The rules of this paradigm are that government usually perform formal inquiries because they hope to establish trends for funding or new educational models, while social research does not have to follow these rules, instead, they study social problems and divides that affect adult and distance learners, and seek to solve those problems through social change and reorganization. They can choose the classes they want to take in the order they want to take them, but even in distance education, they often do not have a choice in the method of delivery, the time of delivery, or the actual content and context of the class and how it relates to their particular needs and desires. Thus, the learner has to follow the rules of the paradigm, even as the researchers and institutions perpetuate the rules of the paradigm, instead of creating change and new opportunities.
Finally, the paradigm that exists between the institution and the adult learner is often one of opposition, rather than support. Research shows that the institution has certain requirements or "rules" that the student must follow, such as number of credits taken, types of classes to take for a degree, and even counseling and number of lessons per course requirements. These all tend to serve the institution's needs and perspectives, while ignoring the needs and perspectives of the learner. This paradigm needs to change as well, because it does not create a ...
Ultimately, what the author is saying is that research and operations of distance learning, although they have come very far in even the last decade, have much further to go. Everything from research into student choices and institution offerings to delivery methods and research assumptions need to change. Only then will distance education truly move into the 21st century.
They can choose the classes they want to take in the order they want to take them, but even in distance education, they often do not have a choice in the method of delivery, the time of delivery, or the actual content and context of the class and how it relates to their particular needs and desires. Thus, the learner has to follow the rules of the paradigm, even as the researchers and institutions perpetuate the rules of the paradigm, instead of creating change and new opportunities.
Multicultural education researchers and educators agree that preservice teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and understandings are important: foci in multicultural education coursework (Cochran-Smith, 1995; Grant & Secada, 1990; McDiarmid & Price, 1993; Pohan, 1996). Teacher attitudes and beliefs influence teaching behaviors, which affect student learning and behavior (Wiest, 1998)." 1996 study used 492 pre-service teachers to try and gauge the attitudes and beliefs among the group when it came to understanding diversity and
65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and Riley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below)
18). In this manner, the public and private sectors can ascertain that via reflection and debate, the appropriate issues are addressed, the product is truly what it is with no erroneous and misleading claims attached, and that consultation will be implemented in a manner equitable to all. This was the way, for instance that Pollard et al. (2001) and Roos et al. (2002) implemented food and nutrition policy schemes at
Researchers have an occasion to further organizational science and to make research practical by producing information that can impact changing organizational forms and circumstances. Pragmatically, academic researchers are not likely to get access to a company that is going through change unless the practitioners believe the research will be helpful (Gibson & Mohrman, 2001). There have been a number of calls to augment the significance and effectiveness of organizational science
CRM and Car Buying The world of business has come a long way since the only maxim was "The customer is always right." One of the most important new versions of that age-old wisdom is the model of "customer relationship management" or CRM. This paper examines that strategy, which is a model of doing business in which various techniques are used to learn more about the needs and behaviors of the