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Global Warming -- it Is Authentic, but Why So Many Skeptics?
The phrases "global warming" and "climate change" have become household words over the past twenty years or so, and given the vast amount of discussion and research, and the clear signs that the planet is hearing up, an alert citizen can safety predict that this topic will become even more prominent in American society. What are the latest results from scientific studies? How are businesses responding to the challenges that are present today and certainly are on the horizon for the coming years? How are poor people faring -- or how will they fare -- as the climate heats up, the seas rise, and powerful weather systems create devastation in many parts of the globe? And why are so many people, in particular conservatives, in denial about the fact that the climate is heating up? What are the arguments…
Armitage, Kevin C. 2005. 'State of Denial: The United States and the Politics of Global Warming. Globalizations, vol. 2, 417-427.
Associated Press. 2011. 'House Votes to Block EPA From Regulating Greenhouse Gases,' Huffpost Green. Retrieved May 6, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Cho, Charles H., Martens, Martin L., Kim, Hakkyun, and Rodrigue, Michelle. 2011. 'Astroturfing Global Warming: It Isn't Always Greener on the Other side of the Fence,' Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 104, 571-587.
Current.com. 2012. 'Heartland Institute pulls controversial billboard,' retrieved May 7, 2012, from http://current.com/blog/93764526_heartland-institute-pulls-controversial-billboard.htm .
global warming subject environmental ethics... Use guide essay paper.. The paper include personal thoughts global ethical analysis. 2. The paper: b. Include explanation issue important . c. Explain thinking changed developed subject.
Global warming is one of the foremost environmental concerns, an undisputed reality which threatens not only humanity's ethical balance, but has the potential to disrupt the fundamental continuity of life on planet earth. As a response to unrelenting carbon dioxide emissions, the resulting greenhouse effect has recently been accelerating the process of global surface warming to an alarming extent. The present work is directed at delivering an account of the current environmentally-generated ethical issues surrounding this phenomenon, with special focus on understanding the multiple layers of the problem and seeking ethically relevant resolves.
The extended anthropocentric view might be perceived as a prominent prerogative for the aggravation of climate sensitivity. Seeing as human beings have intrinsic value which…
Smith, Daniel R. "A Moral Climate: The Ethics of Global Warning" (Fall 2009). Anglican Theological Review, Vol. 91, No. 4
Wapner, Paul; Willoughby, John . "The Irony of Environmentalism: The Ecological Futility but Political Necessity of Lifestyle Change" (December 2005). Ethics & International Affairs, Vol. 19, No. 3
Global warming is becoming an international dilemma nowadays. The countries are determined to put a stop to global warming but it requires steps that are not easy to take because of their cost. According to a research, if the current trend of global warming continues, the cost of global warming will be as high as 3.6% of the total GDP. Out of all the impacts, just four will cause enough damage to the economy by taking up 1.8% of the GDP. These four are: hurricanes, real estate, energy and water costs. This will make up a total cost of 1.9 trillion dollars in 2100. So, it is necessary for all the countries to take up some drastic action on national and international level to reduce the financial and environmental shocks that are given to us by global warming. (Ackerman and Stanton, 2008)
The term global warming means an…
Ackerman, F. And Stanton, E. (2008). The Cost of Climate Change: What We'll Pay if Global Warming Continues Unchecked. [report] New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, pp. 1-7.
American Lung Association (2010). Global Warming: Impacts to Public Health and Air Quality. [report] California: American Lung Association, pp. 1-3.
Kejriwal, A. (2010). GLOBAL WARMING ( Cause, Effect & Solutions). [online] Retrieved from: http://projectsmileindia.wordpress.com/2010/04/12/global-warming-cause-effect-solutions / [Accessed: 7 Aug 2013].
Knowlton, K. (2008). Preparing for Global Warming: A Framework for Protecting Community Health and the Environment in a Warmer World. [e-book] New York: Natural Resources Defense Council. pp. 1-4. http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/preparedness.pdf .
Global warming is due to human actions.
Since the Industrial evolution, there is an increase in the greenhouse gases all over the world. This, consequently, has turned out to be the cause of a slow but sure increase of the temperature of the earth's lower atmosphere. This phenomenon has been given the name of Global Warming ("Global Warming," 2009).
The greenhouse effect is a natural process due to which the temperature of the atmosphere in close proximity to the earth's surface is warmed. The sun gives off noticeable, short-wave light to the earth that transit through a blanket of greenhouse gases without hindrance. These gases are composed chiefly of "water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone" ("Global Warming," 2009). Infrared radiation reflects off the surface of the Earth toward space. However, it is difficult for it to pass through the thermal blanket. Therefore, some of this infrared radiation…
Global Warming. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117020655
Kemp, D. (1994). Global Environmental Issues: A Climatological Approach. New York: Routledge. Retrieved May 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103862512
Mendelsohn, R. (1999). The Greening of Global Warming. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97578046
Wang, J., & Chameides, B. (2007). Are Humans Responsible for Global Warming? A Review of the Facts . Environmental Defense, Retrieved May 4, 2012 from http://www.edf.org/sites/default/files/5279_GlobalwarmingAttributuion.pdf
Global Warming Argument
FACT OR FALLACY
World Health Organization (2013) reports that, in the last century, the earth's warmth increased by approximately 0.75 degrees C. And further at more than 0.18 degrees every decade in the last 25 years. This phenomenon, called global warming, is said to result from the greenhouse effect whereby deleterious gases, such as carbon dioxide, trap heat within the earth's atmosphere instead of getting released. A steady rise in temperature is predicted to cause climate change disastrous to health and life. Many experts point to human beings as the only creator and cause of global warming and climate change. Opponents, however, think that the phenomenon is simply a function of nature. Some think it is mere hype motivated by some mercenaries. All sides agree that scientists have not agreed on the cause (WHO).
The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has determined…
Fumento, M. (2013). Global warming "proof" is evaporating. New York Post: New
York Holdings, Inc. retrieved on December 12, 2013 from http://nypost.com/2013/12/05/global-warming-proof-is-evaporating
Keller, C.F. (2007). Global warming 2007: an update to global warming- the balance of evidence and its policy implications. Vol 7, the Scientific World Journal: Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics. Retrieved on December 12, 2013 from http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed.17370024
Milfont, T.L. (2012). The interplay between knowledge, perceived efficacy, and concern about global warming and climate change: a one-year longitudinal study. Vol. 32 # 6,
Global warming has been portrayed as a very complicated issue that continues to bites the heads of many leaders in the current times. The writer of the article has significantly persuaded the readers on how serious the issue of global warming has become, what causes it and how it has been dealt with by various countries and organizations worldwide. The writer uses various devices to convince the reader on the causes of global warming for instance the writer says "Warnings from the scientific community are becoming louder," here the writer emphasizes that it is a great concern on the increase in gases that cause global warming. The writer further shows how there has been a sharp rise in global warming due to global emissions and there is no better way to express this rise but through the use of the statement like use of words "jumping of global emissions by…
Crossman, A. (2011). Deductive reasoning vs. Inductive reasoning. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://sociology.about.com/od/Research/a/Deductive-Reasoning-Versus-Inductive-Reasoning.htm
Kemerling, G. (2011). Arguments and Inference. Retrieved February 4, 2013 from http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e01.htm
The New York Times. (2013).Global warming and climate change. Retrieved February 4, 2013 from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/globalwarming/index.html
C. Global warming and plants
Global warming has direct impact on plants and this is something that will be passed on to human beings and animals. Because of elevated carbon dioxide levels plants normally produce chemicals that help in breaking down cyanide gas and lower the levels of protein.
