Social Risk and Vulnerability Analysis Research Paper

  • Length: 10 pages
  • Sources: 10
  • Subject: Environmental Science
  • Type: Research Paper
  • Paper: #64819789

Excerpt from Research Paper :

Social Risk and Vulnerability Analysis Comment by Babyliza: There's No Abstract

Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. The Sovi for Bexar County is 0.230416 whereas that for Philadelphia County is 3.418284. This indicates that Philadelphia County as a geographical expanse has a higher vulnerability and susceptibility to environmental and public health hazards. A key group that ought to be taken into consideration is one of people lacking insurance. This is a group that is severely impacted in the course of disasters and after disasters, and are not able to easily recover. Individuals that are not self-insured are generally excluded from these calculations.

Introduction

All expanses of the United States have experienced disasters, both natural and anthropogenic. The vulnerabilities that are precipitous to these disasters will cargo on taking place in the future. Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. In alleviating and scheduling for emergencies, state, local, and clannish representatives have to identify socially vulnerable communities to provide those residents improved assistance over the course of a disaster. State-owned, resident, and ethnic agencies are most conversant regarding the individuals in their societies. The social vulnerability index is intended to assist them in their endeavors to guarantee the security and well-being of their residents (Flanagan et al., 2011). The constituents of the SVI can help state and local workforces apprehensive of all stages of the disaster cycle. The purpose of this research paper is to undertake a social risk and vulnerability analysis of both Bexar County and Philadelphia County.

Background

Bexar County is located towards south central Texas in the middle of the Plateau of Edwards towards the northwest and the Coastal Plains of Gulf towards the southeast. On the northeastern side of the expanse, the topography slants upward to the Edwards Plateau, while to the southeastern side of the expanse, it slants downhill to the Gulf Coastal Plains. The region's mildly undulating landscape is scattered with mesquite, oak trees, as well as, cacti, which flourish within the partially cloudy or clear skies that are present at around sixty percent of the time (San Antonio Office of Emergency Management, 2014). On the other hand, Philadelphia County is situated at the convergence of the Schuylkill River and Delaware River on the eastern boundary of Pennsylvania. To the west are the Appalachian Mountains whereas to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. In turn, this brings about a moderate climate as the two features eradicate the extremes of both hot and cold weather. Intermittently in the course of the summer months, the city ends up being overcome in ocean air that generates high humidity. Rainfall is equally uniformly disseminated all through the year, with maximum amounts in the course of the summer months, sometimes flooding the Schuylkill River. Snowfall is generally greater in the northerly located suburbs compared to the city, where snow every so often ends up in rain. High winds every now and then carry the day in the course of the winter months (City Data, 2016).

Demographics

The demographic representation of Bexar County is made up of two main ethnic groups, which are the Hispanic and Caucasian groups. The latter makes up 26.6% of the total population of the county whereas the Latino and Hispanic group makes up 63.2% of the total population. The rest of the total population encompasses minority populations (San Antonio Office of Emergency Management, 2014). On the other hand, the racial representation of Philadelphia county includes 45.3% White, 44.1% Black, 7.2% Asian, 13.6% Hispanic and Latino, and the rest of the population are from mixed races (United States Census Bureau, 2016).

The table below outlines the demographics of Bexar County and Philadelphia County.

People

Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania

Bexar County, Texas

UNITED STATES

Population

Population estimates, July 1, 2015, (V2015)

1567442

1897753

3.21E+08

Population estimates base, April 1, 2010, (V2015)

1526006

1714774

3.09E+08

Population, percent change - April 1, 2010 (estimates base) to July 1, 2015, (V2015)

2.7

10.7

4.1

Population, Census, April 1, 2010

1526006

1714773

3.09E+08

Age and Sex

Persons under 5 years, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)

7.0

7.2

6.2

Persons under 5 years, percent, April 1, 2010

6.6

7.6

6.5

Persons under 18 years, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)

22.1

26.0

22.9

Persons under 18 years, percent, April 1, 2010

22.5

27.1

24.0

Persons 65 years and over, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)

12.7

11.5

14.9

Persons 65 years and over, percent, April 1, 2010

12.1

10.3

13.0

Female persons, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)

52.7

50.7

50.8

Female persons, percent, April 1, 2010

52.8

51.0

50.8

Race and Hispanic Origin

White alone, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (a)

45.1

84.9

77.1

White alone, percent, April 1, 2010 (a)

41.0

72.9

72.4

Black or African-American alone, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (a)

44.0

8.4

13.3

Black or African-American alone, percent, April 1, 2010 (a)

43.4

7.5

12.6

American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (a)

0.8

1.2

1.2

American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent, April 1, 2010 (a)

0.5

0.8

0.9

Asian alone, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (a)

7.4

3

5.6

Asian alone, percent, April 1, 2010 (a)

6.3

2.4

4.8

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (a)

0.1

0.2

0.2

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent, April 1, 2010 (a)

Z

0.1

0.2

Two or More Races, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)

2.6

2.2

2.6

Two or More Races, percent, April 1, 2010

2.8

3.5

2.9

Hispanic or Latino, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015) (b)

