Spanish-Irish Relations 17TH Century to Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

About 140 Irish rebels were drowned as they tried to cross the Blackwater, and another 200 Irish were "lost in the river Moy and at Owen Abbey" (McGurk, 20). The defeat of the Irish rebels took just two hours, according to McGurk's reckoning, and clearly the English had prevailed which made Mountjoy a hero because so many previous English attacks had failed. Notwithstanding their victory, the English lost a reported 8,000 men (some by sword, others because of hunger, disease and the bitter cold winter in Ireland) (McGurk, 20).

In addition to the bloodshed and the embarrassment of the beating the Irish took, there were unanswered questions left behind, McGurk notes. Was that battle at Kinsale the official end "…of the Gaelic order in Ireland?" And was the Spanish effort so half-hearted that it really amounted to a fraud -- too little, too late? (McGurk, 21). The question regarding del Aquila seems the most pertinent in the aftermath of the routing the Irish took: "Was not Don Juan del Aquila a cowardly and incompetent commander?" Another good question in hindsight is, was O'Neill forced into an "unequal and inevitably fatal struggle" due in part to the failure of the Spanish commander to hold up his end of the bargain? (McGurk, 21).

The answers to these questions depends on which historian is providing the narrative, but it does seem that two things happened that tipped the scales toward Mountjoy's forces. One, del Aquila did indeed fail to provide the support he was sent there to provide, albeit the facts show that his men were not fed properly nor were they clothed comfortably in the brutal cold Irish winter. And two, the decisions O'Neill made at dawn on Christmas Eve -- having his forces, along with O'Donnell's forces, attack Mountjoy at the same time -- were not, in hindsight, the strategically wisest.

Back in Spain following the defeat at Kinsale, del Aquila offered "three causes" as to why things turned out as they did. One, he assured Philip that is was indeed possible to "take any port in Ireland" but it was "not possible to defend it with an undermanned expeditionary force" like he had in Kinsale (McGurk, 21). Secondly, del Aquila claimed his second in command, Zubiaur, did not obey orders to "join O'Neill"; and thirdly, del Aquila asserted that when Admiral Brochero (the Spanish commander at sea) returned to Spain from Kinsale with the transport ships, he had plenty of time to come back "…with reinforcements" for the del Aquila part of the strategy, but he did not come back (McGurk, 21).

What later happened to Hugh O'Neill?

Thomas Bartlett reviews an 1986 book by M. Kerney Walsh (Destruction by Peace) in which Kerney attempts to piece together the last years of O'Neill's life -- a piecing together that Barlett challenges in no small way. For example, Bartlett notes that Ms. Kerney found and translated 240 (Spanish) documents that she used for her narrative, but based on Kerney's 140-page introduction, Barlett explains, "…in this reviewer's estimation the published documents do not at all bear out the extravagant claims she makes for them" (Bartlett, 1986, p. 37).

That having been noted, Bartlett asserts that contrary to Ms. Kerney's narrative to the contrary, O'Neill was not "a politically astute" man who had a "clear grasp of contemporary international affairs" -- as Kerney claimed -- when he relocated to Spain. Bartlett's view is that O'Neill did indeed panic when he learned that he might have his loyalty to the rebel Irish cause questioned, and hence he "fled" to Spain. And moreover, O'Neill was "an embarrassment from the day he arrived on the continent until the day of his death" (Bartlett, 37), which is contrary to Kerney's view that O'Neill negotiated with Philip in order that Philip might consider making Ireland a colony of Spain. His once-glorified presence in Ireland was but a distant memory, and he must have known this, Bartlett explained.

O'Neill was sent from Spain to Rome where he languished in "house arrest" and was given a token pension but in fact he became "disconsolate and fell into despair" so that when he died, in 1616, his death may well have been "a relief" (Bartlett, 37).

In conclusion, this chapter in the relations between Spain and Ireland shows that the English army ultimately had too many resources on its side, O'Neil and O'Donnell did not have ample forces -- or creative enough strategies -- to beat the English, and the Spaniards either did not sent enough resources to augment those of the Gaelic rebel Irish forces, or did not have the courage to attack when it was most fortuitous to do so. The bottom line for this chapter in Irish…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Spanish-Irish Relations 17TH Century To" (2012, February 01) Retrieved December 8, 2016, from

"Spanish-Irish Relations 17TH Century To" 01 February 2012. Web.8 December. 2016. <>

"Spanish-Irish Relations 17TH Century To", 01 February 2012, Accessed.8 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • European Union Member States Relations With Their Overseas Territories...

    political framework of EU and OCT European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this

  • British Empire This Informative Historical

    In November they started making their upset known to diverse government officials. However for economic and political causes the prime minister along with his supporters could not disregard these commercial distress indications. In addition Rockingham and his chief financial minister, Edmund Burke and William Dowdeswell were assured that colonial reactions to the Stamp Act accounted for the recent turn down in British trade to North America and during 1765

  • Labor and the Growth of

    But after a military threat from the side of Northern opponents in Canada (French colonies) English colonists had to revise their attitude towards Indians turning some Indian tribes into allies by presenting them gifts and developing trade relations. Ultimately colonists came to the conclusion that they needed temporary cooperation with Indians in order to strengthen their positions in North America: "many Indians became dependent on the manufactured goods the

  • Traditional Se Asian Bamboo Flutes

    The organization of the five chapters in the study includes: Chapter I: Chapter I includes the design of the study, the study's research problem and three research questions, study objectives, the scope and limitations of the study, significance of the study of DNA, research methodology and philosophy of the studies from different related literature. Chapter II: During Chapter II, the researcher presents information to address the first research question; presented in

  • African Americans Are Second Only to Native Americans

    African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of

  • Women Are Portrayed in Late

    (269) It would seem that the artists and the press of the era both recognized a hot commodity when they saw one, and in this pre-Internet/Cable/Hustler era, beautiful women portrayed in a lascivious fashion would naturally appeal to the prurient interests of the men of the day who might well have been personally fed up with the Victorian morals that controlled and dominated their lives otherwise. In this regard, Pyne

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved