While at the same time, the marketing team should have greater amounts of flexibility. According to Munns (1996), this means that managers must focus on a number of different areas in conjunction with each other. The most notable include: better planning, controlling the time, costs and effectively allocating resources where they are needed the most. The culture and ethics will add pressure with the different departments have contrasting objectives and wanting more from everyone in the process. To deal with the challenges, he recommends that managers work with the various sides and ask for some kind of sacrifice from them. This will help to bring the project back on track and it ensures that everything is working smoothly. (Munns, 1996) (Kloppenberg, 2015)
Moreover, Beringer (2013)…
Beringer, C. (2013). Behavior of Internal Stakeholders. International Journal of Project Management, 31 (6), 830 -- 846.
Deming, E. (2000). Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kloppenberg, T. (2015). Contemporary Project Management. Mason, OH: Cengage.
Munns, A. (1996). The role of Project Management. International Journal of Project Management, 14 (2), 81 -- 87.
All three of these terms are connected in American phrase. The friendship of common diagnostic and common idiom terms have therefore delivered a folk definition of etiology. However, another word for hypertension, high blood pressure, normally leads in affairs over life's pressures and their association to the analysis. "High blood pressure" becomes, "I" am under too much pressure." (Gay, 2011)
Because the patient is from another nation, as a healthcare professional, there could be some type of provider dominance. Provider dominance could bring in an extraordinary prejudice, which can lead to an ethnocentric and unilateral view of "what's wrong." (Gay, 2011) Provider viewpoints could possibly be further biased by her or his personal background, values, and social class. Furthermore, formal training, instruction and being certified in medical methodology generate a sense of correctness, authority, and superiority in which "the doctor healthcare professional knows best." These circumstances can lead to a…
Gay, D.E. (2011). The malleus maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft: Theology and popular Belief/Witchcraft persecutions in bavaria: Popular magic, religious zealotry, and reason of state in early modern Europe/Beyond the witch trials: Witchcraft and magic in enli. Journal of American Folklore, 21(9), 227-232.
Gentilcore, D. (2006). Doctors, folk medicine and the inquisition: The repression of magical healing in portugal during the enlightenment. Social History of Medicine, 14(5), 372-373.
Hostilities continued for some fifteen years, yet the conflict widened into a larger theater involving the struggle for control of France (Adams). The English made two major landings, one at Lisbon in 1589 and the other at Cadiz in 1596. The Spanish attacked Cornwall in 1594 and made a landing in Ireland in 1601 (Adams). However, none of these attacks resulted in any decisive effect, in fact it can be said that the Anglo-Spanish ar was basically a stalemate, yet it did prove that there were limits to the military might of Spain (Adams). Moreover, although England was definitely the weaker of the two, Queen Elizabeth I had clearly demonstrated that England was Spain's most formidable enemy (Adams).
Elizabeth proved to be the "ultimate politician who knew the value of her navy and played the card as the ultimate weapon" in the 1588 conflict with Spain (Conan). However, as Hanson…
Adams, Simon. "The Spanish Armada. January 01, 2001. Retrieved November 08, 2006 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/adams_armada_01.shtml
Conan, Neal. "Interview: Neil Hanson discusses his book 'The Confidant Hope of a Miracle: The True History of the Spanish Armada'" Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. March 7, 2005. Retrieved November 08, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
McKinnon-Bell, David. "Philip II of Spain champion of Catholicism: David McKinnon-Bell assesses the degree to which Philip II's policies were motivated by religious zeal.
History Review. September 1, 2001. Retrieved November 08, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Spanish and Portuguese governments had also been infused with religious power on top of their political power. The eighteenth century saw the Church take over much of the affairs of everyday life in the New orld. As the Franciscan and Jesuit orders moved into the spotlight, the Church gained the ultimate authority. A swell of missionaries swarmed into Spain's northern colonies and installed small power hubs in the form of missions. Friars and priests became the head leaders of small pueblos built around missions which were protected by small bands of soldiers. After dominance had been asserted by the military might of all the explorers and conquistadors, the Church stepped in and moved from the desire to conquer to the desire to convert. Life in these rural religious institutions as depicted in the film "The Missionary" with Robert Deniro, controlled the lives of the natives. Although Spain and Portugal could…
Mills, Kenneth; Taylor, William. Colonial Latin America. SR Books. 2002.
However, the Spanish Constitutional Court ruled in 2007 that immigrant workers should be allowed the same working rights as others in Spain, provided they have a valid work permit (Diaz, 1). hile this is designed to assist migrant workers, the implementation of the new regulations remains to be enforced.
Unemployment among these immigrants is on the rise, as well. hile unemployment in Spain for nationals is at an all time high of over eleven percent, unemployment for immigrants is up over sixty seven percent. By August of 2007, over 280,000 immigrants were receiving unemployment (Abend, 1).
In response to this, Spain has developed a Plan of Voluntary Return. The Plan is designed to allow legal unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to receive unemployment benefits from Spain in a lump sum payment, as long as they leave the country and return to their homeland for no less than three years.…
Abend, Lisa. "Spain Tries to Buy Out Immigrants." TIME. 20 October 2008. TIME, Inc. 15 November 2008. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1852000,00.html .
Alfieri, Carlos. "SPAIN: Immigrants Make the Economy Grow." InterPress Service. 30 August 2006. IPS. 15 November 2008. http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=34509 .
Amnesty International. "Spain: The Southern Boarder." Amnesty International. 2007. AI Index: EUR 41/008/2005. Amnesty International. 15 November 2008. http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?lang=e&id=D095D2398CF720C98025700A00634EBE .
Artiles, Antonio. "Impact of Immigration on Employment and Pay Examined." Eironline. 02 March 2004. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. 15 November 2008. http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2004/01/feature/es0401204f.htm .
A version of that first bear flag later became the state flag of California.
Looking back at the big picture of the early United States and California, it was inevitable that the two entities at that time would be intertwined over history.
eginning with Thomas Jefferson, and his Lewis and Clark expedition, which reached the Pacific Ocean in 1804, it was clear that the United States had a deep interest in all the territories west of the original 13 colonies. Jefferson's purchase of the Louisiana Territory in 1803, the addition of the Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Mississippi territories around the same time, and the defeat of the ritish in 1815 in New Orleans all proved that the U.S. interest in expanding from sea to shining sea was serious, pervasive and not-to-be-denied. The Monroe Doctrine, Manifest Destiny and the defeat of Mexico only proved the point.
As the west began to…
In fact, despite the letter from Fra Motolina, the encomienda system may have been slowed down, but it was not eradicated. The actual plight of the Indian populations was not improved, and the manner in which the Spaniards continued to view the populations and their conditions, based typically on economic class and what those in question could offer, remained quite imperialistic.
In 1560, the Council of Huejotzingo wrote to King Phillip II in the flowery diplomatic language traditionally used between Aztec nations. In this letter, the population made sure that Phillip knew they had given Cortes and his men everything they needed, but were now confused because they were nothing but slaves. They end their plea with the phrase, "He [Cortez] told us many times he would help us and would inform you of all the ways in which we helped and served you… But perhaps, before you he forgot…
Spain chose, instead, to allocate its territorial expansion to the Americas. However, Spain was able to exploit its existing African holdings to supply Spanish colonies in the Americas with African slaves ("The Spanish Colonial System" par. 4).
Unlike its concerted efforts in the Americas, Spain's focus in Africa was not so pointed in its colonies there, namely Spanish Guinea, Spanish Sahara, and Morocco. The majority of Spain's African colonies were located along the northern coasts and served primarily as strongholds from which Spain could protect its shipping and commerce activities in the Mediterranean as well as between the Old orld and the New.
Campos, Alicia. "The Decolonization of Equatorial Guinea: The Relevance of the International Factor." The Journal of African History 44.1 (Jan. 2003): 95-114.
"Spanish Empire." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2008. 20 July 2008 .
"The Spanish Colonial System, 1550-1800: Population Development." The Encyclopedia of orld History.…
Campos, Alicia. "The Decolonization of Equatorial Guinea: The Relevance of the International Factor." The Journal of African History 44.1 (Jan. 2003): 95-114.
"Spanish Empire." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2008. 20 July 2008 .
"The Spanish Colonial System, 1550-1800: Population Development." The Encyclopedia of World History. Ed. Peter Stearns. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001.
60). Why did the Spaniards bring so many slaves into Mexico? Because many of the native Indians had suffered and died from many diseases brought over by the Spaniards (the Indians did not have resistance to those new diseases), there was a need for cheap labor, and the Black slaves served that purpose.
The slaves were sold in many areas of Mexico, but the author explains that the four main areas where slaves were shipped included: Mexico City (more than half of the slaves that arrived in Mexico were brought to Mexico City); Tlaxcala-Puebla; Michoacan; and Zacatecas (p. 60). The Spanish Crown realized that the Catholic Church's missionaries found slavery to be repugnant, and so the Crown seemed to go along with the Church. However, in what could only be termed deception and skullduggery, the Crown needed the money that slavery brought to the royal family, so the Crown subcontracted…
The reason for such volunteer support for a war against fascism was born from the economic calamity and the political turmoil of the 1930's (Sills pp). Thus, like many during the Great Depression, the young volunteers had experienced with deprivation and injustice, leading them to join the "burgeoning student, unemployed, union, and cultural movements that were influenced by the Communist Party and other Left organizations" (Sills pp). These groups had exposed the volunteers to a Marxist and internationalist perspective, and with their successes in bringing people to conscious, political action led to a revolutionary spirit (Sills pp).
American radicalism was spurred by the appearance of pro-fascist groups like the Liberty League, and the expansion of fascism abroad (Sills pp). ith Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Hitler's rise to power in 1933, and Italy's assault on Ethiopia in 1934, (all accomplished without hindrance from estern governments), the Communist Party responded…
Hemingway, Ernest. For Whom the Bell Tolls. Scribner. 1995.
Nelson, Cary. The Spanish Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/scw/overview.htm
Rosemont, Franklin. Spanish Revolution of 1936. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/spain-overview.html
Sills, Sam. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Retrieved August 15, 2005 at http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/abe-brigade.html
Treatment of omen in Mexican Culture
The choices for women have, across both time and space, almost always been far more constrained than the choices of men. They have in fact all too often been reduced to a single pair of opposing choices: The pure or the corrupt, the white or the black, the chaste or the sexual - the virgin or the whore.
Mexican culture is certainly not exempt from this tendency to place women on one side of this dichotomy or the other, but in the case of Mexican images of women this division of the female half of the population into the chaste, good woman and the terrible promiscuous one becomes complicated by issues of race (and racial purity), by the historical condition of colonization and post-colonization, by the partial displacement, partial incorporation of native belief systems by Catholicism.
These many complications and elaborations of this essential…
Diaz del Castillo, Bernal. Historia de Conquista de la Nueva Espana. Madrid: Espasa, 1997. http://www.findarticles.com/m2278/2_25/67532177/p1/article.jhtml http://gateway.library.uiuc.edu/mdx/malintzin.htm http://www.utexas.edu/students/cwiforum/issue1/malinche.html http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/travel/slenchek/slmalinche.html
Paz, Octavio. The Labyrinth of Solitude. New York: Grove, 1985.
Rebolledo, Tey D, and Eliana Rivero. "Myths & Archetypes." Infinite Divisions: An anthology of Chicana Literature. Tucson: U. Of Arizona P, 1993.
The Spanish oyal Crown officially declared that the only salvation possible for the native populations was to accept their opportunity to adopt Christianity. In fact under a concept known as equerimiento, the Spaniards were required to give the native people a "fair" opportunity to do just that before they disposed of them as savages instead of respecting them as human beings created in God's image. As Eurocentric a concept as equerimiento was, even that edict was routinely ignored by Columbus's men (Schwartz, 2000; Stannard, 1993). They enslaved men, rapes women, and murdered children virtually at will. They imposed "quotas" of minimum amounts of gold ore to be collected daily and imposed penalties of mutilation and death, often depending on whether or not their victims survived after having limbs hacked off as a message to their companions and their communities that the Spaniards were deadly serious about expecting them to find…
Schwartz, S.B. (2000). Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of Conquest
of Mexico. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Stannard, D. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York:
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little
Professional Culture in Spain
The plan for the dinner event will include a number of different facets specifically designed to facilitate acculturation between all of the guests, which include seven (of the 11 total) attendees who are not native to Spain and its culture -- which is providing the backdrop for this event. Firstly, it is necessary to tell all of the participants of this dinner to bring gifts for one another. Specifically, each person in the party will bring a gift for either an employee or his or her spouse, so that no one is left out. Therefore, when the dinner commences and the guests are first situated at the table, they can exchange gifts with one another as a sort of ice-breaker which will allow them to initially get acclimated with one another. elationships are important in doing business in Spain (Expat, 2016).
Additionally, it is critical to…
ExpatFocus (2016). Spain - business and workplace culture. www.expatfocus.com Retrieved from http://www.expatfocus.com/expatriate-spain-business-culture
InterNations (2016). Working in Spain. www.internations.org Retrieved from https://www.internations.org/spain-expats/guide/working-in-spain-15498
Father Bartolome de Las Casas
Father Bartolome de Las Casas is one of the most prominent advocates of the Cuban indigenous people. He actually owned slaves himself at one point, yet he set his own slaves free and renounced the practice. He also joined the Dominican order of Christianity and protested against the cruel and unusual punishment that the indigent people had suffered. He was especially against the practice of encomienda which is to trade a life for other material possessions. He wrote:
"The Indies were discovered in 1492. In the following year a great many Spaniards went there with the intention of settling the land. Thus, forty-nine years have passed since the first settlers penetrated the land, the first so claimed being the large and most happy isle called Hispaniola, which is six hundred leagues in circumference…And all the land so far discovered is a beehive…
Spanish Civil War
The famous Spanish Civil War fought from the year 1936 to 1939. This war was fought between two groups; the Republicans and the Nationalists. The Republicans were the supporters of the established Spanish republic; meanwhile the latter were a group of rebels who were led by General Francisco Franco. Franco emerged victorious in this war and ruled Spain for the next 36 years as a dictator.
After a group of generals (led by Jose Sanjurjo) of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces declared opposition against the government of the Second Spanish Republic, the war ensued. At that time the President of Spain was Manuel Azana. This group of rebels had gained support from a couple of conservative groups that included the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, Fascist Falange and Carlists (Payne, 1973).
Military units formed in urgos, Pamplona, Corodova, Morocco, Cadiz and Seville supported this group of…
Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936 -- 1939. London: Weidenfield and Nicolson. 2006
Buckley, Ramon. "Revolution in Ronda: The facts in Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls." The Hemingway Review. 1997
Hemingway Ernest. "For Whom the Bell Tolls." New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1940
Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway: A Biography. London: Macmillan. 1985
Traditional Spanish Culture
hile the cafe's of Paris may have captured the romantic imagination of estern visitors to the Old Continent, and London's blend of medieval and modern architecture attracts the historically minded, the ancient city of Madrid is home to countless cultural sites, museums, and monuments which are definitely worth exploring. The capital city of Spain and the historical seat of the Spanish monarchy, Madrid is a sprawling metropolitan center located on the banks of the Manzanares River that serves as the economic, political, and cultural heart of the country. Home to approximately 3.3 million residents in Madrid proper, and over 6.5 million within the greater metropolitan area including suburbs and surrounding communities, the city is considered to be the third-largest urban center in the European Union, behind London and Berlin (UN Data, 2013). From the 16th through 18th centuries, when the Spanish empire's naval dominance allowed the nation's…
Azcona, Jose M. "Puerta de Alcala." GoMadrid. GoMadrid.com, 09 Sep 2012. Web. 23 Feb 2013. .
Gobierno de Espana. Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. National Archaeological Museum. Madrid, Spain. 2013. Web. .
Riding, Alan. "The Prado Embarks On Plans to Expand Into a Complex." New York Times 01 May 1995. Print. .
United Nations. UN Data. Spain: Summary and Statistics. New York, NY: UN Data, 2013. Web. .
After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.
When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:
EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.
However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…
Anderson, Paul, "Why Did the Spanish Civil War Start in July 1936?" History Review 48(2004), 36-40.
Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.
Kousoulas, Dimitrios G. The Price of Freedom: Greece in World Affairs, 1939?1953. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1953.
Smith, Howard K. The State of Europe. New York: Knopf, 1949.
In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.
In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…
The Academy of American Poets" Poets.org. 1997-2007. http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/348 .
Cole, Toby, (ed.). "Garc'a Lorca" in Playwrights on Playwrighting, 1961.
Hills, Elijah Clarence and Morley, S. Griswold, Modern Spanish Lyrics, New York: H. Holt, 1913.
Jehle, Fred F. Anthology of Spanish Poetry: A Collection of Spanish Poems, 1999. http://users.ipfw.edu/jehle/poetry.htm.
