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Language & Intelligence in Psychology
The author of this report is to answer to two general questions relating to psychology and how much (or little) it interweaves with thinking, language and intelligence. Indeed, being able to process information and being able to prod patients in the right way is important. The first question to be answered is how important thinking, language and intelligence are to the field of psychology. The second question is why and how this topic is relevant one's chosen major or concentration and/or future career goals. While thinking, language and intelligence are sometimes overblown, there is no doubt how important it is how important those things are to operating as a psychologist or in the general psychology field.
When it comes to language, the class text speaks volumes about language when it speaks about language. Constructing one's speech properly relating to syntax, tone, terms used and…
APA,. (2015). Intelligence. http://www.apa.org. Retrieved 17 April 2015, from http://apa.org/topics/intelligence/index.aspx
Feldman, R., & Feldman, R. (2011). Essentials of understanding psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
In a world that favors early adopters and revolves around the latest technology, individuals will be better served if they continue to seek out learning opportunities after their formal education has ended. Local governments and communities should provide these opportunities through libraries, universities and community centers. The skills gap applies to all.
Although people are defined by their different skill sets and this diversity enhances the richness of life in America, it is also clear that some skills are more important than others. If young people aspire to be successful adults, they must gain the skills they need to succeed in higher education, and those higher education skills must then translate into useful skills for the workforce. Focusing on process and information application, rather than restricting curricula to the collection of facts and information, is a critical step for successful learning. Integrating business leaders in the effort of re-defining…
American Society for Training and Development 2006. 'Bridging the Skills Gap: How the Skills Shortage Threatens Growth and Competitiveness and What to do About It' Alexandria, VA.
Daggett, Willard R. 'Jobs and the Skills Gap. International Center for Leadership in Education' Rexford, N.Y. Available at: www.state.me.us/education/diploma/jobsandskills.pdf
'Job Skills Checklist', Purdue University. Available at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/626/01/
National Education Association 'Statement of Principles: 21st Century Skills and the Reauthorization of NCLB/ESEA'. Available at: http://www.nea.org/home/17154.htm
The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. acism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism. Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism. It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.
After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…
Bond J. & Bond S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. NY: Churchill Livingstone.
Parks, J.A. & Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wilson, W.K. & Kass, L.R. ( 1998).The ethics ofHuman Cloning.New York: AEI Press.
thinking is multi-faceted. As president and founder of Compass, a real estate company in Italy, my approach needed to be multi-demensional in nature. For one, Italy has high debt burdens which are often financed through governments and large corporations. Starting a real estate company therefore was challenging as I had to analyze the potential market in a manner that was unconventional. In many areas, particularly in the United States, commercial real estate is often driven by consumer demand. In Italy however, the exact opposite it true. Through my analytical ability, I was able to successfully navigate through nearly 5 years of recession like macroeconomic cycles. In addition, I was able to deliver profits that exceed nearly 60% of my peers in the industry.
Prior to my experience in Italian real estate, I accepted a role as a consultant at AB Studio Inc. This position, much like the real estate position…
1) Production Information: a code of procedure for the construction industry Construction Production Information Committee, 2003 BS 7000-4:1996 Design Management Systems
Maps to increase comprehension for ESL's
English as a Second Language Learner
The academic achievement gap between linguistic minority groups and other students is a persistent problem for the American public school system (Thernstrom and Thernstrom, 2003). The pattern of underachievement and a high school dropout rate for Hispanic/Latino students among immigrant groups is particularly pronounced (Wong Fillmore & Meyer, 1992) Of the school-aged English Language Learner (ELL) population, 73% come from Spanish language backgrounds (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002), and their test results in reading are of particular concern as literacy skills are the building blocks for academic achievement. The gap between the test scores of Hispanic/Latino students and white students is a well documented phenomenon, existing throughout grades K-12 in both reading and mathematics (National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2003). According to the NCES (2000), 44% of foreign-born Hispanics fail to complete high school. A much lower percentage…
Alper, L. & Hyerle, D (2006). Thinking Maps: A language for leadership. Cary, NC: Thinking Maps.Inc.
Anderson, S., Yilmaz, D., & Washburn-Moses, L. (2004). Middle and high school students with learning disabilities: Practical academic interventions for general education teachers -- A review of the literature. American Secondary Education, 32(2), 19-38.
Ausubel, D.P. (1960). The use of advances organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267-272
Bahr, G.S. & Dansereau, D.F (2005). Bilingual knowledge maps as a presentation format: Delayed recall and training effects. Journal of Experimental Education 73(2), 101-118
Lawler and Ledford (1987) argued twenty-six years ago that skill-based pay was going to become an increasingly popular concept in compensation management. Ledford and Heneman (2011) define skill-based pay as "a compensation system that rewards employees with additional pay in exchange for formal certification of the employee's mastery of skills, knowledge and/or competencies." The authors juxtapose this against a "job-based pay system," defined as a system where employees are entitled to receive their pay even if they are not proficient in their position.
There are two issues with the concept from the outset. The first is that employees should be proficient in their position, since they have been given that position. It makes little sense for an employee to remain in a position with no skills. Trotter (2013) notes that a person's skills and competencies contribute to them receiving the position, at least in any company where merit…
Giancola, F. (2011). Skill-based pay: Fad or classic? Compensation Benefits Review. Vol. 43 (4) 220-226.
Lawler, Edward E., III, & Ledford, Gerald E., Jr. (1987). Skill-based pay: A concept that's catching on. Management Review, 76(2), 46-46. Retrieved May 30, 2013
Ledford, G. & Heneman, H. (2011). Skill-based pay. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://www.siop.org/userfiles/image/SIOP_SHRM_Skill_Based_Pay.pdf
Trotter. R. (2013). Skills-based pay structures vs. job-based pay structures. Rory Trotter.com. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://rorytrotter.com/2013/04/10/skill-based-pay-structures-versus-job-based-pay-structures/
Matrix A shows a set of skills and tri-part analysis of those skills for five individuals. The Matrix is based on: S = Strong, W = Weak, or T= In Training. The skill sets are: problem solving, written communications, oral communication, leadership, creativity, goal orientation, multi-tasking, time management, analysis, delegating, and strategic thinking. Analysis of the matrix shows the following:
Based on the matrix, areas of concern are, in order of ranking:
Oral Communication (3 weak)
Strategic Thinking (4 still in training)
Analytical Skills (3 still in training)
Written Communication (1 weak, 3 in training)
Time Management (1 weak)
If we assign points to each individual as 3 for Strong, 2 for In training, and 1 for weak, we find that the…
Problem Solving and Analytical Skills. (2009). University of Kent. Retrieved from: http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/problem-solving-skills.htm
Six Types of Oral Communication Activities. (2011). Speaking the Disciplines. Retrieved from: http://www.speaking.pitt.edu/about/oral-comm.html
Mind Tools. (2012). Time Management Games and Tools. Mindtools.com. Retrieved from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_HTE.htm
Rein, S. (2012). Three Keys to Improving Your Strategic Thinking. Forbes.com. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/2010/11/09/strategic-thinking-innovation-creativity-leadership-managing-rein.html
In that survey, employers in the field of "Health Care and Pharmaceutical" were queried as to the "Top Five Skills That Are Attractive in MBA Graduates." Since my concentration is Healthcare Management, this portion of the survey is of keen interest. Those top five skills, which I believe I possess, include: 1) "ability to think analytically"; 2) "ability to think strategically"; 3) "leadership skills"; 4) "oral communication skills"; 5) and "interpersonal skills."
