Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
" (Bernard, 333). Such statements seem to be explicit justifications for the stripping of the monasteries; they imply that Henry was not a pawn to the policies instituted by Cromwell but, instead, he found his own obscure religious beliefs to be one of the major contributors to decisions regarding the new Church of England.
Bernard also argues that rather than wholly rejecting both Catholicism and Lutheranism, Henry VIII wished to reinstitute the form of Catholicism that existed at its onset, following the first councils convened under Constantine. Historically, after seeing the holy cross on the battlefield and seizing control, Constantine signed the Edict of Milan, which ended Christian persecution. He also organized the Council of Nicaea, which created a Christian orthodoxy and established an organized Church backed by the state. As a result Christianity flourished during his reign, and the seeds of monastic orders and faiths were sown. This harkening to the bygone golden age of Christianity, according to Bernard, was Henry's method of forging "the middle way." (Bernard, 333).
This idea is congruous with the basic lens through which Henry VIII should be viewed: he wanted to build a lasting and stable monarchy. So, to wholly embrace Lutheranism would be to tear open age-old religious divides between his people -- between those who might sympathize with the Protestants and those who remained committed Catholics. Nevertheless, he was conscious of clerical abuses of power and, more importantly, he needed an undisputed male heir. Obviously, these were competing pulls. It would have been easier to remain ambivalent regarding the Protestant Reformation in the rest of Europe, if he did not believe it necessary to remarry. Accordingly, Henry VIII made the best of a delicate dilemma: he rejected the Church in the aim of stability, and as the new head of the Church of England he was able to eliminate the problems that he perceived.
This apparent middle road approach was undeniably successful; under the reign of Henry VIII the Church of England stood. It was his successors that truly began to bring about more fundamental changes to the way in which the Christian faith in England was observed. Lord Summerset, while acting on behalf of Henry's son, abolished the mass and introduced the English Prayer Book. This, by contrast to Henry's alterations, was a drastic change to the way English Christians would live. Summerset's policies were decidedly Lutheran -- rather than Calvinistic or Zwinglian -- and he was removed as Protector largely because of these measures. The Duke of Northumberland, on the other hand, continued reforming the Church, but he modeled it after the Swiss form of Protestantism.
Once again there was a backlash, but this time it was sponsored by Queen Mary after Edward VI's death. Her attempt to restore Catholicism failed, perhaps not because the notion lacked support, but because of the violent and aggressive means by which she undertook it. Mary's ultimate failure -- and the public revolts that ruined her reign -- indicated that the top-down reformation had struck a chord with much of the populous. Yet, it remains difficult to argue that it was theological objections that caused the unrest under Mary; it must be assumed, once again, that the leading factor was the kingdom's demand for stability and peace. The burnings that Mary enacted may have served little more ideological purpose but to remind citizens what horrible crimes a powerful and oppressive Church could accomplish in the aim or rooting-out heresy. Therefore, it should be anticipated that the reign of Queen Elizabeth and the establishment of the Anglican Church can be understood from this point-of-view as well. Queen Elizabeth's rule was a return to the middle road, a return to stability, and a return to peace. So overall, the popularity of the English Reformation rested on the shoulders of a stable, powerful and even-handed government.
Bernard, G.W. "The Making of Religious Policy." The Historical Journal, 41, 2, 1998. Pages, 321-349.
Brigden, Susan. New Worlds, Lost Worlds. New York: Viking, 2000.
Cowie, Leonard. 1986. The Black Death and Peasants' Revolt. London: Wayland Publishers.
Dickens, A.G. The English Reformation. London B.T. Batsford, 1964.
Haigh, Christopher. The English Reformation Revised.…[continue]
"English Reformation The Protestant Reformation" (2005, November 03) Retrieved November 29, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/english-reformation-the-protestant-69435
"English Reformation The Protestant Reformation" 03 November 2005. Web.29 November. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/english-reformation-the-protestant-69435>
"English Reformation The Protestant Reformation", 03 November 2005, Accessed.29 November. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/english-reformation-the-protestant-69435
Luther's thought incited anti-Roman sentiment and thought initially in his native Germany. He strongly influenced sympathetic local princes to confiscate church lands and property and to redistribute these. He urged for the end of the practice of granting indulgences. Through his work, 95 Theses, he questioned the worth and truthfulness of indulgences. The Roman Catholic Church "granted" indulgences to absolve one's sin from a "treasury of merits" of the
They felt that they Church was getting richer and the poor were getting poorer. And as a result, there were no great protests when the King broke away from the Church, because many felt that Henry would ease up on taking money from them. Henry knew of the Catholic Church's unpopularity and used this to his advantage (Truman, 2009). Christian Humanism played a large role in the development of the
Other theological beliefs rejected by the Anabaptists were the predestination theology of the Calvinists and the belief that Jesus was born of the flesh of Mary. In England during the reign of Edward VI the Church of England was busily engaged in establishing itself as the official religion of the country. Edward VI followed Henry VIII, his father, as the King of England and was expected to continue the persecutions
As the light changes during the course of a day, the colors change as well; reds and yellows get more brilliant at noon, blues become brilliant as the light fades in the afternoon. All the while, the pictures tell important stories or symbolize truths. Light radiating through glass adds life, beauty, is transcendent, and spiritual connections become apparent. The above rather elaborate description is cited at length in order to
Enlightenment worldview is the root of the "liberal social order," and is predicated on the belief in "the natural unfolding of human progress," (Kagan, 2012). Preceded by a Church-dominated orthodoxy, the Enlightenment directly threatened the political power of the Church, the main cause of rising fundamentalism in the defense of orthodoxy. However, the relationship between religion and the Enlightenment was not one of direct contract and opposition to create two
Theatre: English-speaking versions of Hamlet vs. European versions The many contemporary interpretations of Shakespeare enacted on the modern stage underline the fact that Shakespeare was a playwright for the ages, not simply a man of his own time. However, in the ways in which Shakespeare has been adapted to modernity, it becomes apparent that modern directors are just as intent upon revealing their own personal preoccupations as well as revealing the
Considering that the old order in Ireland was in place since two millennia and had always been under the control of the Gaelic chieftains, their removal from the leadership of the provinces of Ireland by the English Crown was destined to arise the resistance of the majority who sought support in the Catholic world and especially hoped in the papal authority. Curtis points out that the resistance against the