The Spanish Dialect: Spain Compared to Other Countries
Many people think of Spanish as being "uniform," but that is not the case. There are all types of different dialects, and what a person hears in Spain will not be the same thing heard in Mexico or in other countries where Spanish is spoken. Written Spanish uses the same standards, but spoken Spanish can be very different. There are local dialects, and then larger differences between Spain and Mexico. One of the biggest differences is in the phonemes, where there is maintenance of them in some dialects and loss of them in others. Some final syllables are weakened, as well, and central Mexico and the highlands of the Andes will show a loss of many of the unstressed vowel sounds - especially when these vowels come into contact with consonants that are also voiceless. It is not just the way…
The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).
This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…
Kubler, George. The Art and Architecture of Ancient America: The Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.
Leicht, Hermann. Pre-Inca Art and Culture. New York: Orion Press, 1960.
Mason, J. Alden. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.
McIlvee, Rose. "A catacomb of palace/tombs defined ancient Peruvian leaders." (December 4, 1998). Indiana University Homepage. Retrieved November 25, 2002 at http://www.iuinfo.indiana.edu/HomePages/120498/text/conrad.htm
Business Plan for the Spanish Language Learning Academy
This business plan describes the Spanish Language Learning Academy that I propose to establish in my city. There are no other independent Spanish Language learning schools in the city, so competition is not a problem. The Academy will offer independent courses for private classes as well as classes to schools.
The Spanish Language Learning Academy will offer a variety of classes and one-on-one sessions to students, young and old, seeking to learn or deepen their knowledge of Spanish. The Academy will hire Spanish-speaking teachers (they must be fluent in speaking and in writing Spanish) who are willing to commit to a one-year contract with the Academy. They will then be contracted to fill teaching positions as they become available. The Academy will host sessions in its building which is owned by the proprietor of the business and it will also…
Moya, Jose C. Cousins and Strangers: Spanish Immigrants to Buenos Aires.
The title of Jose C. Moya's book Cousins and Strangers refers to the fact that the mass migrations of Spaniards to Argentina that occurred between the middle of the 19th century and the beginning of the Great Depression were distinct from other waves of immigrant migration. Buenos Aires is a tremendously diverse city and has been subject to many different influxes of new immigrant populations. But the new waves of Spaniards came from the nation that had once colonized Argentina, unlike the Italians, which comprised the largest ethnic community within the city. The Spaniards spoke a common language, might be distant relatives to some of the residents, and yet were culturally worlds apart.
Moya divides his book into two sections -- one about the Old World of Spain and the other about the New World the Spanish experienced in…
Project Management and Spanish
PM: My current experience with project management has been beneficial to this course because it has allowed me to understand the basic concepts that are being presented. It is easier for me to apply the concepts that are presented and think of examples of how this works in the real world. Project management can be quite complex, and it can take many different projects to really get good at it, so any experience I can build up, the better that is for me.
There are definitely some challenges associated with this learning. I feel that experience is one of the best ways to learn, so ideally there would be a good mix of the theory and the practice. It can be difficult to visualize things when you haven't done them. Also, the software aspect can be challenging. As with a lot of software applications, there is…
Speech to Support Mortgage for Independent Spanish Village
The focus of this study is to consider the scenario of making a choice in the use of inheritance money and specifically to gain a mortgage for an independent villa which will be a town or villa in realengo and to compose a speech to support this objective
It is my belief that gaining a mortgage for an independent villa is the most appropriate approach to investing of my inheritance money. For to do otherwise would be to render my inheritance under the control of another individual who will hold all power and decision-bearing capacity and who will not be as interested in the profitability or long-term success of the villa since they do not in reality hold ownership to the property. Under the system of feudalism which is a "social system of rights and duties based on land tenure and…
Stubbs, William (nd) A General Overview: Its Frankish Birth and English Development. Retrieved from: http://history-world.org/feudalism.htm
Artistic Analysis of "The Weeping Woman": A Plan to Develop a New Work
The meaning of artistic work continues to evolve to mold into new forms and shapes. The current sociological and economic developments are significantly influencing the artistic creations. Women have the power in the society, and, therefore, they have the freedom to do jobs, own businesses, and at a personal level, they now possess the option of sexual orientation. The modern era remained quite merciful towards women who had a role of sexual slaves in the past. The omans along with the Greeks considered the females as toys that had a function of providing comfort to warriors. Females were responsible for taking care of domestic chores, and they had no right of receiving payments against their services. However, males identified and treated them as trophies, and they collected them according to their level of bravery in the battlefield.…
Barnes, M., Davis, A., & Rogers, H. (2006). Women's voices, Women's choices: Experiences and creativity in consulting women users of mental health services. Journal of Mental Health 15 (3), 329-341.
Gonzalez-Ruibal, A. (2007). Making things public: Archaeologies of the Spanish Civil War. Public Archaeology Vol 6 (4), 203-226 .
Picasso, P (1937).The Weeping Woman . Tate. Tate Modern, London.
What were the primary motivations and factors that led to the U.S. shift from isolationism and continental expansion to imperialism by the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
America’s so-called “shift” from isolationism and continental expansion to imperialism by the late 19th and early 20th centuries was really nothing more than a natural evolution of America’s “Manifest Destiny.” Before the US could enter its imperial phase beginning with the Spanish-American War at the turn of the century, it had first to square accounts on the continent by pushing its borders as far as they could be pushed. Once the West had been thoroughly settled and the Union held together (the major conflict of the 19th century), the US could turn its attention to foreign lands and global plans to facilitate the spread of the American Empire. It would have been impossible for the US to achieve imperial objectives any…
Lease, Mary Elizabeth. Women in the Farmers’ Alliance. (1891). In Reading the American Past, Vol. 2. Ed. By Michael P. Johnson. Bedford/St. Martins, 2012.
O’Sullivan, John. "Manifest destiny." Sanford, Manifest Destiny (1845): 26-32.
Peck, Mary Gray. Carrie Chapman Catt: A Biography. New York: HW Wilson Company, 1944.
Smith, Adam. The wealth of nations. Aegitas, 2016.
Roark, James L., Michael P. Johnson, Patricia Cline Cohen, Sarah Stage, and Alan Lawson. Understanding the American promise, volume 2: from 1865: a brief history of the United States. Vol. 2. Macmillan, 2011.
However, he reconciles these opposite views in what he designs as the new religion for man:
hile he knew that a collapse and ricorso of Vico's type into a "divine" and "barbaric" epoch was possible, he did not regard any such colossal disaster as necessary or likely. He put hope above fear, and positive over negative. He seems to have foreseen a historical transformation similar to the change from Hellenic to "Hellenistic" in ancient civilization, which, in the Roman Empire, finally did collapse into such a barbaric ricorso, or cycle. European and "estern" phases of civilization have not yet experienced Spengler's or Toynbee's "Roman paradigm" of orld State and orld Religion, and Ortega trusted that such a horrible outcome could be forever avoided by a kind of federal world order built on the model of the European Union." (Graham, 2001, p.504)
Thus, Ortega y Gasset's main attempt is to create…
Graham, John T (2001) The Social Thought of Ortega Y. Gasset: A Systematic Synthesis in Postmodernism and Interdisciplinarity. Columbia: University of Missouri Press
Ortega y Gasset, Jose.(1998) Man and Crisis. New York W.W. Norton
The Modern Theme. (1961)New York W.W. Norton
Blaise Pascal. http://dailywisdom.gospelcom.net/archives/old/2000/04/dw-04-14-2000.html
Post SOLOM Assessment
The student observed for the Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM) was a native Spanish-speaking 16-year-old female who was a high school sophomore. Her native country was Mexico; she had two brothers and a sister, all younger; she lived with her siblings and parents in a home near the school, and they had been in the U.S. for three years. Her current language proficiency level is limited English proficiency with her SOLOM score being a 20/25. I have met with her parents who have expressed an interest in becoming more proficient in English so as to help their children improve with the language. This fits in with the theory of Pompa (n.d.) who promotes the concept of parents participating in their children's education and Vera & Israel (2012) observe the same.
Prior to administering the initial SOLOM, my perception of the student's proficiency was that it was…
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Modern ELL Teacher. (n.d.). Google Sites. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/themoderndayeslteacher/home
Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2013). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for teaching K-12 English learners. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Pompa, M. (n.d.). Building trust with families. AdLit. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org/media/mediatopics/ells / .
Spanish and American Democracy
The United States of America and Spain are both now industrialized nations and modern democracies, but their paths to democracy and global influence were quite distinct. The United States of America was formally founded in 1776 by a group of early American politicians who envisioned the young nation as an alternative in democratic governance in contrast and opposition to the monarchies still in ruling power throughout Europe. Spain was one of these European countries under monarchial rule in the 18th century and remained a monarchy for 201 years after the official adoption of the democratic Constitution in the United States of America. Spain's transition to democratic rule is largely considered to have begun in 1975 when the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco passed away, although there are other dates in the 1970s that are also said to mark the transition as well.
The philosophical foundations of the…
Conversi, Daniele. (2002) 'The smooth transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the nationalities question', National Identities, vol. 4, no 3, pp. 223 -- 244
Crapol, Edward P. (1992). "Coming to Terms with Empire: The Historiography of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Diplomatic History 16: 573 -- 97
Fry, Joseph A. (1996) "From Open Door to World Systems: Economic Interpretations of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Pacific Historical Review 65:277 -- 303.
Higginbotham, Don. (1983) The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763 -- 1789.
Spanish holiday Dia de los Muertos. Specifically it will discuss countries that celebrate the holiday, how it is celebrated, traditions, and any other pertinent information. Dia de los Muertos, or Day of the Dead, is an ancient Aztec traditional celebration that has taken place for thousands of years. They were already celebrating the holiday when the Spanish Conquistadors conquered the country. The Spanish did not approve of the holiday and tried to stop it, but it continues even today throughout Mexico, some other areas in Central America, and much of the United States. The Spanish did end up moving the holiday. Initially, Mexicans celebrated it in August, and it lasted an entire month. The Spanish moved it to October 31 to coincide with Catholic holidays on November 1 and 2. It is a holiday to celebrate those friends and family who have passed away, a kind of celebration of the…
Editors. Los Dias de los Muertos. Holidays.net. 2009. 29 Sept. 2009.
Hernandez, Aracely. Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead). Northern Illinois University. 2002. 29 Sept. 2009.
That in itself is startling, but there are precedents for mystical encounters of various kinds, or to be less extreme, a choice of persuasions to put it down to fancy; until -- "My God," says a second man, "I must be dreaming, I thought I saw a unicorn." At which point, a dimension is added that makes the experience as alarming as it will ever be. A third witness, you understand, adds no further dimension but only spreads it thinner, and a fourth thinner still, and the more witnesses there are the thinner it gets and the more reasonable it becomes until it is as thin as reality, the name we give to the common experience... "Look, look!" recites the crowd. "A horse with an arrow in its forehead! It must have been mistaken for a deer."
One of the greatest conflicts that art allows each one of us to…
Bunuel, Luis. My Last Sigh. Minneapolis: U. Minnesota P. 2003.
Colina, Jose de la, and Tomas Perez Turrent, Paul Lenti (ed. And trans.). Objects of Desire, Conversations with Luis Bunuel. New York: Marsilio Publishers. 1992.
Edwards, Gwynne. Indecent Exposures: Bunuel, Saura, Erice and Almodovar by Gwynne Edwards. London: Marion Boyars P. 2000.
Eisenstein, S. And Richard Taylor (ed. And trans.) Selected Writings Vol. One: works 1922-1934. London: BFI. 1987.
"I do not think they will submit," Miranda writes (149). One of the Seri leaders told Miranda that "he loved neither God nor priest nor political authorities and preferred to die killing."
Miranda is clearly caught in a vicious conundrum: the more "industriously" and "diligently" he protects the welfare of the Indians, "the less relief and rest he will have from the Spaniards, whom he also serves." It is a "very ticklish" subject and he resents the fact that the Spanish political leaders in Mexico "watch over a priest's action in order to bring censure upon him. Many times the life I have described is simply not worth it, not worth it at all." He misses Spain, he writes: "There one lives, here one only dies." His worst fear is that once the presidio is finished, the plan will be to "extinguish and annihilate the Seri nation once and for…
Deeds, Susan M. Defiance and Deference in Mexico's Colonial North: Indians
Under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003
Interknowledge Corporation. "Brazil: History." (2005). Retrieved 23 Nov. 2006 at http://www.geographia.com/brazil/brazihistory.htm .
Meyer, Michael C., & Beezley, William H.. The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Navies in American Revolution
For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…
Black, Jeremy, "Naval Power, Strategy and Foreign Policy, 1775-1791" in Michael Duffy (ed). Parameters of British Naval Power, 1650-1850. University of Exeter Press, 1992, pp. 93-120.
Black, Jeremy. European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815. Routledge, 2007.
Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. Yale University Press, 1985.
Kelly, J.K. "The Struggle for American Seaborne Independence as Viewed by John Adams." PhD Dissertation, University of Maine, 1973.
2008 -- 2009 Guide to oston's efore and After School Programs. (2008). Retrieved June 30, 2010 from ostnet website: http://www.bostnet.org/matriarch/documents/OSTnetAfterSchoolGuide2008.2009.pdf
oston After School and eyond. (2010). Retrieved June 30, 2010 from City of oston website: http://www.cityofboston.gov/bcyf/bostonbeyond.asp
Young Achievers. (2010). Retrieved June 30, 2010 from Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website: http://www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=51949
Damon, W. (2006). Programs Designed for Second Languages. Handbook of Child Psychology, (pp. 93 -100). New York, NY: Wiley.
Erichsen, G. (2010). 10 Fact About the Spanish Language. Retrieved June 30, 2010 from About.com website: http://spanish.about.com/od/historyofspanish/a/10_facts_about_spanish.htm
Halpern, R. (2000). Financing After School Programs. Retrieved June 30, 2010 from Finance Project.org website: http://www.financeproject.org/Publications/financing_afterschool_programs.htm
Hayes, C. (2004). Investment in City Wide Out of School Time Programs. Retrieved June 30, 2010 from PPV website: http://www.ppv.org/ppv/publications/assets/300_publication.pdf
Linton, a. (2004). Learning in Two Languages. Retrieved June 30, 2010 from UCSd website: http://www.ccis-ucsd.org/PULICATIONS/wrkg106.PDF
Neuman, S. (2003). Home and Community Influences. Handbook of Early Literacy Research,…
2008 -- 2009 Guide to Boston's Before and After School Programs. (2008). Retrieved June 30, 2010 from Bostnet website: http://www.bostnet.org/matriarch/documents/BOSTnetAfterSchoolGuide2008.2009.pdf
Boston After School and Beyond. (2010). Retrieved June 30, 2010 from City of Boston website: http://www.cityofboston.gov/bcyf/bostonbeyond.asp
Young Achievers. (2010). Retrieved June 30, 2010 from Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website: http://www.rwjf.org/pr/product.jsp?id=51949
Damon, W. (2006). Programs Designed for Second Languages. Handbook of Child Psychology, (pp. 93 -100). New York, NY: Wiley.
Spaniards introduced land ownership and subsequently, social class divisions. Land ownership became a primary means of social status after Spanish conquest and remains so centuries later. Land-owning elite ruled like feudal lords, even though the Spanish governors in Manila relied on traditional tribal chiefs to administer local lands. Just as Philippine religion reflects a combination of Roman Catholic and indigenous Philippine beliefs, so too does Philippine social structure reflect a combination of European and Asian practices. The native Philippines, or "indios," practiced feudalism and slavery but with a different means of disseminating social class status than was used in Europe in the sixteenth century ("A Brief History").
Therefore, much of what distinguishes the Philippines from its Pacific Rim and South Pacific counterparts is owed to pre-conquest social and cultural traditions. The religious beliefs and social practices still extant on the islands today are not only a product of the Spanish…
Brief History of the Philippines from a Filipino Perspective." Health Action Network. Reproduced online and retrieved Dec 5, 2007 at http://www.tribo.org/history/history3.html
Philippine History." PINAS. Retreived Dec 5, 2007 at http://pinas.dlsu.edu.ph/history/history.html
Philippine History - Spanish Colonization." Retrieved Dec 5, 2007 at http://www.philippinecountry.com/philippine_history/spanish_colonization.html
Spanish Colony 1565-1898." Retrieved Dec 5, 2007 at http://www.ualberta.ca/~vmitchel/fw2.html
Atahualpa clearly held great respect for the Andean traditional drink and considered that it was an insult for the visitors to show little interest regarding it and even to spill it. He probably considered that the Spanish were trying to impose their power through putting across such behavior and that it was essential for him to employ a similar attitude by throwing the letter. The Spaniards themselves failed to comprehend the ritual that they were taking part in and thus only managed to infuriate their host as a consequence of thinking that the 'chicha' was similar to any other drink (Yupangui & Julien 11).
The fact that the Andean culture was poorly organized made it difficult for Andeans to understand the attitudes that they needed to employ concerning foreigners and local affairs. They thus had the tendency to support any one who was strong enough to become king, regardless of…
Diego de Castro Yupangui (titu cussi), Catherine J. Julien, "History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru," (Hackett Publishing, 2006 )
Bartoleme De Las Casas
An Analysis of the Activism of Bartoleme De Las Casas
Often characterized by modern historians as the "Defender and the apostle to the Indians," Bartolome de Las Casas is known for exposing and condemning as well as exaggerating and misrepresenting the violent practices of Spanish colonizers of the New orld against Native Americans. Marked by emotional polemic and often embellished statistics, Las Casas' voluminous works brought him both support and opposition in his own time. hile being harshly criticized as a threat to Spanish rule in America, De Las Casas was also continually financially supported by the Crown and offered high offices by the Church (Benzoni 48). Though more than four hundred years have passed since his death, the works of this controversial Dominican friar continue to elicit strong reactions from both detractors and defenders -- from both those who condemn him and those who praise…
Adorno, Rolena. "Discourses on Colonialism: Bernal Diaz, Las Casas, and the Twentieth-Century Reader." MLN, vol. 103, no. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp. 239-258. Print.
Alker, Hayward. "The Humanistic Moment in International Studies: Reflections on Machiavelli and Las Casas." International Studies Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 4 (Dec., 1992), pp. 347-371. Print.
Bandelier, Adolph Francis. "Bartoleme de las Casas." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol.
3. NY: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. Print.
Inca and Spanish ideas regarding the roles of females and males
This paper presents a detailed description and comparison of the Inca and Spanish ideas regarding the roles of females and males. The writer uses examples of similarities and differences to illustrate the point.
TAKING STEPS BACKWARDS
As the world continues to globalize, mankind pats itself on the back and believes that it continues to move in a forward motion. All one has to do is observe the equality of the sexes today to know that the world has come a long way from the old days. However when one studies the history of two cultures, the Spanish and the Incas one discovers that a long ago and forgotten civilization had as much if not more gender equality than has ever happened since without a fight. The Inca society was so far ahead of its time when it came to…
Turning Points in American History
Two Turning Points and Current Impact on Cultural, Social, Economic and Political Life
Two historical turning points are the Social Security Act and the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Social Security Act, passed in 1935, was intended to provide a "safety net" for people who could not support themselves (Schultz, 2010, p. 399). This "social welfare" was a significant departure from the federal government's prior tendency to let citizens fend for themselves financially. The strength of the Social Security Act's impact on our history is at least partially proven by the fact that it expanded significantly and endures to this day. The Social Security Act currently influences several facets of American life: society and culture, in that the responsibility of the federal government for the welfare of its citizens is now a commonly accepted idea; economy, in that Social Security is now a…
A&E Television Networks. LLC. (2013). Wyoming grants women the vote. Retrieved from www.history.com Web site: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/wyoming-grants-women-the-vote
Federal Reserve. (2011, August 24). FRB: The Federal Reserve System Purposes and Functions. Retrieved from www.federalreserve.gov Web site: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pf/pf.htm
Federal Reserve. (n.d.). History of the Federal Reserve - Federal Reserve Education. Retrieved from www.federalreserveeducation.org Web site: http://www.federalreserveeducation.org/about-the-fed/history/
League of Women Voters. (2011). Our Work | League of Women Voters. Retrieved from www.lwv.org Web site: http://www.lwv.org/our-work
Turkish culture is generally considered to be quite homogenous; even so many business people of Turkey are used to doing business with people from all over the world and from a range of different cultures (Katz, 2008). However, this doesn't necessarily imply that Turkish people are open-minded. Sometimes they are quite the opposite and prefer to have things done "their way" or in the specific manner in which they are used to. In that sense, it's absolutely helpful to have a guide of all the aspects of Turkish culture, so that one can better familiarize oneself with the nuances of this culture so that communication is facile, and so that one can achieve the business related goals that are most important and specific. When it comes to the culture of Spain and of those from Catalan, there are areas of overlap and areas of difference.
elationships and Showing espect
EC. (2013). Meeting etiquette. Retrieved from http://businessculture.org/southern-europe/business-culture-in-turkey/meeting-etiquette-in-turkey/
Ediplomat. (2013). Turkey. Retrieved from http://www.turkey.doingbusinessguide.co.uk/the-guide/business-etiquette.aspx
Katz, L. (2008). Negotiating international business: Turkey. Retrieved from http://instruction2.mtsac.edu/rjagodka/BUSM_51_Project/Negotiating/Turkey.pdf
Hello, Please 3 cultures compare paper. Please include Spanish, American, Indian Cultures Heritage Assessment access Heritage Assessment Tool.
A questionnaire design that is used to assess a person's culture, religion, and ethnic so as to understand the person in relation to illnesses, diseases and their general health is what is referred to as the Heritage Assessment Tool Cohn et al., 2010
( ADDIN EN.CITE )
As unique as ones fingerprint is, so is their heritage in some cultures. Everyone has their own unique heritage and this heritage is very different from the heritage of another culture, a person's heritage is what determines their religious, cultural and ethnic background. It is also what deals with the person's mental, physical and their spiritual beliefs and this will be used when maintaining the person's health, protecting and restoring their health. It is important to note that in the healthcare field knowledge…
Cohn, W.F., Ropka, M.E., Pelletier, S.L., Barrett, J.R., Kinzie, M.B., Harrison, M.B., . . . Knaus, W.A. (2010). Health Heritage, a Web-Based Tool for the Collection and Assessment of Family Health History: Initial User Experience and Analytic Validity. [Article]. Public Health Genomics, 13(7/8), 477-491. doi: 10.1159/000294415
Kasten, W.C. (1992). Bridging the Horizon: American Indian Beliefs and Whole Language Learning. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 23(2), 108-119.
