Respondents of the Study  'Methodology' chapter

Excerpt from 'Methodology' chapter :

Sources of data

*Two literature searches were conducted in order to generate conditions of nurse satisfaction. One search centered on variables of work satisfaction described in relevant job satisfaction theories. The other search probed applicable reviews and meta-analysis for factors of job satisfaction relevant to the nurse profession.

The literature, in the first case, was plumbed for studies that provided theoretical insight into the concept of job satisfaction. Terms such as 'job satisfaction' and 'theory' were used to aid the research.

In the second case, research was conducted by using terms such as 'nursing', 'job satisfaction' and 'factors'. The resulting Meta analyses and literature reviews were thoroughly analyzed and only those relevant to the intent of the study retained. They had to, in other words, be congruent to the nursing profession and related to satisfaction that the employee gained from his or her job.

'Nurse satisfaction' as a result was, accordingly, broken down and defined into the following *ten categories: (1) Workload -- whether staff workload was reduced as a result of the program; (2) Empower -- whether staff felt greater empowerment and ability to do whir work; (3) Support -- whether staff felt that they received more support as a result of the program; (4) Opportunity: whether the program afforded them more opportunity; (5) Stress- whether implementation of program reduced usual levels of stress; (6) Work life- whether work life was enhanced as a result of the program; (7) Leave -- the number of nurses who left since the program was introduced was also evaluated (8) Valuable -- finally, the value of the program to the nurses was considered. (9) Team -- whether staff considered there to be a greater team spirit since program had been introduced (10) Information- whether communication / transmission of information had been enhanced as a result of the program.

Content validity would be estimated as 'adequate' according to the number of these factors incorporated in the final instrument. The fewer the number incorporated and tested, the lower would be the rating of content validity. I therefore aimed that at least three such factors indicating job satisfaction would be incorporated and tested.

Procedure for Data Collection

The staff group had started the Productive Ward Program in May 2011. The first set of questionnaires (Pre) had been implemented in May 2011 as baseline assessment before the nurses entered the Productive Mental Health Ward Initiative. The first three modules (Knowing How We Are Doing, Well Organized Ward and Patient Status At a Glance) had been implemented, as well as one selected process module in November 2011. All the frontline staff members from the final phase wards were given the questionnaire before we embarked the initiative (May 2011). Out of 112, I have received 100 responses back.

With the cooperation of the ward managers, I presented a presentation for each ward after soliciting the co-operation of the ward managers. The presentation consisted of * activities and conventional training tools in order to teach nurses more effective nursing care. The methods used were those developed in any industry setting and transplanted to the health care setting and these included actions such as using visual management so that ward items are easily located and retrieved; making medical information handed over more appropriate, easier to remember and easier to understand, and ensuring that medication times are patient centered and the self administration of medication is safe and reliable.

The training occurred for the duration of * a week (?) spread over * four, twenty minute sessions held during the afternoon at the same localities.

Ethical Consideration -- No ethical approval required ( Service Evaluation Study)

No ethical approval is required as it is the service evaluation audit. Since experimental research may involve isues intimidating and hurtful to a specific population as well as to particular individuals, or may include a vulnerable population (such as the eldelry or handicapped) or a specifically vulnerable age (such as infants), permission and certain complex coda need to be entered into in order to conduct that sort of research (Breakwell et al., 2007). In this case, hwoever, bias would need to be carefully controlled, as in the experimental study, but being that no ethical issues are involved, IRB forms need not be filled out nor study plumbed for potential ethical concernxs.

As regards, screening subjectivity, safeguards to avoid confounding effects include the following: I am using a purposeful sample and expecting the respondents providing some minimal but reliable qualitative information for some of the questions. I also will take safeguards to avoid subjectivity of the responses by analysing the data judiciously.


Breakwell, G., Hammond, S. &…

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