Executive Factors Among France Germany Research Paper

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Also unlike the president, it is entitled to be part of the political party. This is an important aspect because its adherence to the party ensures its support for the political figure and for the measures to be taken throughout the mandate. This enables the administration to avoid potential situations when political support lacks.

Political accountability rests in the power of the Parliament to hold accountable the Government. In this sense, similar to the other cases, the Parliament plays a crucial role in the life of the executive branch. Given the fact that the Executive is represented by the major parties in the Parliament, the interpellations of the Government are often settled. In any case, the strong relation between the executive, the political parties, and the parliament enable a strong relation and commitment on the lines of the ruling parties.

Efficiency of the systems

It is rather difficult to consider the efficiency of each system or the better applicability of one or the other. In general terms it depends on the historical background and the experiences in terms of political executives. However, in terms of democratic processes, it could be said that the semi-presidential republic is more accountable.

As opposed to the presidential and the parliamentarian republics, the semi-presidential republic takes into account the voting of the people when electing the president. In turn, he or she has larger political powers as part of the executive. His role as a mediator between the executive and the legislative powers implies a better use of democratic principles. Given the nature of directly elected official, he represents the actual embodiment of the will of the people. The parliament is usually elected in groups, whereas the president is voted as an individual. Furthermore, the possibility of impeachment or suspension of the president implies the strong connection between the executive and the legislative from the point-of-view of the constitutional prerogatives.

Cases have been seen throughout Europe in countries that adopted the semi-presidential system of government in which the president was suspended for a period of time as a result of a parliamentarian vote. Especially in countries which have applied this system in the last twenty years, the democratic mechanism of suspension of the presidential prerogatives was applied. Such a case was present in Romania in 2008. This event proved the functionality of the state mechanism.

By comparison, the presidential republic implies less mechanisms of control and an increased power of the President. An aspect which balances the power equilibrium is the relatively bipolar political system in countries such as the U.S. Better said, the political spectrum in the U.S. is based on a two party system, the Republican and the Democrat system. Given the fact that the specificity of the American political system implies the variation of the political party, the presidential powers can also change.

The powerful presidential presence in the United States is diminished also by the clear differentiation between the elections for the Congress as opposed to those for the president. It is not necessarily the process which is important but rather the fact that unlike the German parliamentarian system, the majority in the Congress may not have the same political color as the president. This is an important aspect because it offers a mechanism of control over the administration and implicitly the Cabinet.

Overall, it can be said that a clear differentiation between the three types of executives can be made in particular by presenting concrete examples. In this sense, the presidential republic, the U.S., the semi-presidential which is France, and the parliamentary republic, Germany are all focused on democratic principles. However, one of the dividing points, the power of the executive, often sets in balance the accountability of the executive branch in front of the Congress, National Assembly, and Bundestag. Even so, it is difficult to ascertain the applicability of one system to another historical background and experience.

Bibliography

French Constitution. Accessed 10 June 2010 from http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8ab.asp

Gregg, G.L. The Presidential Republic: Executive Representation and Deliberative Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.

Hoffmann, V., Hellmut Wollmann (eds). State and local government reforms in France and Germany: divergence and convergence, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, 2006.

Newton, K., Jan W. van Deth Foundations of comparative politics: democracies of the modern world. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, 2005.

Roper, S.D. "Are All Semi-presidential Regimes the Same? A Comparison of Premier-Presidential Regimes" Comparative Politics, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Apr., 2002), pp. 253-272.

The United States Government Manual, 2009-2010. National Archives and Records Administration. 2008.

Newton, K., Jan W. van Deth Foundations of comparative politics: democracies of the modern world. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, 2005.

Idem

French Constitution. Accessed 10 June 2010 from http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8ab.asp

Roper, S.D. "Are All Semi-presidential Regimes the Same? A Comparison of Premier-Presidential Regimes" Comparative Politics, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Apr., 2002).

French Constitution. Accessed 10 June 2010 from http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8ab.asp

The United States Government Manual, 2009-2010. National Archives and Records Administration. 2008.

Gregg, G.L. The Presidential Republic: Executive Representation and Deliberative Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.

Idem

Idem

Hoffmann, V., Hellmut Wollmann (eds). State and local government reforms in France and Germany: divergence and convergence, Wiesbaden:…[continue]

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