Developmental Theories Essay

Length: 3 pages Sources: 3 Subject: Psychology Type: Essay Paper: #99069675
Excerpt from Essay :

Developmental Theories

Limitations of Great Theories

The psychoanalytic theory (Saul Mcleod, 2007)

Rejection of the free will

Lack of scientific support

Samples were biased. For instance, only Austrian women were considered in proving the theory

Case studies were subjective

Cognitive Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)

Does not consider biology

The section on humanism dismisses scientific approaches

The ecological validity of the experiments is low

There is subjective introspection

Behavioral Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)

It is misplaced to compare humans and animals

It ignores the role of biology such as testosterone effects

There is little free will

Dismisses meditational process

The Surprises from Harlow's experiments

Harlow noted that that the existence of systems of affection that could fill in the gap for each other was sensible; from evolutionary standpoint. Indeed, compensations that were reciprocal presented a higher chance of social survival. According to Marga Vicedo (2010), diverse affectional systems provided a better chance for primates since they are naturally social.

Harlow and Harlow also observed that socialization is a critical element to the survival of primates. The dangers to normal socialization are numerous and come in their variety. Therefore, the compensatory social strategy is obviously essential. They observed that these effective safeguards of social nature must have developed and evolved over the many years of existence.

Harlow departed radically from contemporary perspectives and remains unappreciated even in the modern world literature. The source of love...


In his view, as opposed to the psychoanalytic theory, and love-origin accounts based on ethos, Harlow saw five different affectional systems that moved into functions in a sequence.

2. Gaps Addressed by Socio-cultural and Epigenetic Systems Theory

The Socio-Cultural Theory (Jake Edwards, 2009):

The socio-cultural theory observes that the individuals that form part of their cultural surrounding influence the growth of children. The element of development isn't a universal one to all children. Each child develops on the basis of the experiences they are exposed to in their surroundings.

The socio-cultural reading theory has become increasingly popular in recent times, and has been used to propagate the "reading tradition." It encourages teachers to create conditions that are ideal for reading so that children can be aligned with cultural flows. Child psychologists have postulated that parents who encourage their children to develop reading habits within their families, effectively, initiate their children to adopt such practices. Critics have also added their perspective to the debate by stating that the mushrooming of teen novels is encouraging reading to recapture its place as an acceptable cultural activity for children.

Epigenetic Systems Theory (Jake Edwards, 2009):

The epigenetic systems theory states that development is an occurrence that combines inherited traits and the influences of one's environment. Judging from the theories stated earlier, epigenetic systems observe that development is a product of the interplay that occurs between nature and nurture. It points to the physical characteristics that one is born with, and the patterns and skills that emerge as a result of one's interaction with the environment.

The pairs…

Sources Used in Documents:


Jake Edwards. (2009, Febraury 17). New Criticism. Retrieved from Reading Theory with Jolliffe:

KESSENICH, MAUREEN, MORRISON, FREDERICK J, & BISANZ, JEFFREY. (2002). Developmental Theory. The Gale Group Inc.

Marga Vicedo. (2010). The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love. History of Psychiatry, 1-16.

Saul Mcleod. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Simplypsychology.

Cite this Document:

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"Developmental Theories", 25 September 2016, Accessed.21 April. 2021,

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