Genome Human Cloning Human Cloning Term Paper

  • Length: 8 pages
  • Sources: 5
  • Subject: Genetics
  • Type: Term Paper
  • Paper: #19327581

Excerpt from Term Paper :

(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement of 61% increase of coordination as also minimal symptoms when the patients own neuronal stem cells were transplanted. (viii) Adult stem cells from the 'umbilical cord blood' were added for the cure of leukemia patients. This helped in freeing 14 of the 18 patients of the disease. From the above it can be stated that majority of the studies are in the initial phases and have been performed on models of animals, even though a lot of them have been made use of on human trials. A lone success report relating to the skull bone is not regarded ultimate until other scientists are able to duplicate the same study. It is important that subsequently these trials must be successful in human subjects through the use of adult stem cells prior to such treatments are available for the general public. Majority of the above reports belong to the last 1 to 3 years. (Life Issues Institute, 2006)

Human Cloning:

Even since the birth of the cloned sheep Dolly in 1997, the question of human cloning has been discussed in a lot of forums. The deep ethical issues covering the possibilities of the birth of a human clone have received a lot of analysis. Of late, the discussion contained the theme of human embryonic stem cell research through which scientists could take advantage from experimentation through the method initiated by the scientists who gave birth to Dolly the cloned sheep. Research on stem cells and research cloning are strongly connected. In the private sector, scientists have performed experiments on human embryonic stem cells following extraction of them from residual embryos that has been discarded from treatment of infertility. Scientist's hope that the day is not far when these cells can be used for treatment of diseases, and one of the possible hurdles for that type of methodology is encountering of rejection of the implanted cells by the immune system of the patient. By means of nuclear transplantation, stem cells are possible for creation with the identical genetic blueprint as that of the patient, which research scientists' regard would help in the reduction or complete remove the threat of immune rejection. (AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress, 2007)

Of late a lot of options to transplantation through nucleus mode have been suggested. Some of these are (i) deriving stem cells out of dead embryos. However some regard this method as similar to severing of organs from the persons who has died recently. (ii) Taking out stem cells through extracting the blastomeres from live embryos. Currently, this method is used for the testing of IVF embryos for abnormalities at the genetic and chromosomal level. However, long-term impacts of this removal on the health of the person have not been known. Blastomeres are the cells which are formed during the first stages of embryonic development at the time when there is a split of the fertilized ovum. (iii) Through altered nuclear transfer: Under this procedure, the somatic cell nucleus is changed prior to the transfer so that it would it will fail to have the potential of growth of that of the human embryo. (AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress, 2007)

Knowledge obtained from the Human Genome Project:

The body of knowledge received from the Human Genome Project will put heavy insinuations for the future drugs as genetic technologies are developed that help us in preventing and treat a broad spectrum of clinical states. In the forthcoming days, majority of the technology surfacing from the Human Genome Project will concentrate straightaway from the genes themselves. A methodology that makes use of short strands of genetic material known as DNA probes will be essential for locating of normal and unusual genes for the diagnostic and purposes of screening. Besides, gene therapy will be applied to transfer genes into cells to repair, change, or improve their function. However, with the sophistication of our body of knowledge, testing mechanisms might concentrate on finding out the presence or absence of gene products like proteins, instead of the gene itself. Treatment for genetic defects will be founded on a handling of the structure of a cell or metabolic functions instead of its DNA. It is important to note that genetic technology among humans will spawn three important practical applications such as diagnostic technology and screening, gene treatment and genetic enhancement. (Mehlman; Botkin, 1998)

Latest developments in Human Cloning:

On the theoretical front, human cloning permits the production of test-tube babies whose genetic heritage would be unmatched in the record of human evolution. Exposure to diseases with an identified genetic constituent like heart ailment can be eliminated. Concurrently, scientists could improve by way of genetic engineering the physical and also the mental characteristics like intelligence, vision and also height. Also the personality features like chances of addictive behavior can as per theory be corrected. The outcome would be the birth of customized babies and finally of a new breed of humans who are genetically advanced. (Stannnar, 2000)

The Human genome Project -- HGP is an excellent technology having potential of generating a high-density map of seemingly all 100000 genes of the human body. Among the major engineers of the projects has mentioned regarding the project declared that this shall also permit polygenic diseases and characteristic to be solved into Mendelian constituents and hence mapped. Nevertheless, whereas that type of map is within the technical reach of the HGP, it will not be possible to bring out from a reading of the map information that by itself will be enough for the diagnosis or forecast of polygenic infections and traits. It will not be possible as the reasoning of polygenic diseases, as differentiated with monogenic diseases, is not to be found in the genome. Instead that logic is encoded in a cellular epigenetic linkage of genes, gene products and environmental signaling. This connection is featured by huge intricacy and informational redundancy. Incremental changes in boundary conditions and environments produced startling results. Lon-term emphasis on linear genetic logic and discounting of epigenetic approaches gives grave difficulties for the future of biotechnology in the sphere of health and medicine. (Kegley, 1998)

People who support therapeutic stem cell cloning do so for good reasons. It can result in remarkable step forward in the frontiers of science and medicine and might help save innumerable lives and enhance quality of life also. It is interesting to note that the medical community hardly are in agreement over any problem, but on the issue of stem cell research there is a great deal of unanimity and for posterity it must go on. For instance, the American Medical Association -- AMA is normally conventional organization, nevertheless its panel of ethics has emerged in favor of therapeutic stem cell cloning. The esteemed New England Journal of Medicine is also in favor of research on and application of embryonic stem cells. The journal maintained that the research with embryonic stem cells will go on, but that the research might be done of the United States instead of United States. A good pointer is that those who ban therapeutic stem cells cloning assert that there is no requirement to use embryonic stem cells as adult stem cells can be used in their place. (Gralla; Gralla, 2004)

However, scientists indicate that there a lot of variations between adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells, and the embryonic stem cells are in fact superior to adult ones for research and therapy. Embryonic stem cells posses the capability to convert into any cell in the body, whereas adult stem cells can only convert into specific types only. Apart from that, embryonic stem cells divide faster compared to adult stem cells that can be advantageous from treatment point-of-view and are better equipped compared to slower-dividing cells. Adult stem cells are found to be rarer and are hard to locate and grow inside the laboratory. Not like embryonic stem cells, they are unable to duplicate themselves for a long time when cultured in the laboratory. It is because…

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