D. Global warming and the habitat
Areas that were initially arable will eventually become unarable because they would be too wet or too hot to support agricultural activities. Protracted stints of drought can turn fertile lands into deserts with little or no vegetation. Plants and animals that are dependent on such vegetation will most likely become extinct because of global warming. If the droughts persist there may be resultant loss of biodiversity in planet earth. Ecosystems like the coral reefs and the coastal mangrove swamps can therefore easily disappear. Loss of farmland can cause disruption in the food supply hence the…
Gale Cengage. (2010). Global Warming. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow-display
Groberman, A. (2011). Global warming effects on plants. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://www.opposingviews.com/i/global-warming-effects-on-plants#
Global Warming Speech
Ladies and gentlemen, issues pertaining to global warming have literally become part of our lives. Global warming is a topic that has elicited a lot of debate from the political cycles with aspiring presidential candidates, gubernatorial, and even senatorial aspirants making it their campaign gimmick. It has, in the same breath, become the subject of many scientific studies. Nevertheless, debates surrounding global warming have also been marred with controversy with the popular media averring that global warming has much to do with depletion of the ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons ignoring the fact that the relation between the two is not strong. This underscores how important it is to the political economies of world leading and developing economies.
The effects of global warming began manifesting themselves long before. In fact, by late 19th Century, the temperature of earth's atmosphere and oceans had begun shooting up. Two-thirds increase in…
Battisti, David. "Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat."
Science 323.5911(2009): 240 -- 241.
Hansen, James. "Climate Change: Understanding Global Warming .In Robert Lanza. One World: The Health & Survival of the Human Species in the 21st century. New Mexico:
Health Press, 2000. 173 -- 190.
They work to regulate the temperatures n the globe by reabsorbng heat reflected from the surface of the earth and trappng t. The natural process of trappng heat creates a balance on the global atmosphere only when the amount of heat trapped does not exceed the volumes requred.
Over the years, human actvtes have led to the ntroducton of artfcally created gases comprsng of Methane and carbon doxde. The release of these gases over the years has surpassed the globe's acceptable volumes of desred eco-balance. The artfcal gases buldup n the atmosphere excessvely trappng heat n volumes that prevent thermal radaton from leavng the earth's Atmosphere. The consequences of the ncrease n heat trappng gases are a sgnfcant concern and, a reason why global warmng comes about as a result of human actvty, as opposed to natural processes.
Other human actvtes that have ncreased the presences of Carbon,…
inhabiting of natural habitats robs nature its natural cleansing ability. Forests play a vital role as water catchment areas and, a big consumer of the Carbon gases released through human activities Fischhoff B., 2007.
The wanton destruction of forests is a human activity that further strains the environment's ability to wash away emissions by human activities. Global warming in this case results of human destruction of natural agents.
Global Warming: Cause and Mitigation
There is a growing consensus among the scientific community that global warming is a reality that threatens the earth's climate in ways that will be devastating to mankind. Many analysts believe that action must be taken to mitigate the effects of global warming before it is too late to stop the process. This paper provides a discussion concerning natural and manmade sources of climate change, a personal opinion concerning whether global warming is real, and an assessment of two mitigation strategies that have been proposed. Finally, a speculation concerning what policy changes would help stabilize global climate and which business sectors or nations should be held to more strict standards is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning global warming in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Greenhouse gas emissions are widely recognized as causes of global warming (Clark & Lee, 2004).…
A blanket around the Earth. (2013). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/causes .
Allen, R.D., Seaman, S.M. & DeLascio, J.E. (2009, January). Emerging issues: Global warming claims and coverage issues. Defense Counsel Journal, 76(1), 12-15.
Clark, J.R. & Lee, D.R. (2004, Spring). Global warming and its dangers. Independent Review,
Global Warming, United States and the World
There are concerns that the natural ecosystem and human society is not capable of handling rapid changes in climate. Trying to deal with this challenge in a proper manner, a number of international treaties have been drawn up and many different activities have been arranged. In the year 1994, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) came into being. Since that year, 192 countries have ratified it. Then in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was proposed and put into motion in the year 2005. By the 13th of May, 2008, the EEC (a regional economic integration organization) and 181 nations has ratified, approved or accepted the terms of this agreement (Kyoto Protocol: Status of atification, 2008). In two of the European Climate Change Programs (ECCP) the European Union decided to go beyond the stated demands of the Kyoto Protocol. They are also…
Emission Trading Scheme (2008), European Commission. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/emission/index_en.htm
Joint Implementation (2008), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/mechanisms/joint_implementation/items/1674.php
Krugman, Paul (2002), Ersatz Climate Policy, New York Times, 15 Feb. 2002. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B00EEDE153FF936A25751C0A9649C8B63
Kyoto Protocol (2008), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php
Climate and Weather
Local or regional climate is the measure of the conditions of the atmosphere in a specific area over a long period of time while global climate is a measure of the conditions of the atmosphere over a long time period worldwide. Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time in a specific area or region. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) climate is composition of such factors as average precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind velocity and phenomenon such as fog, frost, hail storms and other measures of weather that occur over a long period of time in a particular place (Gutro, 2005).
Evidence of Global Warming
The National Academy of Sciences has found that the Earth's surface temperature has risen about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century and that this warming trend has accelerated during…
Borenstein, S. (2013, March 8). Recent heat spike unlike anything in 11,000 years. Associated Press.YahooNews. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://news.yahoo.com/recent-heat-spike-unlike-anything-11-000-years-191131579.html
Doyle, A. (2013, March 8). Canada's Arctic placiers headed fo unstoppable thaw: Study. Reuters.YahooNews. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://news.yahoo.com/canadas-arctic-glaciers-headed-unstoppable-thaw-study-190610158.html
e are already at a point where many countries have very little agricultural land under cultivation. ith rising populations -- the planet just cracked seven billion last year and is headed for upwards of 10 billion by the end of the century. Those are all people who will want food -- if we have no more land (under an arable land net loss scenario), feeding them will be a challenge. Especially if we run out of oil for fertilizer -- that is going to happen in the next hundred years or so, too. So while we may gain 4% extra arable land, we are going to gain 40% more people, and we will be running low on the oil that has allowed agricultural production to keep pace with population growth in the last fifty years.
These are just two of many issues relating to climate change. But both of these…
Vigran, a. (2008). With climate change comes floods. NPR. Retrieved March 23, 2012 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18022014
Zhang, X. & Cai, X. (2011). Climate change impacts on global agricultural land availability. Environmental Research Letters. Vol 6 (1) 1-8.
Every nation may have to formulate its own policies in a common effort at survival. In the face of uncertain policy trends on global warming, concerned sectors suggested five guidelines of policy to secure that survival. First, actions or decisions should be applied only in the near future so as to accommodate new knowledge on global warming still to be discovered. Second, reducing global warming will incur large costs to human society. Third, global warming involves all nations and should not be confined to only a few concerned or eager ones. Fourth, actions should be taken according to an orderly timetable and periodically reviewed. Fifth, plans evolved should be flexible and capable of incorporating new knowledge (Weidenbaum).
It has been evident and unfortunate that the global warming has been reduced to a partisan issue rather than treated as an all-significant scientific reality (Manzi 2007). Conservatives have also locked themselves away…
Current Events. Causes of Global Warming. Weekly Reader Corporation: Gale Group, April 22, 2007
Environment. Global Warming: Sun Takes Some Heat. Heldref Publications: Gale Group, 2004
Manzi, Jim. What Conservatives Should Do About Global Warming. National Review: National Review, Inc., 2007
Perkins, Sid. Dead Heat: the Health Consequences of Global Warming Could Be Many. Science News: Science Service, Inc., July 3, 2004
The plants and animals have already perceived them and are showing unusual behavior, such as laying their eggs earlier or breaking hibernation sooner (Causes of Global Warming).
Humans' Contributions to Global Warming
As revealed before, the main cause of global warming is given by the repercussion of the irresponsible actions undergone by mankind. In this order of ideas, mankind changed the basic usage of land and turned forests into construction sites or other facilities. The land collapsed as it was no longer supported by the roots of old trees; the concentration of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increased as the number of plants able to transform it into oxygen also decreased.
Then, aside from changes in land usage, the populations consume now more than ever. The American population for instance consumes per year 30% of the allocated global resources. If everybody consumed at this rate, we would need the…
Banerjee, S., February 2, 2007, Global Warming, the New York Times
Leonard, a., the Story of Stuff, http://storyofstuff.ethicalbrand.org/last accessed on July 21, 2008
Ponce, V.M., the 33 Facts about Global Warming, http://globalwarming.sdsu.edu/last accessed on July 21, 2008
Cause and Effect for Global Warming, Time for Change, http://timeforchange.org/cause-and-effect-for-global-warminglast accessed on July 21, 2008
In contrast, if countries began immediately to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the cost could be limited to approximately one percent of global GDP each year.
Global warming is a scientific issue, but it is being treating as an economic and political one. The Kyoto Protocol should never have allowed economic considerations to justify exemptions. This only gives incentives for companies to move to countries with exemptions to take advantage of laxer environmental laws as is clearly happening. Despite concerns by the United States regarding the exemptions, it still should have signed the agreement and dealt with the inequity in other ways such as imposing or increasing tariffs on imports from companies with high greenhouse emissions. Instead, the United States uses politics as an excuse for doing very little to fix the problem. This country and others such as China and India are foolishly short-sighted in their policies that trade short-term…
China to pass U.S. In 2009 in emissions. (2006, November 7). The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50B12F83A5B0C748CDDA80994DE404482&n=Top%2fNews%2fScience%2fTopics%2fGlobal%20Warming
Consequences of global warming. Natural Resources Defense Council. http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/fcons.asp
Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 2005 (2006, November). Report #: DOE/EIA-0573(2005). Retrieved from Web site: http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/carbon.html
Global warming (2006, November 19). The New York Times. 19 Nov. 2006.
Those that do not understand why Bush would relax these rules and harm the environment cite once again the tremendous amount of money that the utility industry has given to the Bush campaign as a potential reason for the rule changes. This does not mean that the writer is anti-Bush, however, as there is no guarantee that a different President in office would not have done exactly the same thing.
There is also a discussion by the Bush administration to weaken the rules that sewage treatment plants must abide by. This would allow more pollution to enter the water, as well as the pollution that would be in the air from the relaxed rules on air quality. The new standard would allow treatment plants to have an abundance of disease-causing microbes in the water that gets released, provided there was a reason, such as a heavy rainfall, that the treatment…
Bingaman, Jeff, and Inhofe, James. (2002). How should the United States approach climate change and the Kyoto protocol?; The dirty little secret about the United Nations' global climate treaty is that it won't work. Roll Call.
Healy, J. Kevin and Tapick, Jeffrey M. (2004). Climate change: It's not just a policy issue for corporate counsel -- It's a legal problem, 29 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 89, 96.
Polluter protection; Public will pay for EPA's retreat on Clean Air Act. (2003). (Editorial). Sarasota Herald Tribune.
Return of the dilution solution; EPA should not weaken local water-quality standards.(2003). (Editorial). Sarasota Herald Tribune.
Global Warming: A Visit to the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy
Global warming is one of the most urgent problems facing mankind today. It is also one of the toughest to address. Not only are there difficult technological and scientific issues surrounding a solution to global warming, there are political ones as well. Especially in the United States, global warming is as much a political problem as an environmental one. The United States government is under tremendous pressure from citizens to find a solution to global warming (a phenomenon the government still officially says is under debate) while at the same time protecting the jobs located in the very factories whose pollution has contributed to the very problem of global warming in the first place. Addressing global warming is a delicate business, and one that will likely dominate much of global discourse in the coming decades as mankind works together…
Ausubel, Kenny. "Heeding the Law of the Land." Alternet.org. October 14, 2005.
Little, Amanda Griscom. "Saving the Earth by Way of the Moon." The American Prospect. October 3, 2005.
McKibben, Bill. "What Part of Global Warming Don't We Get"? Prairie Writers Circle. October 25, 2005.
Merta, Ed. "The Heat Death of American Dreams." Alternet.org. October 12, 2005.
He sees it as a warming trend which will eventually reverse itself as the solar cycle's peak in the next 1500-year (Singer and Avery, 2007). This coupled with the fact that humans have never before been able to scientifically measure these cycles, shows that global warming is a theory without merit.
Other scientists disagree with the global warming and cooling trend theory and posit that the recent warming in the Earth's climate is due to pollutants entering the atmosphere. These pollutants, namely greenhouse gasses like hydrogen and methane, which act to trap heat and moisture within the Earth's atmosphere, have had a profound effect on the heating of the Earth and contributed to global warming worldwide. Scientists that back this theory are under the impression that this warming has been triggered by human activity, especially that activity over the past 150 years that has resulted in greenhouse gasses being spilled…
Houghton, John. (2005). "Global Warming." Reports on Progress in Physics. Vol. 68, No. 6,
Mooney, Chris. (2008). Storm World: Hurricanes, Politics, and the Battle over Global Warming.
Orlando: Harcourt Press.
Scientists believe that the current warming of the planet is because of human activity because science has been politicized to a large extent, which has in turn led to economic changes. Scientists point to the use of fossil fuels as an explanation for periods of climate warming; this attention allowed the carbon credit system to be put into place, where carbon credits are bought and sold by companies to ensure a tighter regulation of the use of fossil fuels (Kenton, 2020).
While technically one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gases is cows and the methane they release (Lemonick, 2017), humans are still responsible for the agriculture and farming industries. Still, most science media puts the blame on fossil fuels—the carbon dioxide coming out of internal combustion engine cars and coal-burning factories. It is the reason Elon Musk’s Tesla, Inc., has attracted such a following. They believe that…
Misstep and nonstops of the 21st century that have led to the current year, 2118’s destroyed environment and massively warm climate
Our planet is being destroyed, at present, by drought, heat, fires and dust and a nearly irreversibly damaged and sick environment, which is impacting the lives of millions with its new dimension of climate change and associated health effects. The climate change impacts felt in the present day are in line with twenty-first century estimates which suggested a possibly devastating, and excessively high, risk to mankind’s health[footnoteRef:1]. According to the estimates, some of global warming’s chief threats to humanity were food insecurity, displacement, malnutrition, and other unanticipated calamities which couldn’t be experimentally ascertained on account of the climate and environment’s long-term and complicated nature. The dire nature of the estimates raises the question of why they weren’t taken seriously by twenty-first century stakeholders and what held them back…
Mann, Michael, and T. Tolles. \\"The Madhouse Effect.\\" (2016).
McKibben, Bill. “Global Warming’s Terrifying New Math,” Rolling Stone, (July 19, 2012).
Mooney, Chris. “The Magic Number: Holding Warming Under Two Degrees Celsius is the Goal. But is it Still Attainable?” The Washington Post, (November 25, 2015).
National Climate Assessment, “Climate Change Impacts in the United States,” (2014)
PBS Frontline, “Climate of Doubt,” (2012)
Plummer, Brad. “Scientists made a detailed “roadmap” for meeting the Paris climate goals. It’s eye-opening.” Vox, March 24, 2017.
Roberts, David. “There’s a huge gap between the Paris climate change goals and reality.” Vox, (November 6, 2017).
