The machines were used to create vertical and horizontal movements which had not been done before. In other words, a god could be pictured using the machine as floating down onto the stage, or boats moving across it. Night or dawn could appear, or ghosts (Lawrenson 92). Most of these machine-plays were produced at the Theatre du Marais. There is a difference here, too. The French machine plays reached the public, whereas the English masques of the early century were performed mainly for royalty. Certainly the stage sets for court ballets and opera were more elaborate and special than the public designs since they were subsidized by the royal coffers.
Both English and French theatre took over the new Italian techniques for changing scenery. The French theatre abandoned triangular prisms used in conjunction with painted backdrops. At the beginning, these were painted simultaneously and dropped over or pulled back to reveal another scene (Lawrenson 85). The scenes or the built stage had all kinds of buildings: castles, fortresses, temples, palaces, mountains, prisons, gardens, terraces, tombs, forests, grottoes, town squares, landscapes, and street scenes were included. Lighting effects were used to indicate day and night, whereas in the English theatre lighting was typically done through natural light, windows, and positioning of the stage in addition to candles (see Graves). Later under the influence of Italian designers like Torelli, the use of flats and prisms allowed the scenery to change (Brockett and Hildy 197). This was the development of the flat wings that slid in grooves in the Baroque theatre. It was a "scenery changing system that differed from the angled wings and revolving wooden prisms . . . This new scenery consisted of a series of flat batten frames, covered with painted canvas and sliding sideways in grooves" (Berthold 420). Different aspects of the wings could be displayed to the audience, giving the impression of a scene change. This innovation increased the spectacle since changes in scenery appeared as if magically.
In England, the same technique of stage scenery adapted to the exhibition of scenes. Campbell says that...
What was important was concealing the change of scenery through distraction -- lights and motion were directed elsewhere so that the change of scenery was scarcely discernible. She writes, "This method of dazzling the eyes of the spectators was evidently effective, for it was the usual method thereafter adopted by Jones for concealing a change of scene" (Campbell 173). Special effects tricks like smoke and flames coming through trap-doors on the stage, or a sea shown by shaking painted cloth, accompanied the spectacle. The use of movable scenes and machines in private rectangular theatres became common later than in France. This stage engineering served the public delight in spectacle.
The development of music is perhaps the best contrast. In England, professional singers were used rather than singing actors (actor-musicians) as in France. English playhouses employed groups of children singers (Munro 545-46). They sang consort songs accompanied by viols and lutes. There was music and dancing before, during interludes, and after the performance. Song seems to be more important than in France, and it is a style different from opera. In the plays, music was employed for weddings, funerals, military scenes, and for atmospheric music as during supernatural scenes (Munro 551). There is also a kind of stereotyped time when singing happens (as for example to show that a man is mad or in love). The boy singers sang to convey the master's emotions. The music of the masque was used to accompany and highlight dance. Brockett and Hildy write, "The major emphasis, however, was upon dance, which was performed by courtiers" (Brockett and Hildy 132). In France, courtiers would come to be separated from professional dancers, but not in England. The main dances were embedded in the masque, sometimes accompanied by children torchbearers. This trend continued in private theatres and royal halls alike. Small orchestras were employed. Incidental songs were frequent. There was a jig at the end. In addition, music tended to follow the
These were comedies that appealed to the more conservative, middle-class, sentimental, moralistic, and upheld a newly optimistic view of human progress and political development. (Wilson & Goldfarb, 1999) The 18th century view generally held that people are good and that people could retain virtue by appealing to virtuous human feelings as expressed in Sheridan, Goldsmith, and Sir Richard Steele. Thus, this signaled the end of the aristocratic, brittle Restoration hero
Pan-Africanism: Cheikh Anta Diop, Julius K. Nyerere, and Dubois Similar to the West, Africa proves to be a homeland of writers. Owing to the numerous literatures associated with the Africans, one can confirm that writing was part of the Africans, which is apparent in the dates of different literary works. As part of history, they wrote to preserve and educate the coming generations on what happened then. This was not only
sound technologies and sound design in Film Sound in films Experiments in Early Age Developments Crucial innovations Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan Sound Design Unified sound in film production Sound designers in Cinematography Sound Recording Technologies History of Sound Recording Technology Film sound technology Modern Digital Technology History of sound in films Developments Sound Design Sound Recording Technologies The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The
The acculturation model developed by Schumann (1978) consists of a taxonomy of variables that were developed based on the concept that both social (group) and affective (individual) variables are the primary causative variables as shown in Table __ below. In this regard, the term "acculturation" is used to refer to the learner's positive identification with, and hence social and psychological integration with, the target language group. For instance, Schumann
" James a.S. McPeek further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone." Shelburne asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect
Leadership Skills Impact International Education CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION Practical Circumstances of International schools THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION What is Effective Leadership for Today's Schools? Challenges of Intercultural Communication Challenges of Differing Cultural Values Importance of the Team Leadership Style LEADERSHIP THEORIES Current Leadership Research Transformational Leadership Skills-Authority Contingency Theories APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING Wagner's "Buy-in" vs. Ownership Understanding the Urgent Need for Change Research confirms what teachers, students, parents and superintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit