Pollution can be defined in different prospective including economics. The economics definition of pollution denotes pollutions as loss of environ quality. Furthermore it defines the cost of pollution as the cost of environmental loss (Goodstein, 2011). However the literary meanings of pollution are defined as the contamination of environment that can cause harmful effects on the inhabitants.
These effects are particular with the environment and a number of pollutions are present including air, water, industrial, carbon, and marine pollutions. All these pollutions have a varying degree of effects in their particular environments. The essay is focused to investigate causes of marine pollution and its effects on the sea life. The solutions are also provided to mitigate the effects of marine pollution.
Marine pollution is the represented as the contamination of sea environment through various activities either taking place on earth or within the sea. Most of the contamination is caused through human intervention of sea environment. The water on land in thrown in sea taking a number of contaminated materials with itcaucuses the marine pollution.On the otherhand the litter thrown in sea is also one of the major causes of earth pollution sent into seas. The marine environment is also contaminated through oil spills and petroleum related causes of marine pollution adversely affect the marine environment (O'Hara, & Morandin, 2010).
Causes of the marine pollution:
There are two major categories of causes for marine pollution. It is mainly caused by the contaminated dumping of earth pollution into the sea. The second cause is the sea contaminations through several activities taking place in the sea. The earth contaminations are regarded as low level pollution activities for sea apart from the contamination caused due to dumping highly toxic materials of industrial waste and other toxic materials.
Figure: Items of Marine Pollution
Source: BergmannandKlages (2012)
Lower level pollution:
The lower level of pollution is caused by nutrients, sediments, and pesticides. There are other means of contaminating the marine water including thermal pollution which is the water thrown in sea traveling through various earth related activities. The water takes several contained materials of earth and throws it in the sea water causing it to be contained. It is also observed that sewage water is also thrown into the sea. The industrial and several farming activities using pesticides are also dumped in the sea which raises the contamination level in the sea.
The oil drillings under sea water are also a major cause for marine pollution. The natural resources are found in high volumes under the sea water. There are severalcountries including U.S. where sea surface is drilled to obtain natural resources i.e. oil and gas. The drilling activities itself causes major disruption in marine environments. It is also observed that the sea is used for major oil transportations and as a result the exposure to the sea environment is also increased. The oil spills resulting from accidents is also one of the major causes of oil floating on the surface of sea water. Ocean dumping and offshore drilling for natural resources is one of the major causes for deep sea and surface pollutions (Todd, Ong, & Chou, 2010).
Figure: Challenges of Marine Ecological System
Source: Charles (2012).
Effects on Sea life and the animals in the sea:
The pollution causes the sea water to be contained hence it also causes the sea life to bear the damages causing by contained environment. The sea life faces the direct impacts of marine pollutions. The sea life is regarded as all living animals in the seas as well as the birds and animals floating or feeding from the surface of the sea. The issues with the marine life are not limited to the lives livening in sea. It is also extended to humans as a major portion of fish and other sea foods is consumed by humans.
The causes of the marine pollution have multiple effects on marine life. The loss of life is the worst effect. It is also observed that even low level of pollution and contaminations can cause loss of life for sea lives. The other effects include diseases, small size of eggs, and the number of spawning. The future of sea life is dependent on the purity of marine environment. There are multiple causes of vanishing species in sea life due to increased pollution. The reproductive cycles of most fish species are adversely affected through contaminated sea water. The importance of spawn in fish life is one of the major concerns.
It is observed that they have a viedspawn cycle. Some are used to spawn on yearly basisother may take years for the process. It has an effect on their reproduction and as a result the totalpopulation of the marine life is disturbed. The food chain effect also disturbs the reproduction of certain species. It is also significant to note that each living creators in the marine environment is an important part of the food chain. Meaning there by the disruption in one of the elements can cause effects for the whole food chain. The sea food is also an important factor in human nutrition.
It causes contamination in case such foods are consumed by human beings living on planet earth. The fish has a tendency to develop atresia in case of livening in the contaminated environment. The increased level of pollution can also increase the risks of atresia. This is one of the diseased of sexual cycle for fish and later transfer to human beings. It is significant to note that the environment plays a vital role in the well-being of marine life. The effects of pesticides residue dumping in the sea have a high level effect on the marine life. It causes the marine life to loose life in case of a serious level of poison is present in the environment.
Solution for this problem:
The solution for reducing contamination in sea should be addressed to reduction in pollution as well as development of activities which are earth friendly. The sea environment preservations should also be addressed in detail to protect lives in the marine environment. The possibility of reducing earth dumping can reduce sea pollution level to a considerable number. The treatment of industrial waste is important in order to take an effective action against the marine pollution. It should be strictly regulated by law with strict penalties to include industrial waste in sewage that is meant to be thrown in sea.
The sewage water should not be sent to sea for dumping purposes. In certain case even if it is required treatment of water is essential before sending it in the sea. Respect for the marine life should be developed through community programs and governmental initiatives. The awareness is the key to success for reducing causes of pollution in marine environment. It is required to reduce the amount of under the sea drillings and maintain on ground or below sea level pipelines for crude oil transportations.
The ship transportation of oil is not only risky but it also has the tendency to spread particles of oil on ether sites at the time of loading and off-loadings. The environments are polluted and it is required to maintain a clean sea shore for birds and animals to fulfill their food requirements through sea foods. The protection of environment should also be focused on elimination of unnatural conditions for tourist promotions on sea destinations. In such cases a short course should be offered to increase level of awareness for sea life and marine pollutions (Burke, Reytar, Spalding, & Perry, 2011).
The sea life is also has a significant role in the marine environment, each creator living in sea is part of a food chain for others in the similar environment as well as human…