Global warming occurs due to the rise in temperature. The trapping of light and heat from the sun causes this rising of temperature. Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor are the green house gases, these gases trap the light and heat from the sun, and as a result, the temperature rises. This global warming hurts a large number of people, plants and animals living in the earth. There are many reasons due to which global arming is increasing day by day. Human beings also cause global warming but many other things are also responsible for it (Maslin, 2006).
The main activity that human beings perform due to which global warming occurs is to flaming the fossil fuels. Whiled riving a car, carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere. This increases the greenhouse effect. In addition to this, jet fuel in the airplane also contributes in releasing the carbon…
Archer, D. (2011). Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Karling, H.M. (2011). Global Climate Change. Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publ.
Maslin, M. (2006). Global Warming: Causes, Effects, and the Future. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press.
Major Issues of the 21st Century: Who is Responsible for Addressing Global Warming?
Global warming is one of the most pressing issues in the 21st century. In the last few decades, the world has experienced higher temperatures, increased melting of ice caps, rising sea levels, more regular and more adverse weather events (such as storms, floods, heat waves, and drought), and changing rainfall patterns. We have also observed increased rain and ocean acidification, desert expansion, as well as greater species endangerment. These occurrences have largely been linked to human activity, particularly air pollution, burning of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, industrialization, and deforestation. The issue is so pressing that it threatens the ability of future generations to sustain their lives, which is ethically unfair. Indeed, global warming threatens food security, human health, human and non-human survival, as well as socioeconomic stability in the future (Cummins, 2014; Justin, 2015).…
These effects would be unfairly harsh on developing nations, who had little to do with creating the problem; this is one of the reasons that recent international talks in Copenhagen have stalled (WGW 2009). Not only would these countries not be able to develop as quickly and have healthier populations and more stable governments, but industrialized nations would also see negative economic impacts, making many wary of making any major transitions without a more certain analysis of the problem of global warming, and of a human cause behind it.
The Effects of Global Warming
Even if global warming isn't real, or if human emissions aren't behind it, the possible consequences and tangential downsides to the continued release of carbon dioxide and an increase in global warming warrant taking steps to find cleaner fuels and sources of energy. Warmer temperatures would lead directly to more frequent and more violent storms and…
Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html
Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html
JunkScience (2007). "The real "inconvenient truth." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/
NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)
This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.
Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)
2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions
Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…
Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:
Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978
Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007. http://alt-e.blogspot.com/
Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007 http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
Changes (Global, National, Region, Local, and Farm)
In the work entitled: "Climate Change and Agriculture" a brochure prepared for the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food written by Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. In Section 4: Impact of Climate Change on Crops report findings that:
1) Elevated temperature increased their rate of grain growth but shortened the duration of grain filling;
2) Higher temperatures may have decreased the availability of assimilates so decreasing grain size, grain yield and mass per grain; and 3) Higher temperatures reduced average mass per grain, in one experiment, by 25% in normal CO2 and 14% in elevated conditions." (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. nd)
The following chart demonstrates the effect that CO2, temperature, and CO2 combined with a higher temperature had on crop yields in this study.
Change in yield (%)
Source: (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, 2006)
Chipanshi, a., Chanda, R., & Totolo, O. (Dec 2003). Vulnerability assessment of the maize and sorghum crops to climate change in Botswana. Climatic Change, 61(3).
Dhakwa, G. & Campbell, L. (Dec 1998). Potential effects of differential day-night warming in global climate change on crop production. Climatic Change, 40(3).
Isik, M. & Devadoss, S. (20 April 2006). An analysis of the impact of climate change on crop yields and yield variability. Applied Economics, 38(7).
Peng, S., Huang, J., Sheehy, J., Laza, R., Visperas, R., Zhong, X., Centeneo, G., Khush, G., & Cassman, K. (6 July 2004). Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(27).
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…
Johansen, B. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Uzawa, H. (2003). Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Weart, S. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
Harris, P. (2003). Global Warming and East Asia. New York: Routledge.
what is climate change and what is it doing?
The reality of global warming: fact vs. fiction and the marginalized greed-based business perspective
The Economics of global warming vs. The moral impact of global warming on all stakeholders including non-human ones.
Climate change, not global warming: the effects are different in different parts of the globe.
The political, social, and financial challenges that global warming creates and how the challenges can be met.
The Economic, Political, and Ethical Effects of Global Warming
Global warming, or climate change, has economic, social, and political consequences. These consequences are experienced by the non-human populations of the planet, too, and perhaps even more so. The Environmental Protection Agency points out that due to climate change and global warming, migratory birds are flying an average of thirty-five miles further north than they did just forty years ago. The recent Hurricane Sandy…
Environmental Protection Agency. "Climate Change." Retrieved online: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/
Jacoby, Henry. Interview with the Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/warming/debate/jacoby.html
Kolbert, Elisabeth. Interview with the Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved online: http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/ikolbert.asp
Maslin, Mark. Global Warming: Causes, Effects, and the Future. MBI, 2007.
Global warming is the trend with which temperatures across the globe are increasing beyond the range of normal fluctuations. The effects of global climate change are real and will result in serious consequences for the generations to come if nothing is done to solve this problem. The problem of global warming has mainly been caused by the emission of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere. These greenhouse gases that are being emitted into the Earth's atmosphere and result in global warming include carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Some of the serious effects of the global warming problem include hotter and dry summers, increased flooding as well as lessened snowfall and soil moisture. This problem also results in serious consequences on the agricultural and tourism industries of many countries across the globe. Therefore, there is a need for rapid changes and actions that will help in the reduction of greenhouse…
Lehman, Christine. "Global Warming Problems & Solutions." EHow. EHow, Inc. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Riebeek, Holli. "Why Is Global Warming a Problem?" NASA: Earth Observatory. NASA, 6 July 2010. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Sheldon, Tony. "Reducing Greenhouse Gases Will Have Good Short-Term Effect." BMJ: Helping Doctors Make Better Decisions. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd., 2 Dec. 2000. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Simmons. "5 Deadliest Effects of Global Warming." Environmental Graffiti: The Magazine Created By You. Environmental Graffiti. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
How Global Warming Impacts Commercial Insurers
People assume that every person on earth is in danger due to global warming, but what companies and industries have the greatest financial risk? And, which industry will have to assume the risk that others disregarded? Of course, the obvious answer is the insurance industry. Insurance is the gamble by a financier (or underwriter) against the risks that endanger any purchase or venture (Cummins & Venard, 2008). Understanding what global warming threats entail and how they can adversely affect the insurance industry's ability to provide the funds to secure risk is a crucial present and future occupation.
The insurance industry may be the most significant deterrent against the costs that are to be incurred by the possible deleterious environmental effects of global warming (Litan, 2006). However, because of the money to be made and the costs associated others will incur some of…
Allen, R.D., Seaman, S.M., & Delascio., 2009. Emerging issues: Global warming claims and coverage issues. Defense Counsel Journal, 76(1). 12-37.
Bertagna, B.R., 2006. "Standing" up for the environment: The ability of plaintiffs to establish legal standing to redress injuries caused by global warming. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2006(2). 415-446.
Burt, L., Carlson, C., Kucera, J., & Massie, J., 2009. Florida homeowners insurance: How big Is the availability problem and Is there a fair solution?. Risk Management and Insurance Review, 12(2). 183-196.
Cummins, J.D., & Venard, B., 2008. Insurance market dynamics: Between global developments and local contingencies. Risk Management and Insurance Review, 11(2). 295-307.
Besides the fact that flooding destroys agricultural lands leading to a disruption of food supplies to millions of people, one also has to consider the social impact on areas where there are large population groups. This can lead to forced migration and often to refugee situations, with all the related negative social implications. .