Moreover, among the Healthcare/Pharmaceutical skills that employers in this survey believe should "be strengthened" through MBA programs, are: "ability to make decisions with imperfect information"; "ability to think strategically"; and "written communication skills."
In conclusion, I wish to address another question which was posed for this essay, "What are your concerns about your ability to be successful in an MBA program?" My concerns are related to how high I can go in my MBA program scholastic achievement…
Graduate Management Admission Council (2004). Employer Assessment of MBA
Students. Retrieved December 26, 2004, from http://www.gmac.com .
Inside Yahoo Education (2004). MBA Skills: What do you need to succeed? Retrieved
December 24, 2004, from http://education.yahoo.com/college/essentials/articles/biz/mba_skills.html .
Applying Critical Thinking
Best Practices in Critical Thinking
"Applying Critical Thinking Skills to Making Post-Graduate Education Decisions"
"Applying Critical Thinking Skills to Making Post-Graduate Education Decisions"
Introduction/Critical Thinking Defined
Using critical thinking skills nearly always results in better decision making and therefore better actions. Personal change is always accompanied by a long list of critical issues that require thought and development in order to cement into a cost-benefit balance. Long-term goals are likely to be those best developed with critical thinking skills, but sometimes long-term goals do not actually create a beneficial outcome, largely as a result of those goals not being well thought out or well researched. Seeking to further one's education is a higher goal that can and often does result in greater long-term earning potential but is also often associated with immediate sacrifices and challenges, such as limiting income in the present for deferred promises of greater…
Halpern, D.F. (1997). Critical Thinking across the Curriculum: A Brief Edition of Thought and Knowledge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Keith-Spiegel, P., & Wiederman, M.W. (2000). The Complete Guide to Graduate School Admission: Psychology, Counseling, and Related Professions (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Pederson, D.J., & Daniels, M.H. (2001). 13 Stresses and Strategies for Graduate Student Couples. In Succeeding in Graduate School: The Career Guide for Psychology Students, Walfish, S. & Hess, A.K. (Eds.) (pp. 171-184). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Perlman. (2001). 3 Choosing the Master's Degree in Psychology. In Succeeding in Graduate School: The Career Guide for Psychology Students, Walfish, S. & Hess, A.K. (Eds.) (pp. 31-40). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
elf-regulation and analysis are interpersonal skills used by the nurse to convey potentially upsetting news, or to analyze the nurse's own behavior and professionalism in his or her nursing duties.
Critical thinking in nursing is further delineated by the UNM College of Nursing (2005). As seen above, this aspect of the profession is not only essential in terms of the patient-nurse relationship, but also in terms of the intrapersonal relationship of the nurse with him- or herself. The self-regulation and morality developed by means of critical thinking in the profession helps the nurse to make the often difficult decisions required on a daily basis. It also provides the nurse with the ability to serve as a liberating force for patients and their families, as the nurse helps them to face medical dilemmas.
Facione, Peter A. (2004). "Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts." California Academic Press. http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why2004.pdf…
Facione, Peter A. (2004). "Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts." California Academic Press. http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why2004.pdf
UNM College of Nursing. (2005, Sept. 16-17). "What is critical thinking? http://hsc.unm.edu/consg/conct/whatis.shtml
Some salient guidance concerning developing good note-taking skills from the literature include placing a date and the name of the class on the top of every page to make sorting class notes out later on easier. Likewise, many students with good typing skills will likely benefit from typing their notes after school, when the information is still fresh in their minds. Students can also learn how to improve their note-taking skills by reviewing the notes taken by students with known note-taking skills. For instance, according to Willis (2007), "Sharing notes is a valuable way for all students to hone their note-taking skills and gain metacognitive awareness of which content is crucial and which is not. Teachers can ask students who have clearly written notebook entries to share them verbally or post them on a bulletin board for the benefit of students who don't have adequate notes" (p. 157).
Snider, a. & Schnurer, M. (2006). Many sides: Debate across the curriculum. New York
International Debate Education Association.
Ware, M.E. & Millard, R.J. (1997). Handbook on student development: Advising, career development, and field placement. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Willis, J. (2007). Brain-friendly strategies for the inclusion classroom: Insights from a neurologist and classroom teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Teaching Critical Thinking
Critical thinking has been explained as the capability to evaluate and assess information and facts. Critical thinkers establish important issues and concerns, construct them clearly, collect and examine pertinent data, make use of abstract concepts, contemplate open-mindedly, and also communicate efficiently with other individuals (Duron et al., 2006).
I recommend the following 4 teaching strategies to be the most relevant to critical thinking. (We will only discuss two in detail here):
Utilize higher order thinking questions during instruction and assessment
Teach the process
Adapt tasks and assessments
Incorporate games into lessons
Teaching Strategy 1: Utilize higher order thinking questions during instruction and assessment
"Teachers who have been great questioners inspire their learners, promote higher level thinking, support creativeness, as well as improve self-concept in their learners and also themselves." (Johnson, 1990)
Teaching that encourages critical thinking utilizes questioning methods that demand students to evaluate, synthesize, and also…
Duron, R., Limbach, B. And Waugh, W. (2006). Critical Thinking Framework For Any Discipline. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Volume 17, Number 2, 160-166.
Hemming, H.E. (2000). Encouraging critical thinking: "But.. .what does that mean?" Journal of Education, 35(2), 173.
Johnson, N.L. (1990). Questioning makes the Difference. Beavercreek, OH; Pieces of Learning.
Wyatt, M.A. And O'Malley, P. (2011). Instructional Approaches and Strategies to Foster Critical Thinking. Maryland Assessment Group Conference.
Open communication is key to organizational success, and this openness can be demonstrated to employers through honesty and forthrightness (within the bounds of professionalism, of course) during the interview process.
In addition to these directly employment-related knowledge and skill areas, the course I took in Personal Finance will have a substantial positive impact on the way I approach my profession and my attractiveness to potential employers. Not only have I been provided with information on how to spend wisely, save appropriately, and even gauge investment opportunities in my personal life -- all of which will give me enhanced stability and security, which will be seen as a benefit by potential employers -- but these skills will also transfer to my profession in terms of assisting home health care recipients and practitioners alike in reducing their own expenses and thus providing additional value to expected services and relationships. In addition, appropriate…
Critical Thinking in Nursing Education
For far too long nursing has been seen as a profession that requires compassion along with obedience to the orders of doctors who were traditionally considered to be the "real" medical professionals. Nurses were until recently inside and outside of the profession seen as sort of helpmeets to the doctors, a form of junior wife to the male doctor. Of course nurses were always more than this, but it has become true only relatively recently that the medical profession as a whole has begun to acknowledge that critical thinking is as important for nurses as it is for doctors and other medical professionals.
This paper examines the ways in which the teaching of critical thinking can be incorporated more fully (and more deeply) into the teaching curricula and praxis of nursing. Focusing on the importance of critical thinking from the first day that nursing students…
Duchscher, J.E. (1999). Catching the wave: understanding the concept of critical thinking. Journal of Advanced Nursing 29(3): 577-583.
Fowler, L.P. (1998). Improving critical thinking in nursing practice. Journal of Nurses Staff Development 14(4): 183-7.
Kuhar M.B. (1998). Critical thinking: A framework for problem solving in the occupational setting. AAOHN Journal 46(2): 80-81.
Simpson, E. & Courtney, M. (n.d.). Critical thinking in nursing education: A literature review. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/263/1/SIMPSON_CRITICAL_THINKING.PDF.
Nurse Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking and Other Intellectual Skills: Documented Benefits and Skill Application in Nursing
There are many academic skills that are necessary for nursing students that also serve nurses well in professional practice. This paper will examine three such academic skills both in their general benefits to learners and professionals in all sectors and personally to my own advances in nursing knowledge and practice. Active reading, effective writing, and critical thinking skills are essential tools for helping one to properly take in, analyze, and communicate information in efficient and effective manners, and each of these individual thinking areas benefits the other two, as well. There are certain challenges that one might be face with in acquiring these skills, and I will detail my own personal challenges below following a general investigation of benefits and prior to a discussion of my application of these skills.
Psychologist Benjamin Bloom…
Braverman, M. (2010). "Effective wirting." Accessed 28 November 2010. http://effectivewriting.org/
FTC. (2009). "The Critical Thinking Community." Accessed 28 November 2010. http://www.criticalthinking.org/ resources/HE/ctandnursing.cfm
Greenall, S. & Swan, M. (1986). Effective reading: reading skills for advanced students. New York: Cambridge University Press.
OfficePort. (2010). "Bloom's taxonomy." Accessed 28 November 2010. http://www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm
Components of Critical Thinking
Critical thinking skills have become the focus of a growing body of research in recent years (Borg & Stranahan, 2010), due in large part to the flood of information that is now available and the need to analyze and interpret this information to identify flawed reasoning (Halpern, 2009; Hummell, 2016). To this end, this paper applies all of the eight steps recommended by the U.S. Army Management Staff College's critical thinking model developed by Dr. on Paul as disseminated by Eichhorn (n.d.) to assess selected arguments made in a memorandum to the board of directors of Penn-Mart concerning its health care strategy by highlighting the fallacies identified by Almossawi (2013) in his book, An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the application of critical thinking skills to identify fallacious reasoning are presented in the conclusion.
Almossawi, A. (2013). An illustrated book of bad arguments. Retrieved from https://bookof badarguments.com/?view=allpages.
Borg, M. O. & Stranahan, H. A. (2010, January). Evidence on the relationship between economics and critical thinking skills. Contemporary Economic Policy, 28(1), 80-85.
Cantu, D. (2016, May 1). The importance of critical thinking skills. Children's Technology and Engineering, 20(4), 4.
Eichhorn, R. (n.d.). Developing critical thinking skills at the Army Management Staff College. Critical Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/ critical/roy.htm.
Not only is the new economy information-based, but those who master unique skills have a competitive edge. In any field, computer programming skills are viewed as an asset. Just as programming skills help consumers troubleshoot their own problems and save money, programming skills can help corporations troubleshoot their problems in house, avoiding unnecessary expenditures on outsourced programmers or technicians. Computer programming skills can also be channeled into creative enterprise. For example, a person who masters programming skills can start a new business offering technical support to clients, or a business designing proprietary and custom-designed software for any number of industries. These entrepreneurial ideas may become full-time self-employment or may simply be adjuncts to one's standard job.
There are also good personal reasons to master the special skill of computer programming. Computer programming is inherently creative. It encourages people to come up with novel solutions for problems. Programmers design interesting software,…
Computer Programmers." U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved Mar 16, 2007 at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos110.htm
Computer Programming for Everybody." Retrieved Mar 16, 2007 at http://www.python.org/doc/essays/cp4e.html
Critical Thinking Application
"Every job, and every company, can benefit from critical thinking" (Pauker, 2010). Pauker makes this assertion with good reason. In considering this argument, Pauker suggests taking a second to think about any job, and the daily responsibilities and decisions that people need to make. She argues that if one considers the margin of error that could ultimately cost a company a project, a client, profits or even its reputation, it is clear how dependent every company is on its employees' ability to execute critical thinking in every position. Pauker concludes that, after several days of pondering, she could not come up with any job that would not benefit from critical thinking. She supports this conclusion by quoting a survey of 400 senior H professionals who, when asked what skills their employees will need in the next five years, put critical thinking skills at the top of the…
Chartrand, J., Ishikawa, H., and Flander, S. (2009). Critical thinking means business: Learn to apply and develop the new #1 workplace skill. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from http://www.talentlens.com/en/downloads/whitepapers/Pearson_TalentLens_Critical_Thinking_Means_Business.pdf
Pauker, L. (2010). What job doesn't benefit from critical thinking? Critical Thinkers website. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from http://critical-thinkers.com/2010/06/what-job-doesnt-benefit-from-critical-thinking/
Paul, R., Elder, L. & Bartell, T. (1997). California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations: State of California, California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from http://www.criticalthinking.org/ aboutCT/briefHistoryCT.cfm
Sumner, W.G. (1906). Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals, pp. 632, 633. New York: Ginn and Company. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from
concrete sequential thinking are crucial for survival in the current challenging world. The primary reason people need to nurture abstract, critical, and concrete sequential is that these abilities are beneficial for educational, personal, and economic growth. This essay examines abstract, critical, and concrete sequential thinking styles and gives examples of each thinking style because they are crucial in my daily life.
Today, critical thinking style is a vital and important topic in modern educations. Educators have tailored the curriculum to the needs of the current era because it has become a tool used to learn how to survive. Therefore, I became interested in learning to think critically. As a critical thinker, I always use my cognitive strategies and skills to increase the chances of a desirable outcome. This kind of thinking is involved in problem solving, calculating possibilities, and decision-making. As the thinker, when I am making use of this…
Lau, J.Y.F. (2013). An introduction to critical thinking and creativity: Think more, think better. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
A full box of small finishing nails was accidentally spilt on the floor of a retail toy establishment, behind the counter where the cash registers were located. Softly clinging to the carpet and embedded in the hols and grooves of a rubber mat that was lying on the floor, the nails were quite difficult to pick up and the task looked like it would be quite time consuming, and with the store about to open time wasn't something there was a lot of. This is where critical thinking came into play: rather than simply dealing with the issue in the first way that came to mind -- i.e. laboriously picking up each individual nail, needing to pick some out of small spaces with some sort of tweezers -- this author recalled the large magnets sold as novelties at the other end of the store. One slow pass of the magnet…
Ennis, R. (2011). Critical thinking defintion, instruction, and assessment. Accessed 11 October 2011. www.criticalthinking.net
FCT. (2011). Defining critical thinking. Foundation for Critical Thinking. Accessed 11 October 2011. www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
Individual Skills and Strength
INDIVIDUAL SKILLS AND STENGHT
Listening skills, communication skills, problem-solving skills and organizational skills are very critical to succeed in life. Communication and listening skills are the essential life skills required to excel in the professional career. Individual with good listening and communication skills are not only generally better informed, the person is perceived as being pleasant with colleagues in the job place. Communication skills are important in all facet of life, and communication skills are the key to achieve a bright career. People within the organization spend 75% of their daily time engaging in communication through writing, speaking, listening and inter-debate. Communication skill is the system of expressing information concisely and effectively in an oral and written mode as well as sharing information with others in order to facilitate exchange of ideas and information. On the other hand, problem-solving skills are the set-skills that allow an…
De Meuse, K.P. Dai, G. & Wu, J.(2011). A Closer Examination: Leadership Skills across Organizational Levels. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 14: 120 -- 139.
Lee, W. (2008). Speech, Language and Communication Needs and Primary School-aged Children. Royal Mail, London.
Omeroglu, E. Buyukozturk, S. Aydogan, Y. et al. (2009). Development of a Problem Solving Scale for Children Attending Class 1-5 of Primary Education and Norm Study for Turkey. International Journal of Learning. 16 ( 8): 117-123.