14

59.5

17.6

Hispanic or Latino, percent, April 1, 2010 (b)

12.3

58.7

16.3

White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent, July 1, 2015, (V2015)

35.4

28.7

61.6

White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent, April 1, 2010

36.9

30.3

63.7

Population Characteristics

Veterans, 2011-2015

66590

153129

20108332

Foreign born persons, percent, 2011-2015

12.7

13.1

13.2

Housing

Housing units, July 1, 2015, (V2015)

672588

684164

1.35E+08

Housing units, April 1, 2010

670171

662872

1.32E+08

Owner-occupied housing unit rate, 2011-2015

52.6

58.5

63.9

Median value of owner-occupied housing units, 2011-2015

145300

129400

178600

Median selected monthly owner costs -with a mortgage, 2011-2015

Median selected monthly owner costs -without a mortgage, 2011-2015

Median gross rent, 2011-2015

Building permits, 2015

1182582

Families and Living Arrangements

Households, 2011-2015

581050

618831

1.17E+08

Persons per household, 2011-2015

2.59

2.90

2.64

Living in same house 1 year ago, percent of persons' age 1 year+, 2011-2015

85.8

81.3

85.1

Language other than English spoken at home, percent of persons' age 5 years+, 2011-2015

22.1

40.8

21.0

Education

High school graduate or higher, percent of persons' age 25 years+, 2011-2015

82.0

83.3

86.7

Bachelor's degree or higher, percent of persons' age 25 years+, 2011-2015

25.4

26.7

29.8

Health

With a disability, under age 65 years, percent, 2011-2015

12.4

9.9

8.6

Persons without health insurance, under age 65 years, percent

14.4

18.7

10.5

Economy

In civilian labor force, total, percent of population age 16 years+, 2011-2015

59.7

63.7

63.3

In civilian labor force, female, percent of population age 16 years+, 2011-2015

57.3

58.3

58.5

Total accommodation and food services sales, 2012 ($1,000) (c)

3551722

5006725

7.08E+08

Total health care and social assistance receipts/revenue, 2012 ($1,000) (c)

17972603

12143604

2.04E+09

Total manufacturers' shipments, 2012 ($1,000) (c)

19718568

14766148

5.7E+09

Total merchant wholesaler sales, 2012 ($1,000) (c)

13181887

D

5.21E+09

Total retail sales, 2012 ($1,000) (c)

12241299

26480589

4.22E+09

Total retail sales per capita, 2012 (c)

14829

13443

Transportation

Mean travel time to work (minutes), workers age 16 years+, 2011-2015

32.5

24.5

25.9

Income and Poverty

Median household income (in 2015 dollars), 2011-2015

38253

51150

53889

Per capita income in past 12 months (in 2015 dollars), 2011-2015

22919

24735

28930

Persons in poverty, percent

25.4

15.6

13.5

Businesses

Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania

Bexar County, Texas

UNITED STATES

Total employer establishments, 2014

27395

34489

7563085

Total employment, 2014

594334

688074

1.21E+08

Total annual payroll, 2014 ($1,000)

32447004

29659119

5.94E+09

Total employment, percent change, 2013-2014

2

1.8

2.4

Total nonemployer establishments, 2014

84805

127915

23836937

All firms, 2012

104439

147956

27626360

Men-owned firms, 2012

55745

79932

14844597

Women-owned firms, 2012

40906

55036

9878397

Minority-owned firms, 2012

48743

85682

7952386

Nonminority-owned firms, 2012

51842

57291

18987918

Veteran-owned firms, 2012

15655

2521682

Nonveteran-owned firms, 2012

92065

126374

24070685

Geography

Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania

Bexar County, Texas

UNITED STATES

Population per square mile, 2010

11379.5

87.4

Land area in square miles, 2010

3531905

FIPS Code

"42101"

"48029"

"00"

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Social Vulnerability

Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. In accordance to research studies, it has been indicated that in disaster events, the socially vulnerable group of people have a greater likelihood of being adversely affected. This implies that they are less probably to recover and more likely to…

Sources Used in Document:

References

Bexar County Emergency Management. (2016). The Mission & Vision of the OEM. Retrieved from: http://www.bexar.org/675/OEM-Mission-Vision

Chavi. (2015). Here Are The 10 Worst Disasters to Occur in Pennsylvania History. Only in Your State. Retrieved from: http://www.onlyinyourstate.com/pennsylvania/pa-disasters/

City Data. (2016). Philadelphia: Geography and Climate. Retrieved from: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/Philadelphia-Geography-and-Climate.html

Dunning, C. M., Durden, S. (2013). Social Vulnerability Analysis: A Comparison of Tools. Institute for Water Resources.

Cite This Research Paper:

"Social Risk And Vulnerability Analysis" (2016, December 16) Retrieved September 21, 2019, from
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/social-risk-and-vulnerability-analysis-2163566

"Social Risk And Vulnerability Analysis" 16 December 2016. Web.21 September. 2019. <
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/social-risk-and-vulnerability-analysis-2163566>

"Social Risk And Vulnerability Analysis", 16 December 2016, Accessed.21 September. 2019,
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/social-risk-and-vulnerability-analysis-2163566