Another important aspect is the increase in serious diseases as a result of global warming. Scientists warn that an increase in temperature also means that infectious diseases could become more widespread. Infectious diseases carried by insects and rodents may also appear in new areas and regions where the population may be unprepared to deal with them. This has already been seen in cases of serious insect -- borne disease, such as Dengue fever, Malaria, West Nile virus, and Yellow Fever.
One also has or bear in mind that in order to understand the devastating effects of…
Climate change responsible for 300,000 deaths a year. Retrieved from http://www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=3574
It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.
Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this…
Healy, J. Kevin and Tapick, Jeffrey M. (2004). "Climate change: It's not just a policy issue for corporate counsel -- It's a legal problem," 29 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 89, 96.
The Arctic is affected by global warming before the rest of the world because of the presence of ice and snow, and the Arctic will intensify the human consequences of global warming because of the ways ice and snow are integral to regulating Earth's surface and atmospheric temperatures.
The second step in the process of global warming in the Arctic is therefore the melting of ice and snow. Due to the increase in anthropogenic chemical emissions, the greenhouse effect is exacerbated. The exacerbation of the greenhouse effect then causes a rise in surface and atmospheric temperatures. Due to the rising atmospheric and surface temperatures, snow and ice in the Arctic begin to melt. The melting of snow and ice in the Arctic leads to several unfortunate consequences. First, sea levels begin to rise as the ice melts. Rising sea levels can cause major upheavals in climate: not only can flooding…
Bhattacharya, Shaoni, "Arctic Warming at Twice Global Rate." New Scientist. 2 Nov 2004. Online at http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn6615 ..
Climate." United States Environmental Protection Agency. 7 Jan 2000. Online at http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/climate.html .
Ravilious, Kate. "Arctic Melt May Dry Out U.S. West Coast." New Scientist. 11 April 2004. Online at http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn4856 .
While we know that global warming would no doubt, at the levels Epstein cites, be conditions for increased disease and even death; there is no sufficient data to suggest that global warming is going to reach the levels that Epstein is suggesting in his article. His article is alarmist in nature.
Schneider's (2002) article, in contrast to Epstein's, relies heavily on scientific data, pointing out that existing data is inconclusive as to what the future of global warming is (pp. 62-65). Schneider, who conveys the sense that he is resisting the temptation to be alarmist, is holding onto the principles of science, maintaining that there is insufficient evidence with which to make predictions on the future of climate changes at the levels discussed in the Kyoto Protocol.or that of a "non-scientific" study which is the focus of Schenieder's argument on the lack of evidence to support much of the published…
Schneider, Stephen (2002), Global Warming: Neglecting the Complexities, Scientific
American v286 no1 p62-5 Ja.
Epstein, Paul R. (2000), Is Global Warming Harmful to Health?, Scientific American v283 no2 p50-7 Ag.
The Growing Consensus on Global arming
In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, many segments of the general public have begun to concede that global climate change and its various consequences are real. Moreover, as the New Jersey coast and the streets of New York experienced flooding and damage the likes of which had never been seen this far north, it has become difficult to deny that our weather patterns are changing. Global warming contends that these changes are as a result of manmade hazards. According to the Stanford Solar Center (SSC) (2008), a "panel convened by the U.S. National Research Council, the nation's premier science policy body, in June 2006 voiced a "high level of confidence" that Earth is the hottest it has been in at least 400 years, and possibly even the last 2,000 years." (p. 1) The discussion hereafter will demonstrate that the case for the…
Blue Marble. (2012). How to Help Stop Global Warming. Bluemarble4us.com.
Bryce, E. (2012). On Our Radar. The New York Times.
Lewis, M. (2012). Scientists Find No Trend in 370 Years of Tropical Cyclone Data. Globalwarming.org.
National Geographic (NG). (2011). What Causes Global Warming? Nationalgeographic.com.
The measures could be introduced through the education of the population and the breaking of these regulations should be severely fined.
2. A better recycling process - This would be supported by the selective garbage collection and would be compulsory to all organizations. Breaking the regulations would be severely fined
3. Stopping deforestation - This must be done across the entire globe and national authorities must be the only ones to grant tree cutting rights and only after intense analyses. Also, new trees must be planted. Illegal deforestation should be punished with imprisonment
4. Modernizing the technologies used by the most polluting industries - these programs should be supported with government subsidies and the states refusing should be internationally trialed
5. educing the usage of resources - this could be achieved by better control and pollution systems and would also reduce the general levels of consumerism, also in the best…
Connor, S., 2005, the Final Proof: Global Warming is a Man-Made Disaster, Independent UK, Edition of February 19, 2005
Kiehl, J.T., Trenberth, K.E., 1997, Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 78, Number 2
Thomas, E.C., 2003, Partnership for Environmental Protection, Press Information Bureau, http://pib.nic.in/feature/feyr2003/fjun2003/f030620031.html, last accessed on March 12, 2008
2005, Expert: China Overtakes U.S. As Top Consumer, China Daily, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-02/17/content_417043.html. Ast accessed on March 12, 2008
Global Warming Trends and Impact
Global warming refers to the warming of the earth's temperature, in particular oceans and the layer of the atmosphere closest to the planet (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 114). Thus far, the total temperature increase is documented at only about one degree (Weart 43). However, even this seemingly minor change can create ripple effects that present challenges for earth and mankind. Global warming and other climate change issues are thought to be the result of both natural phenomenon and man-made activity. In order to sustain life as we know it, the earth must maintain a consistent temperature. The rapid elevation in temperature has created an imbalance making it evident that the phenomenon of global warming is real.
The rate at which arctic sea ice is melting is faster than normal which has caused sea levels to rise (Prothero 15). In addition, weather is becoming more extreme,…
Prothero, Donald R. "How We Know Global Warming Is Real And Human Caused." Skeptic 17.2 (2012): 14-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Thompson, Lonnie G., and Gioietta Kuo. "Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options." World Future Review 4.2 (2012): 114-122. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Weart, Spencer. "Global Warming: How Skepticism Became Denial." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 67.1 (2011): 41-50. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
hen frozen soil melts, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
According to an article in New Scientist, "the northern ice cap is warming at twice the global rate and...this will lead to serious consequences for the planet," (Bhattacharya). Consequences of global warming include threats of wildlife and ecosystems in addition to rising sea levels. Data related the global warming in the Arctic is gleaned from climate modeling projects such as those used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which can project how global warming will progress in the future.
Some of the consequences of global warming are touted as being positive, however. For example, about a fourth of the Earth's remaining oil reserves are in the Arctic; therefore, global warming is actually beneficial for the oil industry. Nevertheless, most of the effects of global warming are detrimental and warrant immediate attention by scientists and climatologists.
Bhattacharya, Shaoni. "Arctic warming at twice global rate." New Scientist.com. Nov 2004. Online at http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn6615 .
The Debate of Global Warming
Global Warming is a serious problem for our planet and our generation. This is a topic of much concern and debate. The climate change in our environment has been the center of many debates. Global warming is the increase in temperature in the earth's surface and in the oceans. This increase in temperature and potential continued increase in temperature is a significant threat to the environment and planet earth as we know it. This type of imbalance in the environment can impact us significantly. Scientist believes that there are things we can do as a society to prevent this horrible change in climate.