Sakofsky, M. (2009). The Impact of Empathy Skills Training on Middle School Children. Master's thesis. The College at Brockport: State University of New York.
university education. Critical thinking requires that the thinker consider all elements of an idea, concept or statement. There is a wide range of such elements, including the motives of the communicator, the subtext, the timing and more. The ability to analyze these elements and to criticize them and to make conclusions based on sound inferences about these elements is core to critical thinking (Freeley & Steinberg, 2008). orldview is just one of the different elements that must be considered in the context of critical thinking. However, it is a trap to fall into the idea that all worldviews should be given equal consideration -- some can be substantiated with facts while others cannot; some are more objective while others are more subjective. Indeed, attempts to be more inclusive of worldviews often suffer from the same myopia that characterizes non-inclusion.
As part of their learning in university, students should be exposed…
Walters, K. (1994). Re-thinking reason: New perspectives in critical thinking. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Freeley, A. & Steinberg, D. (2008). Argumentation and debate: Critical thinking for reasoned decision making. Boston: Cengage.
Rusbult, C. (2003). Critical thinking in public schools and the potential dangers of worldview education. American Scientific Affiliation: A Network of Christians in Science. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/views/dangers.htm
sphere of life, there needs to be thought process that precedes any action or decision, otherwise things would be done in erratic and haphazard manner and end up in absolute chaos and disorder. However, for better results and accurate outcomes as always envisioned and required, there is need for critical thinking. This is a step higher than merely thinking as an individual or sitting down to participate in a brainstorming session.
Critical thinking is therefore the dissection of a claim to determine whether the assertion is true, false or partially true or partially false. The ratio of partiality in the truth in an assertion can also be determined in a critical thinking process. This process hence leads to acquisition of skills or standpoints that can be mastered by the relevant persons or learned and used for better results in a process. Critical thinking is a type of reasoning and is…
Foundation for Critical Thinking, (2013). Defining Critical Thinking. Retrieved March 27, 2014 from https://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
Moira Wilson, (2009). Critical thinking: What is this critical thinking and how do you do it? Retrieved March 27, 2014 from http://www.sussex.ac.uk/s3/?id=87
Logical thinking is a big part of the critical thinking process, because it affects how we analyze and process information, communication, and understanding, which is a big part of critical thinking. When a person thinks logically, they use analysis, deduction, induction, and reasoning in both abstract and concrete forms, in order to make a logical, educated decision about a problem or other information. It attempts to uncover the reasoning and characteristics of the problem to devise a solution -- a solution that is rational and makes sense, rather than simply making a quick, snap decision. Logical thinking occurs in a sequence of steps, and leads to a more objective view. This view does not depend on emotion or emotional decisions; they are instead rational and well thought out.
This is the essence of critical thinking, which allows us to make informed and rational decisions about a variety of information and…
Dharmadasa, I., & Silvern, S.B. (2000). Children's conceptualization of force: Experimenting and problem solving. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 15(1), 88+.
Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2001). Critical thinking skills: A comparison of doctoral- and master's-level students. College Student Journal, 35(3), 477+.
During the critical thinking process the thinker will use all of these components, evaluating the implications and consequences of each, until they reach a satisfactory answer.
In order to reach a conclusion using critical thinking, one must hold off making judgment until all available facts are given and fully evaluated. However, the very nature of the critical thinking process means that there is no end to the critical thinking process. Although one may end at a conclusion, this conclusion is only tentative based on the evidence used in the evaluation that led to that particular conclusion. However, a conclusion is always subject to new information and evidence, thus the critical thinking process goes on.
Each of will employ the methods of critical thinking on a regular basis. Often times we find ourselves using critical thinking when we are presented with a situation where our perception of reality is far from…
Damer, T. Edward. (2005): Attacking Faulty Reasoning. New York: Wadsworth.
Fisher, Alec. (2001): Critical Thinking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Paul, Richard and Linda Elder. (2002): Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. New York: Prentice Hall.
Language and Critical Thinking
Language and language diversity has a significant effect in influencing critical thinking because it shapes the individual's worldview or his/her perceptions of the realities that s/he experiences everyday. One of the most often used comparisons in order to illustrate the influence of language diversity in critical thinking is the differences in worldviews of the Eastern and Western cultures.
Looking into the basic differences in their language, Eastern societies and cultures have greater symbols representing various and subjective meanings in it. Chinese language, for instance, has many symbols or characters for every meaning or interpretation generated by the speaker/writer. This kind of language, in turn, makes the Chinese worldview subjective and varied also. Meanings in Chinese culture are embedded in language, and not explicitly expressed, thereby necessitating the individual to think about the meaning of an utterance in the context of the culture of the speaker.
Dilenschneider, R. (2001). "The coming age of content and critical thinking." Executive Speeches, Vol. 15, Issue 5.
Stern, S. (2002). "Critical thinking in the former Societ Union bloc." Christian Science Monitor, Vol. 95, Issue 11.
Letter to the Editor
The Washington Post
1150 15th Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20071
Enhancing the American education system to increase the higher order thinking ability of learners for a better opportunity to achieve future success in the workforce
Through your renowned newspaper, it is an honor to express our views on enhancing the American education system to increase the higher order thinking ability of learners.
The writer has worked in a training capacity for a major corporation in the north for five years and with the University of Harvard for four years. The writer has spent four years volunteering at the local community center working with both secondary and postsecondary children. The writer's role at the Harvard University was as program coordinator for a special committee working with the local communities, universities, and school districts in developing a community of higher order thinkers that can contribute to…
Cavanagh, S. (2004). Students ill-prepared for college-ACT warns. Education Week, 24(8), .
Conley, D.T., & Barton, P.E. (2007). The challenge of college readiness. Educational Leadership, (), 23.
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McCarthy, M., & Kuh, G. (2006). Are students ready for college? What student engagement data says. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(9), 664.
Personally, a critical thinker will be able to evaluate the world in which they live and make conscious choices about what will be most beneficial to their own life and the lives of those around them. They will be able to be an actively engaged citizen able to understand public policies that will impact their life and do something about it if they disagree. They will be able to enrich their mind through reading and study and have the tools to interpret information on their own. Critical thinkers can have more fulfilling conversations when they know how to incite thoughtfulness in others.
Professionally, a critical thinker will be more of an asset in the business world than someone who is not able to think critically. They will be able to work more independently and be able to come up with more creative ideas. A critical thinker will be able to…
Benson, H. (2000). Socratic Wisdom: The Model of Knowledge in Plato's Early Dialogue. New York: Oxford University Press.
Foundation for Critical Thinking. (2009). Defining Critical Thinking. Accessed 13 November 2010. http://www.criticalthinking.org/ aboutCT/define_critical_thinking.cfm.
Hooks, B. (2010). Teaching Critical Thinking: Practical Wisdom. New York: Routledge.
Critical Thinking & Generational Teams
In the course of caring for patients, nurses deal with life threatening situations every day. This constitutes the necessity to develop critical thinking skills in order to know what to do, when to do it, and how it needs to be done to ensure safety and sensibility in patient care. Critical thinking skills develop over time with experience, developing deeper knowledge, and developing higher levels of judgment in the course of care (Alfaro-LeFevre, Apr 2000).
Critical thinking skills involve checking accuracy and reliability of information, recognizing inconsistencies, and identifying patterns of missing information. In the course of busy times, natural tendencies cause people to react without thinking. These patterns are dangerous in patient care. It is important to realize that critical thinking takes time to develop and implement. It requires knowledge, skills, practice, caution, and judgment and is best away from the patient…
Alfaro-LeFevre, R. (Apr 2000). Critical thinking: Usually not rapid fire. AACN News, 2(12).
Halfer, D.S.-L. (2013). Bridging the generational gaps. Retrieved from Nurse.com: http://ce.nurse.com/RetailCourseView.aspx?CourseNum=ce478&page=1&IsA=1
According to the work of Fulford (1994) in an Oxford Practice Skills Project eport "Three elements of practice (ethics, law and communication skills) are approached in an integrated teaching programme which aims to address everyday clinical practice. The role of a central value of patient-centered health care in guiding the teaching is described. Although the final aim of the teaching is to improve the actual practice, we have found three 'sub-aims' helpful in the development of the programme. These sub-aims are: increasing students' awareness of ethical issues; enhancing their analytical thinking skills, and teaching specific knowledge. (Hope, 1994)
In the work of Miles, et al. (1989) entitled "Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age it is stated that "medical ethics education is instruction that endeavors to teach the examination of the role of values in the doctor's relationship with patients, colleagues and society. It is one form of a broad curricular…
Fryer-Edwards, PhD (2005) Tough Talk: Helping Doctors Approach Difficult Conversations - Resources for Teaching- Domains for Small Group Teaching Prelude 3 Department of Medical History and Ethics University of Washington School of Medicine.
Siegler, Mark MD (2001) Lessons from 30 Years of Teaching Clinical Ethics AMA Journal 2001 October.
St. Onge, Joye (1997) Medical Education Must Make Room for Student-Specific Ethical Dilemmas" Canadian Medical Association Journal 15 Apr 1987, 156(8).
Hicks, L. et al. (2001) Understanding the Clinical Dilemmas that Shape Medical Students' Ethical Development: Questionnaire Survey and Focus Group study. BMJ Journal 2001;322-709-71- 24 march 2001.
Martin Luther King believed intelligence strengthened character. My life experiences have added to my intelligence and my intelligence has strengthened my ability to handle situations more effectively by applying critical thinking into my objectives. To begin, I will say where I am from. I was born in Kuwait, situated in the Middle East. Moving to the United States was a difficult time because I had to readjust to a new culture, a new people, and a different way of life. While it took some time to adapt to my new surroundings, I managed to learn several things along the way.
The first was my deep appreciation of nature. Kuwait exists within one of the least hospitable and driest deserts on earth. While the Kuwait Bay has a deep harbor located on the Persian Gulf, other parts have extended views of the sands. Coming to the United States the shift of…
Part One: Main Ideas and Insights
Critical thinking does not necessarily come naturally to people, who are subject to biases and prejudicial assumptions. According to Paul & Elder (2016), critical thinking can be learned and mastered. Critical thinking is essential for improving quality of life and promoting best practices in any field. With critical thinking, a person actively seeks answers and solutions to problems, probing multiple points of view and perspectives. Therefore, critical thinking requires open-mindedness and strong communication skills. Critical thinking also requires time and self-discipline, including the painstaking gathering of data, information, and evidence, and picking apart each issue using systematic methods. Rather than being reactive or subjective, critical thinking involves thorough analyses and assessments, with problem solving as its primary goal. Critical thinking is clear, accurate, significant, and ultimately, fair.
According to Paul & Elder (2016), all thought involves the same eight elements including point of view,…
eadership and Solitude
When talking about effective and compelling leaders in education and other important social fields most people tend to envision a certain type of individual. This individual is usually envisioned as a very social, affable, outspoken and extroverted person. William Dereziwics challenges and questions this character perception of leadership in his article titled earn To Be Alone With Your Thoughts. This article presents a clear connection that exists between leadership and solitude, Dereziwics supports his opinion about leadership by commenting and discussing several situations where solitude directly results in leadership. He also talks about social and media interaction and how this conflicts with leadership. Derecziwics begins his article by stating that solitude is necessary for leadership, he says that this is so because solitude allows a person to think and critically analyze. Derecziwics states that it is very difficult to become an effective leader for someone who is…
Leadership is a very important element in virtually all fields of employment, especially in education. Therefore, it is also very important to establish quality and effective leadership at the head of an organization or entity in order for it to be successful and accomplish its organizational goals. In her article titled What is Quality Leadership?, Misty Laucour explains and defines how delegation and empowerment are important as leadership strategies. She explains that it is important for leaders to delegate responsibilities to employees or members of an organization while at the same time empowering those individuals. Lacours states that leaders can empower individuals by allowing them to take part in the decisions making process, thus creating an environment where the quality of work goes up due to good employee morale. Lacour lists that following actions as vital to the empowerment of follower: " (a) effectively match people to assignments; (b) engage all in active listening; (c) engage in purposeful actions based on goals and vision; (d) focus on growth and opportunities, not failures; (e) encourage others to think critically"(Lacour).
Taking into account what is presented in the article one would have to agree with Lacour's assessment of what quality leadership really is. Our contemporary society is one that is heavily influenced by Democracy, in this type of social and political atmosphere people in general are encouraged to be involved and make decisions. Our society is not one where dictatorship is accepted, that is to say that people do not like being told what to without having any sort of input. It has been proven that the most effective workers and members of an organization are those that are happy and have good morale. In order for good employee morale to be established empowerment of the followers should be present, this way they can feel important and significant in the overall process, thus creating a more productive and effective atmosphere.
Lacour, M., et. al., What is Quality Leadership?. Academic Leadership v. 8 no. 3 (Summer 2010) p. 320-1
business and my personal life. Critical thinking entails the evaluation of communication, information, observations, and arguments, and I believe that I critically evaluate these things to come to a good interpretation of the issues being addressed. For example, I do not take things at face value, but I question them, attempting to look at them from all angles before I make a decision. As an example, if I am told a task should take me X hours to complete, I assess that with my own evaluation of what methods I will use to complete the task, I do not simply accept the idea that someone else knows how long it will take me to complete the assigned task.
Critical thinking is also about determining judgement about a claim, and having the confidence in your decision that allows you to reject or accept that claim. It is necessary in almost all…
Critical thinking, a higher order of thinking about and dealing with issues, is quite relevant in many contemporary disciplines, particularly social work. It is a way of looking at information, of processing that information in an analytical manner, and having the ability to bring both life experience and other information to bear on the regular processes of one's discipline. Certainly, it can be used as an approach to daily lie, reading, public speaking, even watching movies or attending a concert. Within the social work discipline, it is a way to take a careful appraisal of beliefs and actions and then arrive at well-reasoned and thoughtful interventions that increase the likelihood of helping clients and avoiding harm -- reasonable and reflecting attitudes that help decide what to do and when (Papell and Skolnik, 1992).
Social work, and other medical and sociological and medical disciplines often turn toward theory as…
Hoshmand, L.T. And Polkinghorne, D.E. (1992). Redefining the Science-
Practice Relationship and Professional Training. American Psychologist.
47 (1): 55-66.
Pappell, C.P. And Skolnik, L. (1992). The Reflective Practitioner: A Contemporary
Responsibilities of a Critical Thinker in a Contemporary Society
Some thinkers consider critical thinking to be solely a type of mental skill, devoid of any moral value; it is often utilized to rationalize prejudice and to promote self-interest. While moral integrity is understood as good heartedness, it is also susceptible to manipulation to satisfy vested interests in the same way as responsible citizenship can be manipulated. The human mind, regardless of conscious goodwill, is subject to the more powerful and self-deceptive egocentricity of the unconscious part of the mind. The complete development of each and every characteristic, be it critical thought, responsible citizenship, and moral integrity - needs to include cultivation of each other characteristic, in a parallel strong sense (Paul, 1993). The three characteristics of higher thought can only be developed in an environment that promotes intellectual virtues such as integrity, intellectual courage, intellectual fair-mindedness, intellectual empathy, intellectual perseverance,…
Ambert, A. Parents, (1997) Children, and Adolescents: Interactive Relationships and Development in Context. New York, NY: Hayworth Press.
