Nano technology pertains to the restructuring and reconstruction of atomic and molecular nature. It involves studying the phenomena and materials of atomic manipulation to transform and construct new materials, devices, living organisms and improved technological systems that are <100 nanometers in size. Nano technology entails development and use of materials, devices and systems with novel functions and compositions based on geometric size of nano structures 1000 times smaller than elements in the micrometer sphere. Quantum physics govern the properties of nano particles, which can be manipulated using a scanning tunneling microscope. The success of nano technology depends on the mastery of the molecular dimensions and the prerequisites of the product properties within the socioeconomic subject.
The technology has led to the creation of many new profitable products and appliances such as transparent sunscreens, light diffraction coatings, food products and much more. In the future, nanotechnology will lead to revolutionary advances in the long-term use of nano particles in cleaning of heavily polluted sites, effective diagnosis and treatment of diseases as well as creation of alternative fuels to automobiles. Nanotechnology has many challenges, hence, caution must be observed in the process
The Need for Nanotechnology
This technology, allows faster manufacture of lighter, stronger, safer and cleaner products. Nano technology unveils new products able to solve new problems in unimaginable ways yet with greater impact (Merkle 2000).
Nanotechnology allows physicists and scientists to develop and restructure compounds as well as to create new devices by co-joining different molecules. This technology is increasingly popular and makes work done by human beings easier and less tasking.
Machines made using the nanotechnology are small and fast. These products are stronger than steel and light weight. Their properties include atoms from garbage, dirt and energy from sun light making them affordable. There is a need for improvement in the development of useful tools and equipment that improve human life. The technology is able to offer the much-needed cost-effective production processes that would be beneficial to the manufacturing sector.
Nano technology is able to improve the current transportation system. With the advantage of lighter materials air and space travel would be more economical. Nano technology is able to allow the manufacture of airplanes with affordable materials stronger than diamond and 50 times lighter than they are. The technology also promises to develop affordable alternative fuel. This is much needed to solve the current fossil fuel shortages as well as reduction of conflict raising from competition for the commodity.
The technology is easily incorporated into the manufacture of computers. It promises use of atoms instead of the currently used computer chips. Computer chips are made of lithography, this is still far behind the idea of atomic chips which ultimately suggests the manufacture of each logic from a few atoms. This will revolutionize information and communication technology sector.
The world is currently experiencing serious health issues including pandemics such as HIV-AIDS and Cancer that are responsible for the death of millions of people annually. Nano technology is able to reverse the prevalence rates of these killer diseases. The need for this technology in the health sector is enormous.
The Current Technology and Nano Technology
Nanotechnology outwits the benefits of the current technology in several ways. It would easily and beyond belief address most of the major issues that the current technology cannot. However this technology faces limitations including but not limited to the following.
The current food processing technology incorporates specific flavors and these products often prove allergic to some people, this would be outdated, as nanotechnology would correct this. Nanotechnology enables manufacturing of foods that allow consumers to personalize, change color, flavor, nutrients depending on their preferences. It allows the production of tasteless drinks that contain plenty of flavors in latent nano capsules that trigger particular flavor, depending on a person's choice. These foods would also sense if a person is allergic to the ingredients and block those ingredients. In addition, it could release more nutrients to people with special dietary needs.
Furthermore, the nanotechnology is key in safeguarding the ozone layer from damage. Carbon dioxide; the major green house gas is easily eliminated by the nano machines. This would result in a clean atmosphere free from carbon dioxide and other pollutants. This helps reduce pollution, which corporations endorse by embracing the current technology that uses oil and carbon.
The current technology values the natural health giving properties of fresh and unprocessed whole foods. Nanotechnology on the other hand disregards the value of organic food by producing processed foods transforming the farm into an automated high technology production line; this would limit serious harm to human health and the environment, unprecedented gains in food processing compared to the current technology.
Long exposure to sub-zero degrees causes massive damage to living organisms cells and could result to death. Nanotechnology allows molecular repair of each cell and reversal of all the damage done by freezing. Nanotechnology could repair any damage caused by death of an organism and fully restore all the features of the living organism before death or freezing.
The Principle of Operation in Nanotechnology
According to Bonsor and Strickland (2007), nanotechnology allows scientists to develop new products by combining similar molecules of any existing components. There are various principles and applied concepts in the implementation of nanotechnology. The two common ones are, bottom up and top down approaches. The bottom up approach outlines the creation of materials and machines from molecular components that are similar in chemical composition by identifying similar molecules in a process known as molecular recognition.
The top down approach incorporates the combining of materials without limiting them to atomic scale controls. This approach seeks to develop smaller devises using bigger ones that control their assembly. The current technology stemming from conventional solid-state methods of creating microprocessors also allows for the inclusion of small features under 100mm.
Electronically, functional approach of nano technology seeks to create components of desired work regardless of their assembly. Here Molecular electronics develops electronic molecules usable as components in nano electronic devices (Das, et al. 2007).
The other principle of operation applied in nano technnology is in diagnosis of diseases. Microscopic machines travel collecting information about various illnesses curing them automatically. Viruses, bacteria infections, cancer cells as well as other injuries could be cured by repairing and replacing the damaged cells with stronger materials. Moreover, human beings would communicate with machines to adjust natural bodily functions at will.
The Advantages of Nanotechnology
The benefits of nanotechnology to the manufacturing industry is and will forever be realized. As noted earlier, the technology enables nano particles to rebuild atom by atom. This avails superior products with qualities such as superior strength, decreased weight and size and impervious coatings.Therefore the technology will make possible production of new age products that are convenient to the users.
Nanotechnology is able to lessen pollution by eliminating toxic wastes at their sources. Releasing waste to the environment would be the last resort. The achievement of source reduction involves cleaning up the current waste disposing system. This is beneficial to the environment that is already saturated with toxic waste from the manufacturing industry. With the drastic reduction of toxic waste to the environment, this would address the contentious issues associated with global warming.
One other most promising area of improvements would be in health and medicine, with expectation of transformation in disease detection, prevention and treatment. Since nano particles are smaller than human cells, they can function within cells to detect diseases in their very early stages and administer treatment right to the source. It would be an alternative to the expensive and time-consuming traditional ways.
In addition, nanotechnology provides benefits to the computer industry. Most companies are working with nano particles to create essentially smaller storage devices than those now available, as well as those that will run many times faster than those now used in the market.
The Disadvantages of Nanotechnology
Possible danger of nanotechnology in the health care lies in how the tiny particles might interact within the human body upon injection into the cells. Moreover, elements at the nano scale behaves differently than they do in their bulk form, some doctors fear that the toxic nano particles are so small they could easily penetrate the blood brain barrier, a membrane that protect the brain from harmful chemicals in the bloodstream. In addition, there are enormous cost implications in adding nano particles in products that are already being marketed to the public; this investment, compared to the comparatively scant research into nanotech issues, raises concerns.
Evidence suggest that smaller particles are more bioactive and toxic (Shetty 2005). The nano particles are highly interactive in cell systems. It can easily penetrate through the skin, lungs, and in some cases the blood and brain barriers. These particles have the potential of causing biochemical reactions such as the creation of free radicals that could destroy cells. Those exposed to high risks are employees from different manufacturing plants producing nano…