There are some natural causes that create the climate changes. One of the natural causes is the release of methane gas from the arctic tundra and wetlands. The greenhouse gas is a gas that collects heat and keeps it stored…
Climate Change Information Resources (2004). What causes global climate change? Retrieved from http://ccir.ciesin.columbia.edu/nyc/pdf/q1a.pdf
Environment News Service (2002). U.S. Report Links Human Actions to Global Warming. Retrieved from http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jun2002/2002-06-03-02.asp
Langdon, K. (2003). Human Activity and Global Warming. Journal of the Prometheus Society. 140. Retrieved from http://www.polymath-systems.com/pubpol/globwarm.html
In clear connection with climate change, with the impossibility of plants to adapt, or their struggle to do so, is the economic effects global warming would have on the population and on Australia as a state entity. There are large parts of the continent that bases its subsistence on agricultural practices. It is by no means the sense of rural ancient agriculture; yet, despite the technologies at the disposal of the agricultural system, this may reduce its capability and productivity simply because the cropped plants cannot adapt to a different environment. In such a situation, the agricultural output is lowered and effects on the economy could become real in several decades. More precisely, "changes in precipitation and, subsequently water management, are particularly critical factors affecting the future productivity of the Australian landscape. The declines in precipitation projected over much of Australia will exacerbate existing challenges to water availability and quality…
CSIRO. Climate change impacts on Australia and benefits of early action to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. 2006. http://www.csiro.au/files/files/p6fy.pdf (accessed April 5, 2011).
Global Changes. Global Warming in Australia: A Climate Changing. 2009. (accessed April 5, 2011).
Litke, Mark. Global Warming Alarm: Doomsday for Australia? 2007. http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/GlobalWarming/story?id=2866985&page=1 (accessed April 5, 2011).
NOVA Science in the News. Australian Academy of Science. 2005. http://www.science.org.au/nova/091/091key.htm (accessed April 5, 2011).
The demand for alternative energy forms is most likely going to form a very profitable niche on the market in the near future.
This is obviously the same thing as when the informational revolution began or when the industrial revolution came about. The companies who will became providers of solutions to energy alternatives and to enable the companies to abide by the governmental restrictions in the field will also be interested stakeholders in getting the governmental restrictions implemented and operational in the industry.
1. Increased governmental spending and involvement into creating alternative forms of energy.
PROS: An important pro-in this case is that the significant governmental involvement, especially in terms of promoting and financing research for new forms of alternative energy, can actually have a tremendous impact and produce immediate results.
CONS: Increased governmental spending in any area will mean potentially higher taxes and a greater burden for the…
1. Samuelson, Robert. 2006. Global Warming's Real Inconvenient Truth. The Washington Post.
2. Clark, J.R.; Lee, Dwight. 2004. Global Warming and Its Dangers. The Independent Review, v. VIII, n. 4, Spring 2004. pp 591-597
3. Shellenberger, M.; Nordhaus, T. 2005. The Death of Environmentalism. On the Internet at http://www.grist.org/news/maindish/2005/01/13/doe-reprint/.Last retrieved on October 5, 2008
Given the natural changes in atmosphere, to determine which problems are created by man and which parts by natural occurrences is problematic (Climate 2).
Greenhouse gas concentrations caused by additional land coverage and land use, pouring into the Earth's atmosphere will certainly continue to create additional warming of the Earth's temperatures, raising the average temperature, changing precipitation and storm patterns, as well as raising seal levels from melting glaciers. However, the U.S. Strategic Plan is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at any atmospheric level, implying that net emissions of greehouse gases will need to slow and eventually stop, hopefully reversing the effect, so that greenhouse gas emision will "approach levels that are low or near zero." (Climate 3).
Meanwhile, making small changes in individual homes and yards can create big reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and save money. Changing the kind of light bulbs used, using energy-saving appliances, maintaining heating…
The precise variables and units of measurement will be greatly dependent upon the area or the region of the study as well as the specific crop to be the focus of the study. For example, in the state of Wisconsin variability in the weather include the following: (1) Wetter winters/driers summers; (2) poor air quality; (3) more frequent floods, droughts, forest fires and storms with damage; and (4) increase in disease-carrying insect populations. (Wisconsin Natural Resources, 2007)
III. Specific Units of Analysis
Units of analysis within the scope of this type of study would necessarily be crop production units, which will be factored by temperature variances and rainfall variances as compared to the resulting production of crops within the area or region of the study. Other independent variables by which crop production might be factored include the factors of air quality, forest fires, storms and insect population in the area…
What Global Climate Change Could Mean for Wisconsin (2007) Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine. 4 Feb. 2007. Online available at http://www.wnrmag.com/supps/2000/apr00/global.htm .
Will Global Warming Improve Crop Production? (2002) Science Daily American Society of Agronomy 19 September 2002. Online available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/09/020919065913.htm .
Douglas, Jerome (200) Global Warming Already Impacting Monsoons, Crop Production in India. 4 Dec. 2006 NewsTarget. Online available at http://news.mongabay.com /2006/1204-ca.html.
California Agriculture Could Plunge Due to Global Warming (2006) Mongabay Online Dec. 2006 available at
The results of rising sea levels on human and animal populations could be catastrophic.
The gases that are primarily causing global warming include simple water vapor and carbon dioxide. To sustain life, some degree of a greenhouse effect is necessary or else most of the sun's warmth would be dissipated into space. The rapid increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to industrialization has, however, created an enhanced warming effect. Therefore, global warming is at least enhanced by human causes. Emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are exacerbating the earth's natural warming process.
Solving the problems associated with climate change requires wholesale changes to the ways human beings produce goods on a large scale. Simply shutting off lights at night might help but the key remains in developing new technologies that reduce emissions at their greatest sources: factories and vehicles including automobiles and airplanes.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Global Warming Frequently Asked Questions." National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved May 26, 2008 at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming.html#q1
United States Environmental Protection Agency. "Climate Change." Retrieved May 26, 2008 at
Global warming has been an issue of debate for decades, however, today there seems to be more evidence pointing to its reality. Type in "global warming" on Google search engine and access to more than fifteen million web sites will appear. One such web site is "Natural Resource Defense Council" at http://www.nrdc.org/globalarming/default.asp, which contains a wealth of information concerning global warming (Global pp). Those who believe in global warming assert that higher temperatures will produce dangerous consequences such as drought, disease, floods, and lost ecosystems (Global pp). According to the theory, carbon dioxide and other air pollution from sources such as coal-burning power plants and automobiles, collects in the atmosphere and creates a "thickening blanket" that traps the sun's heat and causes the planet's temperature to increase (Global pp). Over the past fifty years the average global temperature has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history and scientists predict…
Life on Mars.
Science and Nature: Space.
Global Warming: Why it is not the greatest fear of the industrializing world, why it is such a great fear for the industrialized world
There is a threat that currently looms upon the horizon, in danger of choking the fragile health of the developing economies of the so-called Third World. This threat is not the so-called global warming phenomena. The long ranging environmental results of the build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere still remains unknown, and the data is far from conclusive. What is known by international economists is that the threat of global warming, as deployed as a kind of buzz word and media scare tactic of the environmentalist movement could impede the growth of industrialized nations and reduce the chance of Third World countries improving their living standards.
Despite the words 'Trade not Aid,' as bandied about by corporations such as the Body Shop, there is…
A direct effect of the endeavor performed by environmental agencies and programs like the 1970 Clean Air Act is the fact that the level of certain pollutants slowly decreased ever since the 80s. Even with that, such successes are rare and a great deal of the progress experienced in the time period lasting from the 70s and until the end of the twentieth century have been forgotten as pollution once again became a serious issue in Houston. During the recent decade emission levels have steadily increased as people failed to realize that they first have to discover which pollutants harm them the most and to act in accordance with this discovery (Sexton et. al.).
What most cannot understand is that air pollution is a direct effect of their living style and in order to decrease emission levels and to eventually stop pollution they have to change much about the…
1. McNulty, Sheila. Air pollution: Houston's other environmental disaster." Financial Times. September 12, 2010.
2. Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Marko, Dritana; Bethel, Heidi; & Lupo, Philip J. "Comparative Assessment of Air Pollution-Related Health Risks in Houston," Environmental Health Perspectives 115.10 (2007)
3. "Getting the Big Picture on Houston's Air Pollution." Retrieved September 22, 2010, from the NASA Website: http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/everydaylife/archives/HP_ILP_Feature_03.html
The human causes of global warming are less certain than the eventual depletion of fossil fuels, but the damages predicted to result from uncontrolled warming brought on by fossil fuels are so great that the gamble becomes too great. Only the same intentions as listed above would take this risk with future generations.
The Need for Action
The ethical and social issues at work in the use of fossil fuels and the global warming phenomenon create a clear need for effective action to be taken, and soon. Many scientists believe that it may already be too late to halt the warming trend, let alone reverse it -- the build up of greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has created a situation that is already self-perpetuating, meaning that the warmer temperatures observed over the past century will continue to rise even if all use of fossil fuels…
Graefe, L. (2009). "The peak oil debate." Economic review 94(2), pp. 1-14.
Howard, R. (2009). "Peak oil and strategic wars." Futurist 43(5), pp. 18-21.
Ralston, S. (2009). "Engineering an Artful and Ethical Solution to the Problem of Global Warming." Review of policy research 26(6), pp. 821-37.
Rathore, B.; Kulkarni, A. & Sherasia, N. (2009). "Understanding future changes in snow and glacier melt runoff due to global warming in Wangar Gad basin, India." Research communications 97(7), pp. 1077-81.
" (Ungar, 2001) in the work of Jerry Williams entitled: "Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems" explored are the "realist and constructionist approaches to environmental-social problems." (1998) Neither view in its current form is adequate as the actual reality is one that "moves beyond relativism and definitional constructionism" recognizing that the natural world is not dependent upon the constructions of humans. (Williams, 1998) the work of Carvalho and urgess (2005) entitled: "Cultural Circuits of Climate Change in the U.K. roadsheet Newspapers 1985-2003" provides an argument supporting "a cultural perspective to be brought to bear on studies of climate change risk perception." This article holds that those who produce and consume media texts "are jointly engaged in dynamic, meaning-making activities that are context-specific and that change over time." (Carvalho and urgess, 2005) Richard a. Kerr in the work entitled: "Global Warming: Rising Global Temperature, Rising Uncertainty" states…
Dunn-Brown, Beth (2007) Far North is 'Ground Zerio' for Global Warming. AP New Wire. 15 April, 2007. Online available at http://news.aol.com/topnews/articles/_a/far-north-is-ground-zero-for-global/20070415145709990002?ncid=NWS0001
Shelden, Ungar (2001) Moral Panic vs. The Risk Society: The Implications of the Changing Sites of Social Anxiety. The British Journal of Sociology. 52 (2) 2001 June.
Williams, Jerry (1998) Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems. Sociological Inquiry. Vol. 68 No. 4. October 1998.
Carvalho, Anabela and Burgess, Jacquelin (2005) Cultural Circuits of Climate Change in U.K. Broadsheet Newspapers, 1985-2003.
Specifically, it has risen a full degree since 1957 (Crittenden & White, 2010; Muller, 2008). Similarly, there is no doubt that carbon dioxide levels have also risen significantly, thirty-six percent since their first recording (Muller, 2008). Proponents of the global warming hypothesis argue that this increasing level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is a cause of the greenhouse effect that traps warmth under the lower layers of the atmosphere and increases severe weather patterns and weather instability in general (Crittenden & White, 2010).
In many respects, the principle flaw in the global warming theory is not so much that it is illusory but that it is not necessarily harmful and also, not necessarily attributable to human behavior. The most responsible proponents of global warming acknowledge both of those uncertainties but argue that if the observed evidence is significantly related to global warming, and if global warming is the cause…
Crittenden, J.C. And White, H.S. "Harnessing Energy for a Sustainable World"
Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, No. 13; (2010): 4503 -- 4505.
Muller, R.A. (2008). Physics for Future Presidents: The Science behind the Headlines.
New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
S. Department of State). Since them the severity and frequency of bleaching events continues to increase. These bleaching events correlate with rising average sea temperatures on a global basis, rising sea levels, and more frequent tropical storms fueled by increasingly stronger heat masses (U.S. Department of State).
In addition to coral reef bleaching, the geographic ranges of many plants and animals are shifting. Plant and animal ranges are generally limited by climatic factors, with animals able to respond to climate changes faster than plants due to increased mobility (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). ecently, changes have been noticed in the ranges of several species. Those that cannot adapt to the new climate will quickly become extinct. Currently, nearly 20-30% of all plant and animal species are in danger of becoming extinct in the near future, with many of these extinctions related to climate change (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). However, climate change…
Begley, S. The Truth About Denial. Newsweek. August 13, 2007.
< http://www.newsweek.com/id/32482 > Accessed June 1, 2009.
Canadell, J., Le Quere, C., and Raupach, M., et al. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric
CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sink.
Global Warming: Is it Really a Threat?
Global warming has become a modern issue of considerable significance. It has been the subject of many debates, articles and conferences. Despite the amount of debate around the issue, there is still no clear conclusion. Yet the possible consequences that are attributed to the threat are highly concerning. As one report describes:
The most recent projections of state-of-the-art computer models of the Earth's climate (GCMs) have projected a globally averaged warming ranging from almost 3 to 10.7 degrees F. over the next 100 years, if greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere at the current rate. Climate scientists believe that such a warming could shift temperature zones, rainfall patterns, and agricultural belts and, under certain scenarios, and cause sea level to rise. They further predict that global warming could have far-reaching effects -- some positive, some negative depending how it may be…
CGER: Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources. 2000. Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change. National Academy Press: Washington DC.
Justus, J.R., & Fletcher, S.R. 2002. IB89005: Global Climate Change. Congressional Research Service: Washington DC.
Kaufman, Y. 2002. On The Shoulders of Giants: Milutin Malinkovitch (1879-1958). NASA. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov:81/Library/Giants/Milankovitch/index.html
Magnuson, J.J., Robertson, D.M., Benson, B.J., Wynne, R.H., Livingstone, D.M., Arai, T., Assel, R.A., Barry, R.G., Card, V., Kuusisto, E., Granin, N.G, Prowse, T.D., Stewart, K.M., & Vuglinski, V.S. 2000. Historical Trends in Lake and River Ice Cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science 289: 1743-1746.
Global warming has become an issue of major global concern. This research explores the complexities of the issues surrounding global warming and the development of models to help curb the human contributions to its continuation. This research focuses on the UAE and its initiatives to develop sustainable cities in the future.
Evolution of Cities
environmental change and Global warming
Field Work and Case Studies
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) covers an area of approximately 777 sq. km and has a population of over 5 1/2 million residents according to 2009 statistics (Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. 2009). The country has the six largest oil reserves in the world and is one of the most developed economies in the Middle East. It has one of the most developed infrastructures in the Middle East as well. Global warming has become a key issue in developed nations that…
Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). Expat numbers rise rapidly as UAE population touches 6m. 2009 revision. uaeinteract.com. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://uaeinteract.com/docs/Expat_numbers_rise_rapidly_as_UAE_population_touches_6m/37883.htm.
