WW1 Under Nicholas II, the cost to fight the war had been great -- deprivations and deaths on the homefront -- and millions of soldiers dead on the Eastern Front. Lenin got his peace, but he also changed the face of internal Russia in the process -- a step that, under Stalin, would prove to be as costly as any war.
In 1917 Russia suffered two revolutions, which resulted in a drastic change of leadership. Tsarist Russia became Lenin's Soviet Russia and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed shortly thereafter in March 1918 with Germany. The treaty gave Germany much: over a million square millions and 60 million people -- a third of Russia's population -- were annexed. Russia lost railroads, factories, the majority of its coal and iron -- but Germany was in no position to immediately profit from the treaty. The Western Front was calling. Russia gained some peace from the treaty, and could now focus on its internal problems resulting from the recent overthrow and the war effort. Leading up to the treaty, Imperial Russia had suffered devastating casualties and food shortages. The Bolsheviks called for an end to the war on the Eastern Front, and Germany supported this call, allowing Lenin himself to return to Russia from his exile in Switzerland. A Soviet force called the Red Guards -- a paramilitary outfit opposed to Russia's provisional government -- formed and overtook the Winter Palace in October 1917. Peace talks led by Joffe on the Bolshevik side stalled when Germany demanded territorial concessions. Trotsky replaced Joffe and Lenin urged a quick signing, certain that peace would help to establish Bolshevik control on the homefront. But Trotsky also refused to make territorial concessions and walked away from talks. The Central Powers resumed hostilities against Russia, taking the Baltic States and Ukraine by force. They now threatened Petrograd, but opened the door to a renewed peace before striking. Lenin again urged the signing of a treaty. This time he won majority support from the Soviets. Russia gave up Finland, Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic States. The acquisitions did not help Germany, however, as now it had to spread troops far and wide in foreign territories, which considered the military presence an occupation. Germany needed troops on the Western Front and now instead of war on the Eastern Front, it now had to "govern" its booty. Lenin consolidated his ...
Protests and workers' strikes were increasing on the German homefront as war continued into 1918. The Hundred Days Offensive had resulted in sound beating of German military forces on the Western Front. A mutiny by the Imperial German Navy ignited the German Revolution. Germany sued for peace, expressing a desire to accept Wilson's 14 Points, which touted free trade and self-determination as ideals to be guaranteed should all sides agree to end the war. Wilson's 14 Points were idealistic and not what Clemenceau nor Lloyd George nor Orlando had in mind. Just as Germany had demanded territorial concessions of Russia, the Allied Powers wanted to carve up Europe and limit German hegemony. On November 11, 1918, an armistice was signed that gave Germany two weeks to pull out of France, Belgium and Luxembourg. It also called for the Allies to occupy Germany. Germany (and the UK) were dependent on imports from America. Previously, an Allied blockade had been in effect to starve the Germans, and it is estimated that between half and three-quarters of a million civilians died as a result of it (Grebler, 1940). Germany was demilitarized (a demand of France, since it was not allowed to expand its borders to the Rhine). John Maynard Keynes observed that France wanted to "set back the clock" and return Germany to its mid-19th century, pre-Industrialization state. This too was wishful thinking and an insult to German ingenuity to think that it could be stymied. Gustav Bauer signed the Treaty of Versailles after attempting to have a number of articles removed, which the Allies refused to allow. Terms were not particularly favorable to Germany: it was forced to abandon its claims won by the treaty with Russia. It also had to cede territory to an independent Poland. On top of…
Under Nicholas II, the cost to fight the war had been great -- deprivations and deaths on the homefront -- and millions of soldiers dead on the Eastern Front. Lenin got his peace, but he also changed the face of internal Russia in the process -- a step that, under Stalin, would prove to be as costly as any war.
WWI The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not
Japan would be obliged to negotiate with each former enemy in terms of making reparations. It appears therefore that any attempts at creating peaceful solutions to the conflicts arising during the World Wars culminated in much further conflict, particularly as involving the United States, Germany and the U.S.S.R. Furthermore, it also appears that the ideal of taking sufficient time in order to prevent further conflict was somewhat defeated by conflicts
The strike at Heligoland Bight was not intended to seriously hurt the German fleet. Rather, it was intended to distract Germany from the landing of marines at Ostend in Belgium. Catching the German fleet completely by surprise in its own port, German light cruisers engaged the Royal Navy without proper cover. The Germans lost 3 light cruisers and a destroyer, as well as more than 1,000 men. In great
According to Henry Kissinger, treaty was nothing but a "brittle compromise agreement between American utopism and European paranoia - too conditional to fulfill the dreams of the former, too tentative to alleviate the fears of the latter." Making a conclusion, it's important to note that despite all attempts of W. Wilson, his fourteen points were not ratified. France and Great Britain could not confess that their colonial systems were doomed
The makers of the peace settlement hoped to reduce the possibility of future conflict by taking away Germany's army and controlling its political system. This proved impossible, and only provoked more violence in the long run, as Germans grew more sympathetic to fascism as a result. Third, why did the United States Senate reject the Treaty of Versailles? What objections did they have to the treaty, especially to the League
Conscription From the beginning of the war, there had been some variation in the Canadian attitude toward the conflict. Canada never questioned the legitimacy of the war and did not question the need for Canadian participation. There were differences of opinion, though, concerning how extensive the Canadian contribution should be. These variations affected the response to calls for enlistment and divided the country as the towns were more willing than the