Canada's largest city and North America's fifth most populous city with a population of around 2.7 people, Toronto is home of 5.6 million people. More than a quarter of Canada's total population alone lives in this heavily populated area. Toronto is considered one of the world's most economically dominant cities (Toronto overview).
It has Toronto Stock Exchange and a large number of private IT companies. Due to rapid growth in the population of Toronto, there has been an outburst in the number of vehicles purchased.
There are a total of 3,340 new establishments in the business sector in Toronto form which 53.2% of these establishments are situated in Downtown. Employment in Downtown has increased by 11.6% and additional 45,600 jobs. This shows how much Toronto has grown in its business sector. Since, the employment rate has increased in Toronto, it was expected that the demand for vehicles will also increase, which might ultimately increase the air pollution in Toronto Downtown (Toronto Employment Survey 2010).
Toronto Employment Survey 2010
Owing to the air pollution caused by car's emissions, around 1,700 people in Toronto die prematurely every year, which includes ground-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and sulfates. Several others are admitted to hospitals due to air pollution.
At least $150 million are spent health care costs, with less productivity of $128 million and a cost of $2.4 billion is caused due to economic damages, including suffering, pain and premature mortality. Air pollution also causes hundreds of thousands of asthma symptom days, respiratory infections, and additional illnesses.
Idling of car is another main issue in Toronto Downtown as it gives out harmful chemicals to the atmosphere and causes the air quality to worsen. Also, it causes eye, nose and throat irritation, coughing and wheezing, difficulty in breathing, reduced lung capacity, lowered resistance to infections and increased heart and lung conditions. Toronto's "Turn it off" plan encourages drivers not to idle their car. It will perk up air quality and will lessen Toronto's contribution to climatic change. More than ten seconds of idling has a cost of up to one liter in wasted fuel. If idling is avoided approximately 630 million liters of fuel possibly will be saved.
According to Environmental Reporting, Disclosure and Innovation Program, the businesses in Toronto have to present a report on how the chemicals used by them are affecting Toronto's health environment. Laws in Toronto Downtown are specific about the use of air pollution and emissions control devices. Any person who does not use these devices will be given a ticket. Even the vehicle manufacturers recognize that vehicles are mandatory to be built according to the emission standards for the better life of vehicles under the law.
Owing to Idling Control By-Law in Toronto Downtown, vehicle operators are not allowed to keep their engines idle for more than one minute or 60 second period and if they do, they are given a $125 ticket.
People living in Toronto Downtown are encouraged to use other alternative methods to transportation such as walking, cycling and public transit, in order to pick up the air quality in the city. There are many required changes that people of Toronto should adopt in order to improve the outdoor air quality. The people of Toronto are exposed to many harmful emissions, like ozone, particulate matter, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and lead, and further harmful substances like mercury, benzene, and other toxins. Transportation behavior needs to change in Toronto downtown. In order to succeed in reducing car idling in Toronto Downtown, it is necessary that "Turn it off" campaign is spread all over which promotes the use of vehicles in an efficient manner.
To reduce air pollution, one can conserve energy by saving gasoline and reducing air pollution, avoid spilling gas, using public transportation, walking, or riding a bike, using an energy-conserving (EC) grade motor oil etc.
The focus of the government should be on educating people, setting up of training sessions, with people from legal law -- enforcement stepping up. Being fuel economical is necessary because the more fuel is used,…