Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
The rate of such behavior was considered to be significant as a measure of responsive strength (Skinner 1938, 1966, 1986; Killeen & Hall 2001). True or not, the emphasis on response rate has resulted in a scarcity of investigational work by operant conditioners on non-recurrent behavior such as movement in space.
Operant conditioning differs from other type of learning study in one important aspect. The focus has been more or less entirely on what is called 'reversible behavior', that is, behavior in which the steady-state model under a given schedule is stable, meaning that in a series of conditions, XAXBXC..., where each condition is preserved for enough days that the pattern of behavior is locally stable, behavior under schedule X shows a pattern after one or two duplications of X that is forever the same. For instance, the first time an animal is exposed to a fixed-interval schedule, after quite a few daily sessions nearly all animals show a "scalloped" pattern of responding (pattern a): a pause after each food delivery -- also called wait time or latency -- followed by responding at an hastened rate until the next food delivery. Yet, some animals illustrate slight wait time and a steady rate (pattern B). If all are now trained on some other procedure -- a variable-interval schedule, for example -- and then after numerous sessions are returned to the fixed-interval schedule, almost all the animals will revert to pattern a. Thus, pattern a is the stable pattern. Pattern B, which may persist under unchanging conditions but does not recur after one or more intervening conditions, is sometimes termed metastable (Staddon 1965). The vast majority of published studies in operant conditioning are on behavior that is stable in this sense.
Operant conditioning markedly became visible quite early in evolutionary record. It survives in the earliest vertebrates. Someone who has kept fish and he knows that they swim towards the direction of the sight or sound of him getting prepared to feed the fishes. This is called operant conditioning, for the reason that the fish gets the food more rapidly if it is nearer from them in which the food goes into the aquarium or water. Moreover fishes will learn to push response key if this consequences in food dropping into the water (Talton, Higa and Staddon, 1999-page 45). The operant conditioning of same reactions in rats, pigeons, and monkeys is well-known to each and every student in an introductory psychology lessons What is possibly not so well-known is the commonness of operant conditioning; it happens in organisms whose evolutionary paths deviate considerably from that of the vertebrates. For instance, it happens in pests, such as ants (Schneirla, 1943) and honey bees (Grossman, 1973). In view of the fact that these invertebrates have nervous systems that are quite different from those of vertebrates, there is an idea that the skill to learn all the way through operant conditioning may have evolved without help in different genetic lines. The evolutionary advantage of operant conditioning is quite obvious in a changeable environment. A place that once provided food may no longer do so; an unknown prospective prey item may turn out to give a healthy meal or an illness-producing toxin. Another strange animal may turn out to be relatively safe or a harmful predator. An animal that is to survive and pass on its genetic matter have to adjust these different situations, and learning surely allows it to do so. What may not be so sure, however, is the connection this all has to education. Physical survival does not usually depend on being able, for example, to write a commendable essay. However, the same process that enabled our ancestors to learn how to hunt efficiently can be enlisted as factor which will enable us, to learn to write effectively. Both involve small shaping steps punctuated by positive feedback. In the case of hunting, the feedback was from the physical environment (a successful kill) and from other humans (praise for performing actions that led to a successful kill). In the case of essay writing, the shaping steps and feedback is from the teacher, who incidentally has been operantly conditioned to provide this feedback.
Nowadays operant conditioning is being commonly used in setting up clinical settings (i.e. modifying the behavior) teaching (i.e. managing the class room) and instructional progress (e. Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical settings (i.e., behavior modification) as well as teaching (i.e., classroom management) and instructional development (i.e. organized instructions). Operant behavior is the behavior which is controlled or managed by its consequences.
Grossman, S.P. (1973). Essentials of physiological psychology. New York: Wiley.
Functional and Neural Mechanisms of Interval Timing - Page 60 by Warren H. Meck - Psychology - 2003
Talton, L.E., Higa, J.J., & Staddon, J.E.R. (1999). Interval schedule performance in the goldfish Carassius auratus. BP, 45, 193.
STADDON JE. (1965). SOME PROPERTIES of SPACED RESPONDING in PIGEONS. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 8, 19-27.
Sandy S. Venneman, Laura Ruth Knowles. (2005) Sniffing Out Efficacy: Sniffy Lite, a Virtual Animal Lab. Teaching of Psychology 32:1, 66-68
O'Donohue, W.T., & Ferguson, K.E. (2001). The psychology of B.F. Skinner. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage.
Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.
Mook, D.G. (2004). Classic experiments in psychology. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
Skinner, B.F., & Reese, E.P. (1980). B.F. Skinner a demonstration of operant conditioning. Huntington Station, N.Y.: Focus International.
Reynolds, G.S. (1968). A primer of operant conditioning. [Glenview, Ill.]: Scott, Foresman.[continue]
"Operant Conditioning The Term Operant" (2008, February 09) Retrieved October 26, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/operant-conditioning-the-term-32349
"Operant Conditioning The Term Operant" 09 February 2008. Web.26 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/operant-conditioning-the-term-32349>
"Operant Conditioning The Term Operant", 09 February 2008, Accessed.26 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/operant-conditioning-the-term-32349
My reasoning is based not only upon the behavior itself, but also upon the relationship between the organism and the trainer. An organism that most receives negative reinforcement associates such reinforcement not only with the undesirable behavior, but also with the trainer. The relationship between the trainer and organism is damaged, and trust is undermined. Trust is important to effective training. A better way to discourage undesirable behavior is perhaps
Conditioning Classical and operant conditioning are types of behavioral learning. Subsets of behavioral psychology, classical and operant conditioning show how a subject (animal or human) can exhibit relatively permanent changes in behavior due to certain types of experiences. According to Cryver (2000), learning is a "fundamental process" in all animals. Classical conditioning is also known as "learning by association." Association in this sense refers to the association of a behavior with a
To reduce disruptive behavior in class, Mr. Byrne has two main options. He could use positive punishments that go beyond mere scolding -- things like adding extra homework for those who misbehave, increasing in-class work, making kids feel ashamed by singling them out or putting them out of the classroom, and even going as far as to do actual physical punishment (if the school allows mild striking). The kids will
Operant Conditioning is based on the idea that an individual's response to external stimuli can be modified, or changed, depending upon the consequences of that individual's response. Formulated by famed psychologist B.F. Skinner, operant conditioning deals mainly with voluntary behavior, or operant behavior. While classical conditioning deals mainly with involuntary, or reflex, behaviors, Skinner's theory maintains a system of consequences for reactions which are called punishment and reinforcement. Punishment is
In using operant conditioning to modify temper tantrums, the most effective and efficient method uses a system of positive reinforcement that rewards a child for reacting to a situation in a manner other than a tantrum, and a negative reinforcement that involve taking away something a child if the child throws a tantrum. When the child is presented with a situation that usually would result in a tantrum, the ideal
This technique is called shaping, as the teacher starts with information students already know and then new information is broken into small pieces. In teaching vocabulary, the teacher is more likely to suggest or work with the textbook, and the setting of a democratic environment based on common agreement is not such an important fact as in the humanistic approach. The lesson starts with a revision and review of the information
Operant Conditioning/Behavior Modification The idea of operant conditioning for humans was first developed by Burrhus Frederick Skinner, who looked at work using operant conditioning with animals. He concluded that using operant conditioning, or behavior modification, with humans was possible, and that all if all external factors were controlled, internal mental processes would not be a significant factor. He believed that all human behavior was shaped by the principles of operant conditioning: