Comparison Of Trends Smoking Cessation Essay

Length: 5 pages Sources: 8 Type: Essay Paper: #53237573 Related Topics: Public Health, United Kingdom, Social Norm, Health Promotion Published May 09, 2022

Excerpt from Essay :

Comparison of Trends in Smoking Cessation

Literature Review

This paper aims to present a chronologically organized literature review on comparisons of trends in smoking cessations. This would help interpret how studies have been conducted over time to investigate the smoking trends and their impact on the cessation of this health-risking habit. The chronological focus has also been set to view the factors of more interest for the researchers over time regarding smoking cessation.

An interesting study was conducted in Taiwan observing the time trend for smoking cessation long with secondhand smoking (Chiang & Chang, 2016). Demographic characteristics and relevant variables were taken into account for the study. The results showed that older people had higher smoking cessation rates than younger ones. Among females, the persistence for smoking was greater than men, meaning they were less interested in smoking cessation.

Gender trend was seen in one of the studies that depicted women finding it harder to quit smoking than men (Smith et al., 2016). As time trend was absent, the study still could be considered substantial in making evidence that former women were more likely to be current smokers without considering the year of the published study. The abstinence rate for women was lower than men, especially for longer periods.

Two trends have been explored in a study conducted in 2019 in which gender and geographical locations were also observed concerning smoking cessation for particular decades. The results showed that women on age 30 years had higher rates of smoking cessation who were born in the decade from 1980 to 2010 in most of the regions while men also showed greater cessation rate during the 2000s, specifically in East, South, and West Europe (Pesce et al., 2019).

Another study was conducted to determine the trends in tobacco use and smoking cessation, for which age was taken as the focus factor. When trends were analyzed from 2001 till 2014, people aged 65 or above from 2001 were taken from the data available on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (Nishi et al., 2019). The results showed that two individuals claimed Medicare counseling services for tobacco cessation per year. When Medicare and CMS introduced counseling session types in the subsequent years, the counseling rate increased from 2012 to 2014.

A recent study conducted among Chinese people showed that Chinese men with lower educational levels tend to smoke more (He et al., 2020). As alcohol was also included in the effects of smoking patterns and cessation, it was further recognized that smoking persistence increased with the increase of alcohol. Diagnosis of chronic diseases and hypertension that had resulted from prolonged smoking was the prime reason for men to quit smoking.

Although hazards of smoking and the trend on which the former and current smokers have been continuing this habit have been observed, a notable study was conducted to see the cessation trend along with…some for gender trends in smoking cessation. The time trends consider the smoking cessation patterns from 1960 or 1980 till 2010 or 2019. Moreover, females have been noticed to find difficulty quitting smoking, and their abstinence duration is shorter than men. In contrast, comes the information that young women of age 30 years stop smoking due to, most probably, pregnancy-related prevention. Older people also quit smoking once diagnosed with risky illnesses such as COPD. Further, social norms and demographic characteristics also played a significant role in cessation as close friends smoke and lower education levels, the individuals find it hard to quit smoking, regardless of whether they are current/daily smokers or former ones.

Comparing age and time trends indicates that smoking cessation interventions mostly depend on behavioral and pharmacotherapies (United States Public Health Service Office of the Surgeon General, 2020). The combination of both has been studied to be effective; however, if used separately, they are also effective for certain diverse ethnic groups, age, gender or socioeconomic class, etc. Time trend could be suggested as the better trend for smoking cessation and its interventions since people of different age groups would be aging in different years. Their willingness to quit smoking at a certain age could also be observed better. For instance, a person who was a teenager during the 1980s and now is an adult after the 2000s could be studied for comparison for his onset of smoking…

Sources Used in Documents:


Chiang, C. & Chang, H. (2016). A population study on the time trend of cigarette smoking, cessation, and exposure to secondhand smoking from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan. Population Health Metrics, 14.

East, K.A., Hitchman, S.C., McNeill, A., Ferguson, S.G., Yong, H., Cummings, K.M., Fong, G.T. & Borland, R. (2021). Trends in social norms towards smoking between 2002 and 2015 among daily smokers: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC 4C). Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 23(1), 203-211.

GBD 2019 Tobacco Collaborators. (2021). Spatial, temporal and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories 1990-2019: A systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet.

He, H., Pan, L., Cui, Z., Sun, J., Yu, C., Cao, Y., Wang., Y & Shan, G. (2020). Smoking prevalence, patterns, and cessation among adults in Hebei province, Central China: Implications from China National Health Survey (CNHS). Frontiers in Public Health, 8.

Jha P. (2020). The hazards of smoking and the benefits of cessation: a critical summation of the epidemiological evidence in high-income countries. eLife, 9, e49979.

Nishi, S.P.E., Zhou, J., Kuo, Y., Sharma, G. & Goodwin, J. (2019). Trends in tobacco use and tobacco cessation counseling codes among Medicare beneficiaries, 2001-2014. BMC Heath Services Research, 19.

Pesce, G., Marcon, A., Calciano, L., Perret, J.L., Am,brason, M.J., Bono, R., Bousquet, J., Fois, A.G., Janson, C., Jarvis, D., Jogi, R., Leynaert, B., & Nowark, D. (2019). Time and age trends in smoking cessation in Europe. Plos One, 14(2).

Smith, P.H., Bessette, A.J., Weinberger, A.H., Sheffer, C.E. & McKee, S.A. (2016). Sex/gender differences in smoking cessation: A review. Preventive medicine, 92, 135–140.

United States Public Health Service Office of the Surgeon General; National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US) Office on Smoking and Health. (2020). Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General- Chapter 6, interventions for smoking cessation and treatments for nicotine dependence [Internet]. Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services. Available from:

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