Averting Clinical Trial Drug Failure Through Preclinical Studies Term Paper

Length: 4 pages Sources: 4 Subject: Healthcare Type: Term Paper Paper: #36709673 Related Topics: Toxicology, Patient Protection, Genetic Engineering, Biotechnology
Excerpt from Term Paper :

Clinical Research Process

Advances in Research

The Common Fund programs of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) include the PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) initiative (NIH, 2013). The PROMIS initiative seeks to exploit the creative potential of researchers and clinicians, for the purpose of developing new methods for reporting patient outcomes; however, in contrast to more quantitative measures, such as laboratory tests and radiological findings, the PROMIS initiative is focused on outcomes from the perspective of patients. These outcomes can include patient reports of changes in pain levels, activities of daily living, cognitive performance, social connectedness, and psychological health. These outcome measures will be used to inform researchers and clinicians about an intervention's effectiveness, from a relevant and potentially more meaningful perspective.

Passage of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provided funds for the creation of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), a non-profit institute dedicated to improving the quality and relevance of the evidence used for making evidence-based healthcare decisions (PCORI, 2014). Recently, PCORI announced funding for 46 new research projects, totaling $102 million, for clinical effectiveness research (CER) projects (PR Newswire, 2014). This amount is on top of the $671 million in awards that have been made since PCORI began funding research projects in 2012. The main focus of the most recent funding decision is patient-centered outcomes in obesity and patient transitions from hospital to

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The Addressing Disparities Program will award two $10 million dollar grants for studying obesity treatments offered in the primary care setting, while the Healthcare Systems Program will award almost $15 million to help identify services that benefit patients the most when transitioning from hospital to home. In addition, eight awards incorporating the goals of the PROMIS initiative have been made available.

Patient-centered outcomes-focused research is also being funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Researchers funded by the NCI recently examined quality of life (QOL) outcomes in patients' comorbid with gynecologic cancer and obesity (Doll et al., 2014). An earlier study had revealed a negative relationship between BMI and QOL; therefore, a relatively large sample of patients (N = 152) were interviewed over the phone using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Population (FACT-GP) and the PROMIS global mental health and global physical health (GPH) instruments. Obesity was common among the patients, with 65% having a BMI ? 30 kg/m2. Among the many possible confounding variables tested, only age and cancer site were significant predictors of QOL. The independent variable BMI was also a significant predictor of social QOL (p = .05) using the FACT-GP instrument, although physical (p = .07) and emotional (p = .09) QOL were trending towards significance. The GPH instrument revealed BMI was a significant predictor of patient-reports of physical health (p = .01) and a non-significant predictor of patient-reports of mental health (p = .06). Adjusting for age, insurance status, and cancer site did not alter the GPH findings.

The study by Doll and colleagues (2014) was only the second to be published that examined the relationship between QOL and BMI in patients with gynecologic cancers. When combined, a relatively minor number of patients (N = 185) have been studied to date. The announcement of an additional $102 million in awards to study patient-centered outcomes, especially concerning obesity, should help increase the…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Doll, K.M., Kalinowski, A.K., Snavely, A.C., Irwin, D.E., Bensen, J.T., Bae-Jump, V.L. et al. (2014). Obesity is associated with worse quality of life in women with gynecologic malignancies: An opportunity to improve patient-centered outcomes. Cancer, published online ahead of print 23 Sep. 2014. Doi: 10.1002/cncr.29061.

Glaser, V. (2007, May 1). Building better pipelines withy ADME-Tox: Advances in microdosing, in vitro analysis, and biosimulation for optimized predictive studies. Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, 27(9).

Guttendorf, R.J. (2011). The emerging role of A.D.M.E. In optimizing drug discovery and design. Retrieved from http://www.netsci.org/Science/Special/feature06.html.

NIH. (2013). PROMIS: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System: Overview. Retrieved from http://commonfund.nih.gov/promis/overview.
PCORI. (2014). About us. Retrieved from http://www.pcori.org/about-us.
PR Newswire. (2014, September 30). PCORI Board approves $102 million in support for 46 new research projects. Retrieved from http://news.yahoo.com/pcori-board-approves-102-million-support-46-research-180000201.html.


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