Economic Growth vs. The Quality of Education of Pisa Member Countries
One of the most valuable assets for both the present and future generations is "quality education." Its achievement requires a robust commitment from everyone including teachers, governments, parents, as well as the students themselves. Therefore, this urge motivated a number of countries to form and/or participate in PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) through the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). According to Stephen, Eric and Ludger (2011), the OECD contributes to educational goals via PISA, which monitors the educational results within an approved framework, allowing for legal international comparisons. PISA is an international study assessment of knowledge and skills for 15-year-old students. Additionally, PISA provides information on an assortment of factors, which contribute to the success of students, education systems and schools (Norton & Marvin, 2004). Through showing that various nations succeed in the provision of both equitable and high quality learning outcomes, PISA sets both educational and economic oriented goals for its members, as well as the non-member countries. According toOECD (2010), PISA measures general skills, commonly recognized as basic outcomes from the educational process. Besides testing on facts, its assessments focus the young generation close to the end of compulsory education (Stephen, Eric & Ludger, 2011), and their abilities in utilizing their knowledge and skills in order to encounter the real-life challenges within the world's developing economy.
PISA steadily grew from 32 economies/countries in 2000 to 41 economies in 2003, 58 in 2006, and finally 65 economies/countries by 2009. One of the ultimate aims for educational policy makers is to empower their countries to grab the advantage over the globalized world economy. Consequently, this strategy leads them to emphasize the possible improvements on education policies, thereby ensuring a high quality service provision, equitable distribution of educational opportunities alongside sturdy incentives for great schooling efficiencies (Norton & Marvin, 2004). As a result, a consensus in the literature of PISA reveals that its returns to education were quite substantial. According to Claudia and Larry (2008), a wide array of research on educational returns focused on both micro and macro-economic returns to years of education. The micro-economic literature on income returns to a year of education finds that the returns vary between 6 and 12%. On the other hand, the macro-economic literature reveals its GDP returns to range between 8.5 and 14.5% (Claudia & Larry, 2008).
Results from the 2009 PISA assessment elicited a wide-ranging difference in educational outcomes, both within the member countries and across the non-member countries (OECD, 2010). Education systems which have been capable of securing strong and equitable educational outcomes, as well as mobilizing rapid advancements prove to others that what they would term to be impossible could definitely be possible to achieve (OECD, 2011). Logically, GDP per capita has been having a high impact on educational success; however, this explains only about 7% of the possible disparities in students' average performance (OECD, 2010). The remaining 93% replicates the potentiality of public policies in contributing to such differences (Stephen, Eric & Ludger, 2011). For instance, the striking achievements of Shanghai- China, which leads in every league table of these assessments by a vibrant margin, reveals what could be possible to achieve with the modest economic resources within the diverse social context. Evidently, in mathematics, over a third of the Shanghai's 15-year-old students were capable of conceptualizing, generalizing (OECD, 2010), and…
Sources Used in Document:
Claudia, G. & Larry, K. (2008).The race between education and economy. Cambridge, MA:
The Belknap Press of Harvard University.
Norton, G. & Marvin, L. (2004).The education gospel: The economic power of schooling.