Disabilities Students With Reading Disabilities Term Paper

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This is particularly true for students with learning disabilities. Secondary students' reading performance reaches a plateau during their high school years, and it is clear that the performance gap between their abilities and what they are expected to do widens (Mock, 2003). Adolescents who lack basic literacy skills need intensive, focused, sustained instruction to help them catch up with their peers.


Reading disabilities are life long; however, the effects may be mitigated to support learning, living, and earning, particularly when identified early and dealt with effectively. Language acquisition with phonemic awareness correlates to learning to read, plus it is an accurate predictor of reading success. Furthermore, it is important to identify reading disabilities early so that effective intervention strategies are employed. High school students are in a transitional phase and without the necessary scaffolding support and tools to enhance self-efficacy, young adults will have challenges to becoming self-sustaining. Hence, their success is based on the fundamental skills of reading, which in turns affect writing abilities. Developing literacy skills is an achievement that, once accomplished, will benefit a person throughout his or her lifetime (Bowman & Trainman, 2004).

Exhibit A

(American School Counselor Association, 2012)

A teenager's development can be divided into three stages -- early, middle, and late adolescence. The normal feelings and behaviors of adolescents for each stage are described below.

Early Adolescence

12-14 years

Movement Toward Independence

Struggle with sense of identity


Improved abilities to use speech to express oneself

More likely to express feelings by action than by words

Close friendships gain importance

Less attention shown to parents, with occasional rudeness

Realization that parents are not perfect; identification of their faults

Search for new people to love in addition to parents

Tendency to return to childish behavior

Peer group influences interests and clothing styles

Increasing career interests

Mostly interested in present and near future

Greater ability to work


Girls ahead of boys

Shyness, blushing, and modesty

More showing off

Greater interest in privacy

Worries about being normal

Ethics and Self-Direction

Rule and limit testing

Occasional experimentation with cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol

Capacity for abstract thought

Middle Adolescence

15-16 years

Movement Toward Independence

Self-involvement, alternating between unrealistically high expectations and poor self-concept

Complaints that parents interfere with independence

Extremely concerned with appearance and with one's own body

Feelings of strangeness about one's self and body

Lowered opinion of parents, withdrawal from them

Effort to make new friends

Strong emphasis on the new peer group

Periods of sadness as the psychological loss of the parents takes place

Examination of inner experiences, which may include writing a diary

Career Interests

Intellectual interests gain importance

Some sexual and aggressive energies directed into creative and career interests


Concerns about sexual attractiveness

Frequently changing relationships

Tenderness and fears shown toward opposite sex

Feelings of love and passion

Ethics and Self-Description

Development of ideals and selection of role models

More consistent evidence of conscience

Greater capacity for setting goals

Interest in moral reasoning

Late Adolescence

17-19 years

Movement Toward Independence

Firmer identity

Ability to delay gratification

Ability to think ideas through

Ability to express ideas in words

More developed sense of humor

Stable interests

Greater emotional stability

Ability to make independent decisions

Ability to compromise

Pride in one's work


Greater concern for others

Career Interests

More defined work habits

Higher level of concern for the future

Thoughts about one's role in life


Concerned with serious relationships

Clear sexual identity

Capacities for love

Ethics and Self-Direction

Capable of useful insight

Stress on personal dignity and self-esteem

Ability to set goals and follow through

Acceptance of social institutions and cultural traditions

Self-regulation of self-esteem


American School Counselor Association. (2012). Adolescent development. Retrieved from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/growth-and-development/child-development/2874.html?detoured=1

Bowman, M., & Treiman, R. (2004). Stepping stones to reading. Theory Into Practice, 43(4), 295-303.

Catone, W.V., & Brady, S.A. (2005). The Inadequacy of Individual Educational Program (IEP) Goals for High School Students with Word-level Reading Difficulties. Annals Of Dyslexia, 55(1), 53-78.

Hock, M.D. (2003). "No Child" leaves behind teen reading proficiency. Education Digest, 69(4), 27.

Horowitz, S.H. (2006). You want me to what? Read? Children's Voice, 15(6), 17.

National Center for Learning Disabilities - NCLD. (9 March 2009). Learning disability fast facts. Retrieved…[continue]

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