One interesting concept that comes up in many social science issues is that of self-determination. In the political process, the ideals of self-determination were popularized during the Enlightenment Period as a way to actualize the individual against repressive governments. From a sociological perspective, even famous novels like Mary Shelley's Frankenstein posit that the nature of humanity surrounds the idea of being able to make appropriate decisions in ways that benefit our self-interests. In fact, by nature, humans maintain a set of cognitive presumptions that hold that motivational and egoistic view of the self are based on a system of justice for ourselves and the social groups to which we belong. In some ways, this may be summed up as a utilitarian perspective that tells us that self-determination is what is the greatest good for the greatest number who can make appropriate levels of decisions about themselves, as well as through the connection of self-determination being tied to virtue, actualization, and the pursuit of human happiness (Sandel, 2010).
From a psychological point-of-view, though, self-determination theory (SDT) is an umbrella theory of both human personality and motivation that says that people have certain psychosocial needs. These needs are focused on the choices we make as humans without any overt influence (or at least overt that we recognize). SDT thus asks to what degree are the ways we act toward others and society based on our own individual needs, behaviors, and desires -- what is self-motivated and what is self-determined (Deci, E., et al., eds., 2002). Understanding this is difficult at times, however, because we do not live in a society that has any sense of a vacuum -- humans have constant stimulation from advertisements, the noise of media, the hubbub of modern life, other people, messages and more. This, of course, complicates the idea of motivation regarding SDT because researchers are often rife for actually finding and understanding filtering mechanisms (Cohen &...
These features help us grow, learn, cognate, and create. In general, there are three basic needs that we want innately, so that we can achieve optimal functioning and personal growth:
Competence -- or the ability to seek and control the outcome of our experiences within the universe.
Relatedness or the wish to react, converse, empathize and be connected to others, and:
Autonomy, or the notion that we have the right to be the basic causal effect upon our own lives, to act in harmony with ourselves, our desires, our personality, and rather than being independent of others, more of the nature of being interdependent -- separate by our individual decisions, but together as a human need (Chirikov, V., et al., 2003).
Of course, this applies that humans are inherently proactive with their own potential and wish to master their inner forces and emotions. Humans thus have the tendency towards growth and actualization and that over time, through cultural and societal changes, humans move towards new and innovative thinking that emphasize potential and growth. From a Western perspective, this seems to be inherently true if we look at cultural and historical change, which has manifested in technological improvements, psychosocial improvements over time (e.g. Civil Rights, Enlightenment, etc.). Of course, without the basic needs being met, there are negative consequences to SDT because there is a lack of social nurturing from one's environment (e.g. without food and shelter, why care about actualization and mental stimulation).
The theory of SDT is indicative of a natural approach to motivation by defining what form of motivation the individual uses at any given time through the definition of two basic types of behavior: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is more natural, inherent, and genetic as a drive to find challenges and new possibilities at which the individual can excel. Within this, the environment is usually seen as a way to aid the actualization of motivation through rewards that lead to a better self-feeling, more self-confidence, positive feedback from others, and the idea of having a great deal of personal control that mediates other critiques. Usually, intrinsic motivation must be more immediate -- if I do this I feel good because of x, y or z; but still requires support from peers or at the very…
Motivation According to one of the most famous scholars on the subject of motivation, motivation comes from the desire to satisfy first the basic needs within a hierarchical system; then moving from physiological means to self-actualization. This motivation moves from the more basic to advanced psychological levels by adding onto basic needs more emotional, then intellectual needs that allow the human being to capture concepts that are far more detailed, less
It is also possibly one of the most significant motivational factors among young people. Zuckerman refer to disinhibition as follows. "These who choose to follow a conventional lifestyle might periodically escape by engaging in social drinking..." (Franken, 2001, p. 343). This is an important factor as the desire or need for disinhibition may lead to an addictive patterns of behavior, where the drugs or alcohol supply the required escape
Mind and Human Behavior Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former
3.4 Finally, I am interested in whether or not there is a trickle-down effect from leftist or rightist politics style at the provincial and federal levels. 1.3 Objectives 1.3.1 There are two major objectives for this research. The first is to compare the level of motivation among secondary school teachers under the Vancouver British Columbia School District in Canada by their socio-demographic and organizational factors. My hypothesis in advance of investigating this is
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories) Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to
A Concept Analysis in Behavior Management: Self-Management in Psych Nursing Introduction In nursing, when it comes to behavior management—i.e., helping individuals to alter their behavior in order to achieve a positive aim—various strategies are available. One concept of behavior management that has been handed down over generations of nursing practice is the concept of self-management. This concept analysis paper will analyze self-management by describing a history of the concept, its defining characteristics