Economics, Politics, Trade Geopolitical Base Term Paper

Length: 22 pages Sources: 1+ Subject: Literature - Latin-American Type: Term Paper Paper: #22923523 Related Topics: Economic Problems, Economic Geography, Peru, Trade Deficit

Excerpt from Term Paper :

For the period of the late 1960s and early 1970s, West Germany strived to assist the dollar. The United States and many other nations pushed West Germany to reassess so as to make up for the dollar excess. (Germany in the World Economy)

At last, after escalating waves of conjectures, the Bretton Woods system had a collapse in August 1971. All through the post-Bretton Woods period, the deutsche mark stayed under pressure. In order to relieve strain within Europe, West Germany and other European states assented to peg their currencies to a special system of comparatively narrow exchange rate bands officially named the 'European narrow-margins agreement' but unofficially identified as the 'snake'. The United States and West Germany performed main roles in attempting to organize a new global monetary system. but, in spite of its willingness to make small exchange-rate alterations for the benefit of new currency arrangements, West Germany declined to obligate itself to any arrangement that would compel it to reassess in the upcoming years.

The United States and other governments and central banks, in March 1973, renounced their attempts to protect the Bretton Woods system by establishing new fixed exchange rates. With that resolution, the next stage of the postwar international system, 'floating' commenced. In the midst of floating, the correlation between the United States dollar and the deutsche mark started depending on market forces instead of official talks. West Germany was not sure whether floating would supply its requirements but was not ready to follow any other option. The economic outcomes of floating for Germany were not consistently helpful. But West German industry, and particularly West German exporters, did not greet the randomness that flexible exchange rates brought into commercial preparations and production plans. In the floating period, a choice had to be made definitely; but German governments and the Bundesbank have nearly forever selected an anti-inflationary strategy. Compared against a weak currency, which would risk the steadiness of the German monetary system, they favored a strong currency, which might badly influence business. With that selection, they established policy for others and for themselves. (Germany in the World Economy)

On condition that the deutsche mark is strong and German interest rates stay tall, even the United States can deviate from German policy only at the jeopardy of considering its own currency drop in value. All have been nervous to set up the highest likely level of international certainty owing to Germany's monetary predicament, and since the German government and the nation's bankers and industrialists have acknowledged German restrictions and susceptibilities. The Germans turn out to be usual members in international economic consultations, and they have highlighted the worth of such consultations at every occasion. Global economic coordination after the demise of the Bretton Woods system has led to the growth of several coordinating institutions. (Germany in the World Economy)

The German economy was viewed as a typical model of victorious capitalism even decades after the Second World War. (Teutonic plague) After U.S. And Japan, Germany has the world's third most technologically influential economy. (the German Economy) West Germany went through a constant economic expansion from the 1948 currency reform until the early 1970s, but the real GDP growth decelerated and even weakened from the mid 1970s through the depression of the early 1980s. Germany has seen annual average real growth of only about 1.5% and persistently high joblessness, since the reunification in 1990. The finest deed since reunification was recorded in 2000, when real growth reached 3.0%. (Economy of Germany) When the magnitude of the big German companies is used as a yardstick for calculating the intensity of the German economy, then it is more obvious. 29 major German companies were listed among the 100 largest in Europe in 2003, and these 29 companies alone reported for 35% of the business volume of the European top 100 in 2003. (Perspectives for the German economy in 2004)

The German economy is mainly export-oriented, with exports amounting for more than one-third of national output. Consequently, exports have conventionally been a main element in German macroeconomic expansion. Germany's second main trading partner is the United States; and the U.S.-German trade...


