Social Risk and Vulnerability Analysis Comment by Babyliza: There's No Abstract
Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. The Sovi for Bexar County is 0.230416 whereas that for Philadelphia County is 3.418284. This indicates that Philadelphia County as a geographical expanse has a higher vulnerability and susceptibility to environmental and public health hazards. A key group that ought to be taken into consideration is one of people lacking insurance. This is a group that is severely impacted in the course of disasters and after disasters, and are not able to easily recover. Individuals that are not self-insured are generally excluded from these calculations. Census Bureau
All expanses of the United States have experienced disasters, both natural and anthropogenic. The vulnerabilities that are precipitous to these disasters will cargo on taking place in the future. Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. In alleviating and scheduling for emergencies, state, local, and clannish representatives have to identify socially vulnerable communities to provide those residents improved assistance over the course of a disaster. State-owned, resident, and ethnic agencies are most conversant regarding the individuals in their societies. The social vulnerability index is intended to assist them in their endeavors to guarantee the security and well-being of their residents (Flanagan et al., 2011). The constituents of the SVI can help state and local workforces apprehensive of all stages of the disaster cycle. The purpose of this research paper is to undertake a social risk and vulnerability analysis of both Bexar County and Philadelphia County.
Bexar County is located towards south central Texas in the middle of the Plateau of Edwards towards the northwest and the Coastal Plains of Gulf towards the southeast. On the northeastern side of the expanse, the topography slants upward to the Edwards Plateau, while to the southeastern side of the expanse, it slants downhill to the Gulf Coastal Plains. The region's mildly undulating landscape is scattered with mesquite, oak trees, as well as, cacti, which flourish within the partially cloudy or clear skies that are present at around sixty percent of the time (San Antonio Office of Emergency Management, 2014). On the other hand, Philadelphia County is situated at the convergence of the Schuylkill River and Delaware River on the eastern boundary of Pennsylvania. To the west are the Appalachian Mountains whereas to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. In turn, this brings about a moderate climate as the two features eradicate the extremes of both hot and cold weather. Intermittently in the course of the summer months, the city ends up being overcome in ocean air that generates high humidity. Rainfall is equally uniformly disseminated all through the year, with maximum amounts in the course of the summer months, sometimes flooding the Schuylkill River. Snowfall is generally greater in the northerly located suburbs compared to the city, where snow every so often ends up in rain. High winds every now and then carry the day in the course of the winter months (City Data, 2016).
The demographic representation of Bexar County is made up of two main ethnic groups, which are the Hispanic and Caucasian groups. The latter makes up 26.6% of the total population of the county whereas the Latino and Hispanic group makes up 63.2% of the total population. The rest of the total population encompasses minority populations (San Antonio Office of Emergency Management, 2014). On the other hand, the racial representation of Philadelphia county includes 45.3% White, 44.1% Black, 7.2% Asian, 13.6% Hispanic and Latino, and the rest of the population are from mixed races (United States Census Bureau, 2016).
The table below outlines the demographics of Bexar County and Philadelphia County.
Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania
Bexar County, Texas
Population estimates, July 1, 2015, (V2015)
Population estimates base, April 1, 2010, (V2015)
Population, percent change - April 1, 2010 (estimates base) to July 1, 2015, (V2015)
Population, Census, April 1, 2010
Age and Sex
Persons under 5 years, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)
Persons under 5 years, percent, April 1, 2010
Persons under 18 years, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)
Persons under 18 years, percent, April 1, 2010
Persons 65 years and over, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)
Persons 65 years and over, percent, April 1, 2010
Female persons, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)
Female persons, percent, April 1, 2010
Race and Hispanic Origin
White alone, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (a)
White alone, percent, April 1, 2010 (a)
Black or African-American alone, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (a)
Black or African-American alone, percent, April 1, 2010 (a)
American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (a)
American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent, April 1, 2010 (a)
Asian alone, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (a)
Asian alone, percent, April 1, 2010 (a)
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (a)
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent, April 1, 2010 (a)
Two or More Races, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)
Two or More Races, percent, April 1, 2010
Hispanic or Latino, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (b)
Hispanic or Latino, percent, April 1, 2010 (b)
White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)
White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent, April 1, 2010
Foreign born persons, percent, 2011-2015
Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. In accordance to research studies, it has been indicated that in disaster events, the socially vulnerable group of people have a greater likelihood of being adversely affected. This implies that they are less probably to recover and more likely to die. Efficiently considering social vulnerability diminishes both human anguish and the economic loss associated with providing social services and public help subsequent to a disaster (Flanagan et al., 2011).
The Social Vulnerability Index is a relative metric that offers a portrait of an expanse's comparative social vulnerability to an assortment of hazards. The index is generated by combining socio-economic variables via a procedure called principal components analysis. The variables used to form the index were chosen on the basis of wide-ranging disaster and social science research (Dunning and Durden, 2013). The following table illustrates Social Vulnerability Index (Sovi) at the county level for Bexar and Philadelphia counties. The two elements presented in the illustration are:
1. Sovi Score 06-10: The score using the latest version of Sovi based on data from the U.S. Census' most recent American Community Survey.
2. National Percentile (06-10): Where the county's Sovi Score 06-10 ranks in comparison with the rest of the nation (Hazards and Vulnerability Research Institute, 2013).
SoVI Score (06-10)
Nat'l Percentile (06-10)
The Sovi for Bexar County is 0.230416 whereas that for Philadelphia County is 3.418284. This indicates that Philadelphia County as a geographical expanse has a higher vulnerability and susceptibility to environmental and public health hazards.
Historical events can correspond to this particular statistic. A good example is Hurricane Agnes that took place in 1972. The magnitude of this particular hurricane broke records in the United States at the time. The colossal tempest wrought right across the panhandle of the State of Florida and up the east coast to destroy the northeast, an expanse that usually can be deemed relatively safe from cyclone period. The State of Pennsylvania where Philadelphia County is situated faced the worst form of devastation compared to any other state in the United States, with hammering rainstorm and dramatic inundating from the Susquehanna and Lackawanna Rivers. In the end, this resulted in…
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