Miller, J. (2000). Keeping With the Transcultural Nursing Society Mission. [Article]. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11(3), 230.
Roland, F., Johnson, I., Bruce, E., & Khuon, K.-N. (2007). Living with Heritage: Site Monitoring and Heritage Values in Greater Angkor and the Angkor World Heritage Site, Cambodia. World Archaeology, 39(3), 385-405.
The book strikes the reader as impressively researched, although at times the more micro and quantitiative focus of the historian can cause the humanity of the narratives, of the people themselves to be lost. A greater incorporation of a central thesis into the fold of the book, and a more coherently organized framework in which to subsume the data might have been helpful. The inclusion of an appendix is worthy as well, but how many readers will read such a work? The lack of attention to the individuals at hand to a certain extent justifies the often stultifying inclusion of lists and tables, but if these lists could have been given greater 'story' and coherennce, the book would have been of greater value and interest to the layperson, rather than to the stuidious historian or student. And ultimately was that not what most of these people were seeking, coming to…
Spanish filmmaker Pedro Almodovar often presents his themes in a satiric and comic framework emphasizing certain melodramatic and exaggerated elements. His film Talk to Her (2002) is not as darkly comedic or as exaggerated as some of his films, but he uses the various elements of film to heighten the odd nature of his characters and to illuminate their inner states on the basis of external action, sets, and camerawork. A primary mental state for these characters is that of audience, for life to a great degree is a spectator sport at which they are better as observers than participants.
The film maintains a certain theatricality throughout, beginning with the opening shot, which is revealed as a curtain is drawn back as if for a stage play. Indeed, the first thing seen in the film is a stage play, a very odd interaction at which the main character is seated…
Almodovar, Pedro. Talk to Her. El Deseo S.A, 2002.
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
Sir Francis Drake was a ritish explorer, slave-trader, privateer, a pirate working for a government, in the service of England, mayor of Plymouth, England, and naval officer. Driven by early conflict with Catholic Spaniards and later fueled by tensions between England and Spain, Drake is best known for his piracy of Spanish settlements and ships and his role in defeating the Spanish Armada. Often referred to as the El Draque meaning "the dragon" by the Spanish, Drake earned his reputation as a tireless warrior against the Spanish.
The Elizabethan era is a period of English history during most of the 16th century under the reign of Elizabeth 1 of England. It is considered the height of the Renaissance of England with the development of Elizabethan theatre and renowned plays, books and poetry from William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlow, en Jonson and Thomas Kyd. During the Elizabethan era, Francis acon formulated early…
Elizabethan Era." Wikipedia. 25 Oct. 2003. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabethan_period .
Heseltine, Simon. "Sir Francis Drake Biography." PageWise. 25 Oct. 2003. http://pa.essortment.com/sirfrancisdrak_rkej.htm.
Seeler, Oliver. "The Voyage." 1996. Mendocino Community Network. 25 Oct. 2003. http://www.mcn.org/2/oseeler/voy.htm .
Sir Francis Drake." Redtek Internet Services. 25 Oct. 2003. http://www.redtek.net/abc/history/drake.htm .
Mann challenges the belief that superior weaponry was the main factor in the Inca loss to the Spanish. Give two examples of Inca weaponry or strategy that was viable in warfare against the Spanish. 1) Huge roadway system connecting all parts of the Incan Empire; 2) Versatility and ability to fight at high altitudes; 3) Overwhelming population; 4)Large stone fortifications; 5) No gunpowder, but an abundance of weapon: clubs, spears, bows, lances, slings that were accurate at shorter distances.
Mann argues that the rivalry for power in the Andes among the Inca and other native groups was a major factor the Spanish conquest. Explain at least one of these rivalries. Who were the two, three or four players involved? Who were they allied with and what role did they play in the Spanish victory? Because Atawallpa's clan had been so authoritarian and destructive in subjugating other populations (e.g. those from…
The idea of dressing in civilized and well clothed are well deserving of freedom because t this group that is highly valued despite the fact that the Malay peasants who struggled for the independence have been devalued in the official history of nation -- building and their mark and contribution has been ignored. 'This shown that apart from the influences from the other cultures social classes have been instrumental in shaping the clothing style of the Philippine.' (Grace, 2008) Due to this many would want to dress in a particular recognized and accepted way to be recognized in the class of the rich. This is just part of the culture that has been impacted to the Filipinos which ahs influenced their manner of dressing.
Despite the different Muslim groups in he south and the mountain tribes have their own distinctive garments and seem to have influenced less. The Maranao Muslims…
Alfredo R. (2008) Philippines Culture Shock; California, Wiley Publisher
Grace R. (2008) Culture Shock! Philippines: A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette California, Wiley Publisher
Helena M. (2007) Introduction to Philippines Culture; New York, Sage Publications,
Renato. P. (2006) An Introduction to Philippines way of dressing; New York, Periplus
indigenous people were conquered and colonized. The writer will focus on the Incas and discuss their many evidences of colonization and being conquered. The evidence the writer will present will be in religious, economic and social discussion to illustrate the writer's belief that they were indeed conquered against their will and then later colonized. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The Spanish were interested in development and growth in the 16th and 17th century and to that end they examined areas of the world that they believed would provide them with natural resources and power and they took the land over (Schwartz PG). Often times there were already indigenous people living there and the Spanish would forcefully conquer and colonize those people (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT (http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm).One of the most interesting cases of the Spanish conquering and taking over an indigenous people was the Incas conquer. It was most…
Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico by Stuart B. Schwartz Hardcover: 272 pages; Dimensions (in inches): 0.77 x 8.58 x 5.77
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan; (March 2000)