Duffy, A. & Momirov, J.(1997) Family Violence: A Canadian Introduction. Toronto: James Lorimer and Company.
Duperrin, B. (2013). Social Media make critical thinking critical. Www.duperrin.com. Retrieved from www.dupperin.com: http://www.duperrin.com/english/2013/06/28/social-media-critical-thinking/
Erdur-Baker, O. (2010). .Cyberbullying and its correlation to traditional bullying, gender and frequent and risky usage of internet-mediated communication tools. New Media & Society, 12(1), 109-125. DOI: 10.1177/1461444809341260
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The capacity of a government to protect its citizens pivots on the ability of its leaders and high-placed specialists to think critically. Few times in history point so clearly to this principle than the 9/11 disaster. In 1941, the same year that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred, Edward M. Glaser published a book titled, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. Glaser's practice of psychiatry was remarkable in that he dispensed with the Freudian deep dive into past events, pushing his patients to deal with problem solving in the present -- a critical thinking practice he called reality therapy. Many of Glaser's tenets were adopted by other disciplines because of their universal utility and association with positive results. Glaser defined critical thinking as, "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports…
Albert Einstein. Brainy Quotes. Retrieved from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html
Chow, D. (2011, January 25). Space Shuttle Challenger disaster FAQ: What went wrong? www.SPACE.com. Retrieved from http://www.space.com/10677-challenger-tragedy-overview.html
Eichorn, R. (2012). Developing thinking skills: Critical thinking at the Army Management Staff College. Fort Belvoir, VA: Strategic Systems Department. [Webpage, last modified: 4 2012 January.] Retreived from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/critical/roy.htm
Glaser, E.M. (1941). An experiment in the development of critical thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.
skills sets needed to be successful in the market place and whether discrimination of poverty, gender, and race may impede one's chances
There are those who argue along the lines of "if you will it, you can do it," and that as long as you present something that people need and you show them that you are the one who can best help them get it, you can be successful no matter what your external limitations.
On the other hand, there is a significant amount of social scientists that say that impeding factors such as poverty are real and stop you from getting where you want to be. The rags to riches story is a myth that happens infrequently to rare individuals. Much more common is the reality that states that money, class, and, to a lesser extent, gender are the factors that get you to, or impede you from…
Baron, RA & Markman, GD (2000). Beyond social capital: How socail skills can enhance entrepeneurs' success. Academy of Management Executive, 14, 1
Dearing, D. (2008). Psychological costs of growing up poor. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1136, 324-332.
Farah, M.J., Noble, K.G., & Hurt, H. (n.d.). Poverty, privilege, and brain development: Empirical findings and ethical implications.
Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/qanda.html
skills development and levels of knowledge acquisition based on clinical experience. Nurses move from novice making decisions based on rules to expert who are able to see connections between actions and outcomes using critical thinking
Some claim that expert nursing comes from habituation in making decisions. Benner (2001), for instance, posits 5 different levels of development that the nurse moves through: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. Each one builds on the other as the nurse uses the reflection gained from her experience to improve her practice. Each of these five different levels constitute proficiency and skill not only in practical labor, but also in other components -- such as skilled communication and mentoring -- that are integral to the field of nursing. The novice nurse, for instance, tends to see the patient as an object made up of discrete pieces of information / data and specific tasks that…
Benner, P. Tanner, C., Chesla, C. (1996) Expertise in nursing practice: Caring, clinical judgement and Ethics, New York. Springer Carper, B.A. (1978), Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing Advances in Nursing Science, 1 (16), 13-23.
Sackett, D. (2009) Various Research Design Classifications In Clinical Research for Surgeons (Ed.. Mohit Bhandari, Anders Joensson, pp. 31-47). NY: Thieme
In short, I would attempt to coach them to where they felt their passions were for work so they could be successful. It would be more consultative and coaching to them. I think this approach would help to diffuse the stress of the employee not doing the work correctly or at all, and help them get to a position in their careers where they could excel. I think they would appreciate that; ultimately the best managers specifically focus on helping their subordinates get to their goals, regardless if those goals are in their department or not. it's best, I believe, to have honest discussions like these with subordinates to show that I would care about them as people too, and that working for me is more of a coaching and developmental experience and less of a dictatorial or demanding one.
Describe some of the major stressors in the workplace? What…
The value of journaling in the qualitative research process
When I first began this assignment, my immediate reaction was: why do I need to write down my thoughts and feelings in a journal when I have Facebook and Twitter? Don't I already have social media venues in which to vent a steady stream-of-consciousness? However, over the course of the journaling process, the value of the exercise became very clear: journaling is a unique form of self-expression. Unlike other types of writing, the main purpose of journaling is to better understand one's self, rather than to engage in direct communication with others. In other modes of writing, whether a research paper or an online blog, the writer is always aware that he or she is writing with an audience in mind. Because every audience is unique, the writer must engage in self-censorship, tailoring the content to meet that audience.…
My dream job is to be a financial manager. I love the idea of managing the finances of individuals or organizations. Having a sharp interest in the micro- and macro-economic currents around the world, the various markets -- from bonds to equities to derivatives to currencies -- and the way in which events impact valuations, I enjoy the thought of being able to manage assets in a world where the risk-reward relationship is fraught with peril. It is a role the demands an executive level of commitment, foresight, caution, scope and care. My personality type, as indicated by 16 Personalities is ESTJ -- "The Executive" personality. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ESTJ stands for Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking and Judgment. In other words, my personality is such that I am an extravert (I am outgoing and expressive), I am able to sense what is going on around me, I am…
skills to an employer. Of these three, though, recognizing assumptions may be the most critical for many organizations. As Christie (2013) points out, recognizing underlying assumptions is crucial for solving legal conundrums. All organizations depend on open-minded thinkers who can account for a diverse range of ideas and opinions. It is important to recognize biases and prejudices, which can prevent innovation and problem-solving capabilities. ecognizing assumptions can also help create harmony in the work environment, promote effective communication, and therefore increase workplace satisfaction. The goal of recognizing assumptions is to create a corporate culture that is conducive to meeting the goals of the organization.
Five traits that are important to employers include intelligence, leadership ability, willingness to work with others, willingness to take risks, and ability to accept criticism. Intelligence seems obviously important, but even empirical data shows that 76% of the productivity of an employee is linked directly to…
Christie, G.C. (2003). The importance of recognizing the underlying assumption of legal and moral arguments. Retrieved online: http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1770&context=faculty_scholarship
"Top Seven Qualities Employers are Looking for in Candidates," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://theundercoverrecruiter.com/top-7-qualities-employers-are-looking-candidates/
elaboration upon my experience as an international student of University of Birmingham. At the time I compose this reflection, I have finished my first year as a Business Management student. My reflection will center with the difficulties encountered in a foreign country, language, and culture. The reader will gain insight as to my personal experience my first year. The reader will understand some of my greatest challenges, personal flaws, and sense of accomplish from completing one full year. By the reflections conclusion, readers will understand how obstacles and weakness transformed in to achievement and deep motivation.