Ellis, C. History of Cities and City Planning. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.art.net/~hopkins/Don/simcity/manual/history.html
Environment and Ecology. 2011. UNESCO World Heritage. XIth World Congress of the OWHC -- Sintra 2011 Climate Change. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.environment-ecology.com/unesco-world-heritage.html
Ewing, R., Bartholomew, K., & WInkel, S. et al. "Growing Coooler: evidence of urban development and climate change. Urban Land Insititute. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.smartgrowth.umd.edu/pdf/GrowingCooler-Ch1Overview.pdf
(Homer, 2007, pp. 37 -- 59) at the same time, many critics will find anomalies, highlighting how the opposite of warming trends may be occurring. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than, the blizzard that would blanket the Eastern United States in February 2010. As critics would claim that if global warming was such a problem, why is the nation experiencing unusual cold fronts during the winter. A good example of this can be seen with comments from a former climate change expert at the Energy Department Joseph Romm who wrote, "Ideologues in the Senate keep pushing the anti-scientific disinformation that big snowstorms are evidence against human-caused global warming." (roder, 2007) This is important, because it shows how many critics will often point to the information that is being presented as flawed. Where, they will find examples to highlight how the opposite trend could be occurring.…
Broder, J. (2010). Climate Change Debate is Heating Up. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com /2010/02/11/science/earth/11climate.html
Homer, C. (2007). The Sky is Falling. The Politically Incorrect Guide to Global Warming. (pp. 37 -- 59). Washington D.C., Regenery
Maslin, M. (2007). Deep Water Circulation. Global Warming. (pp. 57 -- 62). Stillwater, MN: Voyager Press.
Robinson, M. (2008). Is Global Warming Happening Now? America Debates Global Warming. (pp. 6 -- 12) New York, NY: Rosen.
It is indeed sad to point out that the Kyoto protocol has not been enforced as a result of its rejection by the U.S. government and the ussian move of deferring it.
As pointed out by Hamada (2006).the process of controlling the global weather change should be done through a combined and unified effort of all nations. These must include the entire global community of the developed and the developing nations. It is therefore important to put aside political differences and then advance a sense of unity in coming up with an appropriate framework to be used in tackling global warming. A global strategy should therefore be put forward to tackle the problem. The design of the global strategy must accommodate the situation of all the participating nations. On the technical aspect, the strategy must involve the view of both social and natural scientist.
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global…
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global Warming"
Guardia (2009). Climate change increasing malaria risk, research reveals
This is true regardless of your belief on this particular issue.
In the last work to be discussed in this document "Global arming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms" there is a cry, by educators to come to terms with the facts about global warming and get a sense of how to teach these facts to educators and students. The information being given to educators is depressing, as one student educator stated and figuring out a way to teach the issues is difficult. ithout the development of a greater understanding of the "butterfly effect" of technology there will likely not be a more responsible humankind.
If the global warming trend continues, the results could be depressing indeed: melting polar ice along with thermal expansion of the oceans could raise the sea level, flooding coastal cities, and many agricultural landscapes could dry out, becoming deserts. And yet,…
Cline, William R. The Economics of Global Warming. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1992.
Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Parsons, Michael L. Global Warming The Truth behind the Myth. New York: Insight Books, 1995.
Rye, James A., Donna D. Strong, and Peter A. Rubba. "Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms." Social Education 65.2 (2001): 90.
Americans will face important decisions as consumers, voters, and global citizens.
We need to understand that global warming has to be treated as a problem for all in order to properly solve it. If we continue to see it as a political issue as we sometimes do, it will never be fully resolved. Earth has to be made livable for everyone. It is not a place for first world or third world countries. It is a place for every human being and all life present here. Thus the issue must be seen clearly and humanitarianly instead of turning into another senseless political debate.
K. Taylor, "apid Climate Change," American Scientist 87 (1999): 320-327.
Scientists' Statement on Global Climatic Disruption, 1997" (Washington, DC: Ozone Action, 1997). Online at www.ozone.org/stateii.html.
K. McDonald, "Debate Over How to Gauge Global Warming Heats up Meeting of Climatologists," the Chronicle of Higher Education (February 5, 1999);…
Richard J. Pierce Jr. Energy Independence and Global Warming Environmental Law. Volume: 37. Issue: 3. 2007. 595+.
J. Lubchenko, "Entering the Century of the Environment: A New Social Contract for Science," Science 279 (1998): 491-497.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995: IPCC Second Assesment Report (Geneva, Switzerland: World Meterological Organization, 1995); P. Martens, "How will Climate Change Affect Human Health?" American Scientist 87 (1999): 534-541.
These are valid scientific measurements, which prove that atmospheric CO2 equilibrium has been drastically disturbed by human activities. [Ross Glebspan]
At this rate of increase, the atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected to increase the average global temperature by around 3 to 7 degrees F. y the end of this century. This increase over a hundred-year period represents a huge shift compared against the entire time scale of the planet. Those who argue that global warming is a natural happening have to explain why nature would shift gears all of a sudden? Also, how could increased CO2 levels also be part of the claimed natural process?. These questions and the true facts make it unambiguous that global warming is definitely a man-induced phenomenon. These arguments can be buttressed with the recently documented drastic climatic shifts.
The eleven hottest years of the previous century occurred between 1983 and 2000 while 1991-95 happens…
Environmental Defense, 'Global Warming: The Facts are Clear', available at http://www.undoit.org/pdfs/factsheet_factsclear.pdf Accessed On Nov 14th 2006
Environmental Defense, 'Hurricanes and Global Warming: Is there a Link,"
Available at, http://www.environmentaldefense.org/article.cfm?contentID=4804&linkID=67 Accessed on Nov 14th 2006
PIPA, 'Global Warming', available at http://www.americans-world.org/digest/global_issues/global_warming/gw1.cfm
According to Lindsay, the United States, which has only 5% of the world's population emits roughly 25% of its heat-trapping gases, therefore few Americans list global warming as a top environmental concern (Lindsay pp).
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, approximately 6.6 toms of greenhouse gases are emitted per person every year in the United States, and that emissions per person increased 3.7% between 1990 and 1997 (Global1 pp). Eighty-two percent of these emissions are from burning fossil fuels to generate electricity and power cars (Global1 pp).
Bruce Stutz in the September 22, 2005 issue of OnEarth states that global warming is a reality, citing that the year 2004 was the fourth-hottest on record, and that NASA predicts that 2005 will be even worse (Stutz pp). Oceans store four times more energy than the air, and satellite measurements over the past decade reveal that the seas are absorbing more…
Global Warming. (2005). The Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 31, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Global1 Warming: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved October 31, 2005 from http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/index.html
Kintisch, Eli. (2005 April 22). Climate Change: Global Warming Skeptic Argues U.S. Position in Suit. Science. Retrieved October 31, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Lindsay, James M. (2001 September 22). Global warming heats up: uncertainties, both scientific and political, lie ahead. Brookings Review. Retrieved October 31, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
A 200). The poor, members of minority groups with a genetic predisposition to the condition, and the very old are particular vulnerable to extremities of temperature (Bazilchuk 2006: 545) Temperature extremes have changed the way people live their lives, whether it is from famine, the increased rate of deaths from the increase of extremes of hot and cold, illnesses, or even simply the loss of traditional ways of life -- from the Arctic Inuit Eskimos to the Vermont maple syrup farmers who can no longer sustain their trees in warmer temperatures.
It is clear that unless we open our eyes as a nation and as a world, global warming's effects can be catastrophic. Of course it is heartening that there been the greater willingness of people in recent years, partially for self-serving reasons and partially out of the goodness of their hearts, to take proactive actions to reduce their carbon…
Bazilchuk, Nancy (1 Sept 2006). "Lethal Change in the Weather: Temperature Extremes and Premature Mortality." Environmental Health Perspectives. 114. 9: pp. A545- A545.
Driven to Extremes: Health Effects of Climate Change." (Apr., 2007). Environmental Health Perspectives. 115. 4: A196-A203
Green, Heather & Kerry Capell (6 Mar 2008). "Carbon Confusion." Business Week. Retrieved 7 May 2008 at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/08_11/b4075052454821_page_3.htm
An Inconvenient Truth." Directed by Davis Guggenheim. With Al Gore. 2006.