Film & TV Terminology Terminology Research Proposal

Excerpt from Research Proposal :

In this area, meanings with their endless referrals evolve. These include meanings form discourses, as well as cultural systems of knowledge which structure beliefs, feelings, and values, i.e., ideologies. Language, in turn, produces these temporal "products."

During the next section of this thesis, the researcher relates a number of products (terminology) the film/TV industry produced, in answer to the question: What components contribute to the linguistic aspect of a sublanguage inside of the English language?



We've come to a certain point in the history of film.


In the writing of the script for film/TV, a sublanguage, the writer's deep collection of his/her responses to life. Under specific circumstances, individuals in a particular area of expertise alter/change/utilize a language, in this case, English, to fit their profession, in turn making it easier of those in the profession to understand. This practice of altering specific words/terms also makes it more difficult for those on the outside to understand the profession's inside jargon.

The term, to "pan" out, for example, denotes this practice. A pan in "normal" English would refer to the cooking utensil. In film terminology, however, the term "pan" refers to the camera zooming out, therefore creating a "panoramic" view of the scene. Another example: The "can" in film terms refers to the container used to store film rolls; incidentally manufactured from aluminum, just like a "can." Basically, it's just reusing words from English but putting them into a different context, thus creating a bit of a sublanguage inside of the English language itself.

Specific Terms the following depicts a number of terms relating to the film TV sublanguage.

Academy leader: A leader positioned at the head of release prints which relates information for the projectionist. It also features black numbers on a clear background; counting from 11 to 3 at 16 frame intervals (see SMPTE leader). Big Close-up (BCU): A shot taken extremely close to the subject, closer than necessary for a close-up. A BCU reveals extreme detail, such as a specific (i.e., part of the human face) Bridging shot: A bridging shot (cut) covers a break in time, or other break in continuity. Clapper: Clappers are the sticks slapped together in view of the camera to synchronize film sound. Usually, however, not always, a clapper attaches to the slate, and appears at the head or tail of a sync sound take. Close-up (CU): A CU is a shot taken extremely close to the subject, or with the subject of the shot extremely large in the frame. A CU reveals a specific detail, for example, the human face, or a person's hands. The following figure from Greed (1924) relates a CU.

A" Greed (1924)

Coding: When the workprint and sound stock (mag) are placed in sync, the rolls are coded with matching yellow edge numbers so they may be later matched up, after being cut up into pieces. Conforming: Conforming constitutes the cutting of the OCN to match the final cut of a film.

Contact print: A contract is a print made in a contact printer "where the original element and duplicate element actually are pressed together at the point of expose (no lens involved). Workprints and 'dirty dupes' are made this way."

Continuity of motion: Continuity of motion consists of the flow of action from one shot to the next as it is positioned on the screen at the cut point. This occurs when the significant action is positioned at the end of a shot in the same area of the screen where the significant action will begin in the next shot. Cross-cut: A cross-cut is the intercutting of shots from two or more scenes. This is done the viewers will see the fragments of each scene alternately (also, parallel action). Cut: In editing, a cut is a single unbroken strip of film.

Dissolve: In a dissolve, the end of one shot is gradually merged with the beginning of another. A fade-out onto a fade-in of equal length produces this superimposition.

Dolly shot: A dolly shot is a shot filmed when the camera on a dolly is in motion. Dupe negative: "Release prints are printed from a dupe negative." dupe negative portrays a negative element, printed from a positive print (an inter-positive). Establishing shot: An establishing shot, utilized near the beginning of a scene, establishes the inter-relationship of details which will be subsequently revealed in closer shots. Fade-in - 1. (n.) as a noun, a fade-in a shot starts in total darkness; gradually lightens to full brightness. 2. (v.) as a verb, fade-in means to gradually bring sound from inaudibility to the required volume.

Fade-out: Fade-out constitutes the opposite of a fade-in.

Inter-positive print (IP): An IP, a fine grain print developed from the conformed original negative, maintains the orange cast of the OCN. The IP produces ensuing dupe negatives. KeyKode: KeyKode relates an extension of the latent edge numbers whereby each frame receives a number, recorded as a barcode on the negative. The numbers may be read by a special reader in the lab or transfer house. Lab roll: Lab roll are rolls of OCN the lab compiles for printing. These may consist of several camera rolls.

Latent edge numbers: Latent edge numbers denote numbers the manufacturer prints onto the edge of the negative through onto the workprint. The negative matchers (conformers) uses these numbers to match the OCN to the final cut of the picture. Legal effects: The legal effects note the lengths for fades and dissolves which most printers may execute (16, 24, 32, 48, 64 and 96 frames). Library shot: A library shot depicts a shot utilzed in a film, although it was not originally taken for that film. Long shot (abbr. LS): Frequently an LS, a shot taken from a considerable distance, serves as an establishing shot. An example would be a human figure filmed to be shorter than the height of the screen. Low-Con print: A low-con print is a print made on a print stock; flashed evenly white light prior to the image being exposed on it. This yields a lower contrast print (brings up the black levels) which in turn yields a more attractive video transfer. Mag stock - Mag stock depicts magnetic sound recording stock with edge perforations that match the picture stock's perforations. This in turn permits it to be pulled along; maintaining the picture at the same speed and relative position. Master shot: A master shot, generally a long or wide shot, covers an entire segment of dramatic action. Medium close-up (MCU): A MCU shot is a shot between a MS and a CU.. This could be, for example, a human figure filmed from the chest up. Medium shot (MS): MS a shot denotes a shot between a LS and a MCU. For instance, this could be a human figure, filmed from the waist up. Married print: A married print, a positive print, carries both picture and sound on it. A married print is sometimes referred to a composite print. Mute print: A mute print is a positive print which carries the picture only (silent print). Montage: (1) a montage depicts the juxtaposition of ostensibly unrelated shots/scenes which, when combined, reveal meaning. Shot a and shot B. together, for example, stimulate a third idea, consequently supported by shot C, etc.... (2) a montage denotes a series of related shots which help lead the viewer to a desired conclusion. For example, shot a leads to shot B; leads to shot C...; leads to shot X.... Shot X denotes the outcome of the sequence. Optical: Optical represents any device the optical department of a lab carries out, utilizing an optical printer; for example, dissolves, wipes, and double exposure effects. Optical printer: An optical printer is used in printing the image from one piece of film onto another by means of a lens. Original camera negative (OCN): OCN is the negative film initially passed through the camera. Pan: When someone makes a pan, he/she rotates the camera about on its vertical axis. Parallel action: Parallel action indicates a device of narrative construction, where the development of two pieces of action are concurrently presented.

Relational editing: The relational editing of shots proposes the association of ideas between the shots. Rough cut: Rough cut depicts the first assembly of a film which the editor prepares from selected takes, in script order. Finer points in/of timing, along with editing are completed at a later stage. Rushes: Rushes, a.k.a. dailies, portray prints completed immediately after a day's shooting so they may be viewed the next day. Scene: A scene reflects action occurring in one location at one time. Slate: A slate (board) displays key information about a shot, such as the scene and take numbers, the show's title; whether the scene takes place at day or night, sync or MOS.... This board, held in view of the camera, either at the head or tail of a shot, identifies the information to…

Sources Used in Document:

Works Cited

Ban Barriers That Inhibit Film and TV Makers and Viewers." Canadian Speeches, March 2002, 68+. Database online. Available from Questia, Accessed 4 March 2009.

Berry, Ralph. "Understanding Hamlet through the Soliloquies." Contemporary Review, August 2003, 115+. Database online. Available from Questia, Accessed 4 March 2009.

Bregent-Heald, Dominique. "The Redcoat and the Ranger: Screening Bilateral Friendship in Cecil B. DeMille's North West Mounted Police." American Review of Canadian Studies 38, no. 1 (2008): 43+. Database online. Available from Questia, Accessed 4 March 2009.

Dirks, Tim. AMC filmsite. 2009 American Movie Classics Company LLC, 2009. Available at Internet. Accessed 4 March 2009.

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