At the beginning of the first semester, my most prominent obstacle was my deficiency in the English language. I could not effectively communicate with other people in a professional or informal context. This was not something I was prepared for. I knew it would be a challenge, but more than just the language made…
I have a number of different skills that will come in handy in my future endeavors. Skills come in a number of different categories, including work content skills, personal attributes and technological skills. Some of these I have always had, but others I have needed to develop over time. For the most part, technical skills that I have are ones that I have cultivated through training and experience. I believe that I have many of the attributes that I need to pursue the next stage of my career.
As far as technical skills, I have a lot of basic technological skills, including basic computer skills as far as office software, using the Internet and email, and mobile communications as well. In addition to the basics, I have developed a proficiency in virtual team work. This is an emerging area of work as industries are becoming more globalized and…
Podmoroff, D. (2014). Working in a virtual team. MindTools.com. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/working-virtual-team.htm
Reid, J. (2008). The resilient leader: Why EQ matters. Ivey Business Journal. Retrieved June 5, 2014 from http://iveybusinessjournal.com/topics/leadership/the-resilient-leader-why-eq-matters
This tactic can take the negotiator by surprise and if silence isn't invoked, the deal that was looking very sweet can suddenly be spoiled.
In Japan, silence has been part of negotiations for centuries; one side makes an offer and the Japanese negotiator says nothing but perhaps makes eye contact or nods his head in a non-committal way. By not speaking, the chances are that you will be able to think clearly about the ramifications of the suddenly blurted out offer. Or if the offer is maybe not blurted out at the last minute but seems to be the very antithesis of what the two parties have been discussing all along, again, silence is power, because the other party will be thrown off of his or her strategy. In fact when a last-minute proposal is thrown into the mix, silence is essential because the proposal could be a psychological entrapment…
Carrell, Michael R., and Heavrin, Christina. (2008). Negotiating Essentials: Theory, Skills, and Practices. Old Tappan, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Physorg. (2006). New sequential decision-making model could be key to artificial intelligence.
Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.physorg.com.
Royston. (2009). The Five Intercultural Negotiation Skills. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://roymogg.com /2009/12/17/the-five-intercultural-negotiation-skills/.
Conflict Management Project Analysis
ere you surprised by the results of your conflict management style assessment? hy or why not? Explain.
I was not surprised by the results of my conflict management style assessment. The results depict my nature, behavior, and approach to conflicts. I endeavor to strike a balance between aspects revolving around conflicts. At times, I do not resist getting involved in a disagreement. Avoiding to back out from a conflict occurs as one of my pro-characteristics. I believe in effective ironing out issues through discussions, arguments. At the end of these arguments, there should result in a certain level of agreement between conflicting sides. The attribute of winning surpasses the attribute of backing out from an argument.
Encouraging open sharing of concerns and issues enables me to take decisively an angle of view that addresses my perspective on a certain subject. Despite my appetite for winning an…
Lexington. "America's gun divide" The Economist, 29 March 2013.
Ropeik, David. "On Gun Policy, Both Sides Have Something to Fear" The New York Times, 14 April 2014
About two weeks ago, there came a time when a friend, Emmanuel, asked for help to answer some interview questions which they had been requested to answer. The first question was on the reason why they had chosen a career in customer development as opposed to other business functions. The second question was on what their contribution would be to the company and the last question asked them to give a recommendation to the company based on their interaction with the company. In order to answer these questions, it was common knowledge that we needed to be creative in answering the questions in order to set them apart from the rest of the candidates undertaking the same interview. It therefore required a broad mindset in order to think outside the box so as to captivate the interviewers and show that Emmanuel was a better candidate for the position.…
Grauerholz, L., & Sharon, B.-H. (2003). Exploring Critical Sociological Thinking. Teaching Sociology, 31(4), 485-496. doi: 10.2307/3211372
Greenlaw, S.A., & DeLoach, S.B. (2003). Teaching Critical Thinking with Electronic Discussion. The Journal of Economic Education, 34(1), 36-52. doi: 10.2307/30042522
Kassem, C.L. (2000). Implementation of a School-Wide Approach to Critical Thinking Instruction. American Secondary Education, 29(2), 26-36. doi: 10.2307/41064423
Kihn, M. (1995). Outside the Box': the Inside Story. New York: Random House.
Basically, the problem persisted the whole semester. The two good members of the team did not have a lot of formal authority, and appeals to the instructor to grade the members of the team separately were rejected. This caused a lot of tension within the team, and we considered just working on the projects the two of us, because relying on the others was causing problems. They were late and their work was sub-standard, leaving us to scramble to clean things up, with little time to spare.
Other students influenced my views on the subject. The first thing that I realized when talking to other classmates is that our group was notably unlucky, that most of the students in the course had a high level of motivation. This actually strengthened my resolve to transcend the situation. Without formal authority, we simply did the best work we could and made sure…
Language and Thinking
Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are…
Faccone, Claudia et al. The Effct of Language on Thought. The Psychology 20 Course:
University of Carolina, 2000. Retrieved on November 29, 2013 from http://www.unc.edu/~jdumas/projects/languagethought.htm
Hampton, James. A. Language's Role in Enabling Abstract, Logical Thought.
Commentary/Peter Carruthers. Psychology Department: University of London, 2002.
communications skills to solve problems they are likely to encounter in the workplace.
Communication is the process of sharing information, expression, feeling, and thought between two or more people. Effective communication plays an important role in the organizational development, and communication forms an important constituent of every aspect of an organization. To maintain good working relations, it critical for the entire workforce to communicate with one another to enhance coordination, as well maintaining good working relations.
Evidence of communication skills is the ability of an individual or business organization to persuade and negotiate within business environment. Persuading and negotiating is one of the important aspects within business environment. Arriving at a concrete agreement within a business environment involves using effective communication skills. Persuasion involves ability to convince others to reach appropriate course actions, while negotiating involves ability to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement.
Evidence of communication skills is…
Australian Computer Society (2011).Case Studies and their clauses in the Code. Australia.
Wheeler, S. (2003). Comparing Three IS Codes of Ethics -- ACM, ACS and BCS . 7th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, 10-13 July 2003, Adelaide, South Australia. 1576- 1587.
Marital Intimacy Skills
This study examines marital intimacy skills and the impact that these skills have on the marriage in terms of marital failure or marital success. The work of Fincham, Stanley, and Beach (2006) entitled "Transformative Processes in Marriage: An Analysis of Emerging Trends" reports that it has been argued by Stanley (2007) that we "are in a new stage of marital research that reflects a growing momentum toward larger meanings and deeper motivations about relationships, including a focus on constructs that are decidedly more positive." (p.276) Good marriage is noted as that which makes the provision to spouses of "a sense of meaning in their lives" and it is suggested by Fincham, Stanley, and Beach (2006) that this momentum "has set the stage for examination of transformative, rather than merely incremental changes in relationships. (p.276)
What is Intimacy?
Linaman (2006) writes that intimacy is something that every individual…
Boa, Kenneth (nd) Marriage: Intimates or Inmates. Bible.org. Retrieved from: http://bible.org/article/marriage-intimates-or-inmates
Chia, Hans (nd) Importance of Fidelity in Marital Intimacy. Ezine. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Importance-of-Fidelity-in-Marital-Intimacy&id=3444329
Condie Joann (nd ) Nothing to Hide: Hope for Marraiges Hurt by Pornography and infidelity. Retrieved from: http://www.renewingintimacy.com/Nothing%20to%20Hide_simple.pdf
Cordova, JV, Gee, CB, and Warren, LZ (2005) Emotional Skillfulness in Marriage: Intimacy As a Mediator of the Relationship Between Emotional Skillfulness and Marital Satisfaction. Journal of Social Change and Clinical Psychology: Vol. 24, No. 2. Pp. 218-235. Retrieved from:
Business Critical Thinking
To whom it may concern:
'Logically speaking...' How often do we say this simple phrase? There is a presumption that logic is not only good, but that the human mind can easily calculate the pros and cons of most decisions. However, the human brain did not evolve to naturally gravitate to an emotion-free, Spock-like way of evaluating options. "hen people face an uncertain situation, they don't carefully evaluate the information or look up relevant statistics. Instead, their decisions depend on mental short cuts, which often lead them to make foolish decisions. The short cuts aren't a faster way of doing the math; they're a way of skipping the math altogether" (Lehrer 2011). The sooner we admit this, the better we can cope with the challenges with which life presents us; the sooner a business organization admits this, the better it can guard against irrationality, or at least…
Gabor, Deborah. "Deirdre McCloskey's market path to virtue." Strategy + Business. 43 (2006)
[4 Jul 2012] http://www.strategy-business.com/article/06211?pg=2
Holt, Jim. "Two brains running." The New York Times. 27 Nov 2011. [4 Jul 2012]
On the other hand, autistic individuals may use other senses differently. For example, she says that "Many autistic children like to smell things, and smell may provide more reliable information about their surroundings than either vision or hearing" (pg. 75). or, the children may only eat certain foods because of the texture or smell.
Chapter 5 on developing autistic talent was the most beneficial. It provided insights into how to take the strengths of the autistic child or adolescent and apply them to learning. As Grandin states (pg. 100): "Teachers need to help autistic children develop their talents. I think there is too much emphasis on deficits and not enough emphasis on developing abilities." For example, they may be encouraged to do more graphic arts, computer programming and engine repair. Similarly, employers must understand their autistic employees' strengths and weaknesses. Grandin relates a story about a man who excelled as…
Grandin, T. (1995) Thinking in Pictures. New York: Doubleday.
In an update to her book ( http://www.grandin.com/inc/visual.thinking.html ),Grandin says that she has since learned that there are actually three different types of specialized brains. Some individuals may be combinations of these categories. Visual thinkers, like Grandin, think in photographically specific images; Music and math thinkers think in patterns; and Verbal logic thinkers think in word details.
Having this traditional silo-structured environment makes it very difficult to properly develop a curriculum surrounding service management. Because of this there is a significant gap that exists between the education received by business school graduates and the skills that they need to succeed in today's service heavy environment.
Non-traditional Business Skills and Tactics
Nontraditional business skills are often referred to as soft skills or people skills. These consist of the ability to communicate and understand people on an emotional level. These are often the skills that can determine the success or failure of a career (Thilmany, 2009). The skills are all related to human interaction. This includes most forms of communication, negotiation and leadership. Soft skills can be distinguished by different types such as informative, negotiating, listening, and communicative. Informative soft skills are those that send a message that has to be conveyed accurately. Negotiating or convincing soft skills is…
21 Business Skills Needed to Succeed. (2009). Retrieved September 22, 2009, from New
Horizons Web site: http://www.nhmn.com/COMMUNITIES/softskills/news/08-03-
Davis, M.M. And Berdrow, I. (2008). Service science: Catalyst for change in business school curricula. IBM Systems Journal, 47(1), 29-39.
Skill Pre-assessment and Analysis Report
The key to successful management is a combination of a variety of skills relating more than just to "how well a person may know his job" but also to how skilled that person may be as a leader, administrator and how well they might get on with people, both around them, and working for them.
While a manager obviously needs to be able to fulfill the supervisory role in a competent manner, motivating his employees is vital in increasing the 'bottom line,' which is deemed as an acceptable measure of success in any management position.
One of my lasting impressions of what it takes to be a good manager comes from reading years ago about various management theories. According to management theorists there are generally two types of leaders that emerge, those that are product orientated, and those that are relationship motivated.
There is no formal means to identify and extract the sum total of the organization's information, knowledge and wisdom - to do so requires acute understanding of the people within the organization.
One technique that has been used extensively in recent years to help accomplish this task is the use of teams. The use of teams is essentially an attempt by larger companies to replicate the ability of entrepreneurial ventures to capture the sum total of the organization's capabilities. ithin the team context, the goal is adapted to the sum total of the team's capabilities. Yet, effective team management is another unique soft skill that managers must learn in order to be most effective in today's operating environment. The outcomes of effective teambuilding are evident. The members of the team are able to synthesize their combined information, knowledge and wisdom in order to achieve optimal results. For the manager in…
Coates, Dennis E. (2006) People Skills Training: Are You Getting a Return on Your Investment? 20/20 Insight Retrieved December 8, 2008 at http://www.2020insight.net/Docs4/PeopleSkills.pdf
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Greenberg, P.S., Greenberg, R.H. And Antonucci, Y.L. 2007. Creating and sustaining trust in virtual teams. Business Horizons, 50(4): 325-333
Marcketti, S.B. And Kozar, J.M. (2007). Leading with relationships: A small firm example. The Learning Organization. 14(2): 142-154
21st Century Knowledge
There was probably a point in time in the not-so-recent past when it could be asserted that many to most people in the modern world did not need to possess scientific knowledge, skills and understanding. However, as the society and technology of the world, the West in particular, becomes more advanced and demanding, this is becoming less and less true and some would say that entirely too many people in today's society are woefully unprepared when it comes to possessing skills that are needed for a modern context and society. To be sure, the assertion being made does not mean that everyone is destined to work in hi-tech fields and thus will need advanced degrees and training. However, the proverbial bar that signifies what is needed for the "average" person has certainly gone up. While advance training and degrees are not necessary for the average person, everyone…
I have had the good fortune to see some talented leaders in action, and when I realize for myself what the best approach is, my guess is that at some point I saw one of these other leaders take that same approach. I may not be able to remember in order give specific attribution, but I know that I have learned from others, and take those influences with me.
I think that my feelings influenced my actions early on, but also later on. One of the things about effectively leading a team is that emotions do not need to be removed, only negative ones. Whereas frustration was exacerbating the communications issue, I believe that my frustration with the frustration caused me to re-evaluate the situation. Something positive emerged when my emotions shifted just from frustration with people to frustration with the process. This set me on a course of focusing…
Consulting Skills Learning Group Experience
To consult with someone means to be able to offer them your professional help by giving them the best professional advice considering the person's circumstances, however, there is more to being a consultant than just giving someone expert advice on how to handle their dilemmas. The Business Dictionary (2011) states that a consultant is someone who is experienced that gives expert information (usually through a company or service) that delivers his or her efforts in a counseling aptitude, yet they are not the ones that are reliable for the outcome of the results. Consultant jobs are highly considered when people and organizations need to come together and make changes in their company and how to eliminate problems. The Harvard Business School alone has a consulting commerce of over $100 billion in yearly profits in the United States and can range from consulting services in communications,…
Harvard Business School. (2011). Become a Business Consultant. Available: http://www.fabjob.com/businessconsultant.asp . Last accessed 22 May 2011.
Ramaswamy, V. (2010). Characteristics of a good consultant. Available: http://erp-consultancy.blogspot.com/2010/02/chacteristics-of-good-consultant.html . Last accessed 22 May 2011.
The Business Dictionary. (2011). Consultant. Available: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/consultant.html . Last accessed 22 May 2011