Less need for more landfill space reduces the cost and resources needed to secure new landfill space. "Composting also extends municipal landfill life by diverting organic materials from landfills and provides a less costly alternative to conventional methods of remediating… contaminated soil." (EPA, 2008)
It is evident that the advantages and benefits of composting are quite substantial, and arguably outweigh the disadvantages or issues involved with the process. Nevertheless, the previously discussed issues can be impeding to achieving the full benefits of composting, and thereby need to be dealt with suitably. For a government intending to implement a mandatory composting regulation, it would be necessary for them to also ensure that all residents within the region are properly educated on the procedure. Also, the government would need to make appropriate arrangements for residents living in apartments, business owners who are not in charge of their building's waste management, and issues related to sanitation. On a micro level, all residents would need to utilize the educational information and tools received from the government to ensure they are correctly maintaining their compost system and avoid problems such as odor or attracting insects and rodents.
For a mandatory composting regulation to truly be successful, the onus is on the government and waste management department to ensure that all aspects of the program run smoothly. In David H. Folz's study titled, Municipal Recycling Performance: A Public Sector Environmental Success Story, data revealed that the cost of composting inclusive recycling programs "on average, compared very favorably to the costs of traditional solid waste collection and disposal based on the data provided by local recycling managers." (Folz, 1999) the government will definitely be able to afford to implement an efficient and resourceful program. Folz study revealed that although the examined municipal recycling programs faced initial trial and errors, they were able to achieve positive outcomes in the long run due to their dedication. Mandatory composting as part of a recycling program relies upon a "coproduction partnership between citizens and their local governments." (Folz, 1999) Even though it remains an enforced regulation, in order for it to be successful it requires effort and commitment from both the government and the residents.
Based upon this analysis of composting, it is apparent that mandatory composting can definitely be a viable regulation for the City of Toronto. Enforcing a recycling program that includes composting, would be the most compelling method of getting all Toronto residents to take an active role in preserving the environment. People would have no choice but to abide by this legal...
Toronto's waste management department could develop a system of punishment for individuals who do not abide by the regulation. They could take some examples from San Francisco's policy, and administer fines to those caught breaking the composting law.
Alongside this system of punishment, the government could perhaps provide rewards for individuals who actually abide by the law, for example tax return credits. Another example could be the use of market incentives that "are introduced by replacing the common flat-fee pricing for waste disposal with a quantity-based pricing system by which households pay in relation to the amount of waste they generate." (Reschovsky & Stone, 1994) in hopes of reducing their disposal fees, this would motivate homeowners to diligently compost and decrease their waste material. The most important factor for Toronto's government and waste management department is that there should be a concrete plan of action before the regulation is actually implemented, in order to create an effective and efficient small scale mandatory composting program.
Brown, Sally. "ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS of COMPOST USE." BioCycle. June 2007 http://www.jgpress.com/archives/_free/001355.html.
CBS Broadcasting. "SF Mandatory Compost Law Is Food for Thought." CBS. 2 August 2009 http://cbs5.com/food/recycling.composting.sf.2.1039894.html.
Coker, Craig. "Environmental remediation by composting." BioCycle. December 2006 http://www.jgpress.com/archives/_free/001206.html.
Environment Canterbury. "Types of Composting Systems." New Zealand Government. 2 August 2009 http://www.ecan.govt.nz/Our+Environment/Waste/ReuseRecycleRethink/Composting/CompostingTypes.htm .
EPA. "Environmental benefits." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 7 October 2008 http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/rrr/composting/benefits.htm.
Folz, David H.. "Municipal Recycling Performance: A Public Sector Environmental Success Story ." JSTOR. July -August 1999.
Goldstein, Jerome & Nora Goldstein. "CONTROLLING ODORS at COMPOSTING FACILITIES." BioCycle. May 2005 http://www.jgpress.com/archives/_free/000435.html.
Horowitz, R. "Controlling Composting Emissions" BioCycle. J.G. Press, Inc. Main Account. 2009. Retrieved August 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1637146901.html
Living in Toronto. "Composting, yard waste and lawns." City of Toronto. 2 August 2009 http://www.toronto.ca/compost/index.htm.
Newsom, Gavin. "6/23/09 - the Nation's Most Ambitious Recycling Law." Office of the Mayor. 15 July 2009 http://www.sfgov.org/site/mayor_index.asp?id=106829 .
Platt, B., Ciplet, D., Bailey, K., Lombardi, E. (2008). Stop Trashing the Climate
Retrieved August 4, 2009 from: www.stoptrashingtheclimate.org
Reschovsky, James D. & Sarah E. Stone. "Market Incentives to Encourage Household Waste Recycling: Paying for What You Throw Away ." JSTOR. Winter 1994
Saft, RJ; Elsinga, . "Source Separation, Composting a Win
The waste group contains 3 items: WAS1 -- Storing of Recyclable Household Waste and Non-recyclable Waste WAS2 -- Building Location Waste Management WAS3 -- Composting Issue Measurement Criteria Points Awarded Household Recycling facilities Either Either Where the following recycling 1.8 services are given: • 3 internal storage bins for recyclable waste with -- min total capacity of 60 ltr -- no individual bin smaller than 15 ltr -- all of the bins in a devoted position that is accessible to disabled people 1.8 or or Where full recycling
9% Yard Trimmings - 12.9% Food scraps - 12.4%; Plastics - 11.7%; Rubber, leather and textiles - 7.3% Metals - 7.6% Wood - 5.5% Glass - 5.3% The following figure shows the number of landfills in the United States between 1998 and 2006 Number of Landfills in the United States 1998-2006 Source: EPA (1997) The work of van der Zee and de Visser entitled: "Assessing the Opportunities of Landfill Mining" states: "Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste
About.com. 2011. Some facts about the actual costs of recycling vs. traditional disposal expenses is presented by this article, and is certainly worthy of examination: a) a well-run curbside recycling program costs between $50 and $150 per ton; b) typically a trash collection and disposal program costs between $70 to $200 per ton. When New York City discovered that it was losing money on its recycling program in 2002, it eliminated
The role of municipalities, especially city managers, in the expansion of the cities and towns is very crucial and important in today's framework when urbanization is moving at a very rapid pace. The city managers in spite of their efforts are often incapable to perform better in terms of financial administration and efficient delivery of urban services. Consequently, the need of the hour is to strengthen and reengineer the urban
Teamwork is highly valued at Spectrum, and a matrix structure would exploit this advantage in a flexible and effective manner. A matrix structure also reduces costs, because it allows top talent to be shared between divisions: "because key people can be shared, the project cost is minimized" (Matrix organization, 2010, VisitAsk). The disadvantage to a matrix structure is the diffusion of responsibility. Shared authority and responsibility can reduce accountability
" (Ware, 35) The PHB is a high weight polymer that is used for energy storage and carbon storage by a large number of microorganisms. PHB is synthesized and degraded by a lot of organisms and is said to be the most economic alternative to petrochemical plastics. The commercial production of PHB is on and in the brand name Bipol. The attractive feature is that the polymer degrades into carbon