In the year 2000, the two-way trade in goods and services amounted to $88 billion. U.S. exports to Germany were $29.2 billion while U.S. imports from Germany were twice as high, $58.7 billion. The U.S. trade deficit with Germany is the United States, which is the fourth largest after Mainland China, Japan, and Canada at $29.5 billion. Aircraft, telecommunications equipment, electrical equipment, data processing equipment, and motor vehicles and parts are some of the main U.S. exports groups. The German export sales are focused in motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals and heavy electrical equipment. Most of the joint trade is intra-industry or intra-firm. (Economy of Germany)

Germany abides by a moderate policy to foreign investment. The normal flows of U.S. straight investment in Germany from 1995 to 1999 were $3.4 billion, while that of German investors in the United States reached $21 billion. During 1998-99, Americans reported for 18% of all foreign direct investments in Germany, the third largest source after France and the UK. German investment in the United States was assessed at $111 billion in 1999, which was twofold since 1995, while investments in Germany was valued at just under $50 billion, having increased by only 12% since 1995, in terms of collective position. (a Little German Reform Would Go a Long Way)

Merchandise and services worth € 764 billion were exported overseas in 2003, which is six billion Euros more than that in 2002 and about twice as much as in 1989. The expansion of German exports has been a percentage higher than the negligible growth of GDP, over the past years. Hence, German exports and the optimistic poise of trade have tended to support and alleviate the complete economic position. The portion of exports within GDP has risen from 24.5% in 1995 to 35.7% in 2003; now greatly more than the peak attained by West Germany before unification of the two German states in 1990. The reliance on foreign trade has not only improved. The reliance on exports to countries outside Europe has particularly increased, which is shown by the structural improvement of exports. As per the statement given by the German Institute for Economic Research -DIW, from 1991 to 2001, foreign trade with the U.S.A. urbanized more energetically than German foreign trade as a whole. (Perspectives for the German economy in 2004)

The export of the goods to USA in this period was raised by 217% nominally whereas German exports as a whole increased by almost 90%. The most significant motives for the export bang lies in the fact that the economic growth in the U.S.A., which persisted for years, was more rigorous than other countries as well as in the growing competitiveness of German exporters, due to the reason that in this period the U.S. lessened the Dollar by 25 per cent in real terms. (Perspectives for the German economy in 2004) Germany's vigor, together with comparatively small inflation rates, was the jealousy of more lethargic economies that appeared to be incompetent of producing momentum. However it is not so. (Teutonic plague) at present the primary capitalistic economy has begun to tussle under the affliction of liberal social benefits. (the German Economy)

Although it has financial possessions worth more than € 3,800 billion, just 0.5 per cent of the population has a section of the disposable wealth, and the 100 richest people together have 250 billion Euros. But on the other hand scarcity is on the rise in Germany. Since 1994, yearly income from businesses and capital assets has gone up by 21% prior to taxes, whereas since 1991 employees' income has been raised only by 1%, which denotes that it has almost been inactive. The GDP € 2,130 billion in 2003 has enhanced by € 560 billion in the past ten years. In 2001 the German economy dropped into a fresh depression, which sustained and intensified until 2003. By glancing at the sequences from 1948 to 2003 one can derive the following deductions: On the whole, the average GDP growth rates diminished with each consecutive cycle. At the end of the 1960s, the average annual growth of the GDP was in excess of four per cent, but it was down to below three per cent in the 1970s and 1980s. (Perspectives for the German economy in 2004)

In the most current cycle the German GDP growth rate has been merely 1.5%. It is common that in capitalist economies there is an everlasting series of ups and downs and a plain cycle of growths and slums. but, what we really find is a steady drop in the economic state of affairs, a steady expansion of depressions and predicaments and a persistent expansion in unemployment. The German economy was battered by…

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Economic Survey - Germany 2004: Main issues and policy challenges"

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Economy of Germany" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at on 25 November, 2004
Geography of Germany" Retrieved at Accessed on 24 November, 2004
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Newbold, Samantha. "The Fuji Shock: How and why did it occur?" An analysis of Alberto Fujimori's policy Reversal of 1990. Retrieved at Accessed on 25 November, 2004
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