(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
(5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where ideas, lessons, and strategies can be shared.
(6) Train staff on the concepts surrounding Positive Behavioral Intervention Support (PBIS) and support teachers as they develop preventative behavioral intervention plans that utilize PBIS strategies and concepts. (Rush, 2010, p.1)
Rush (2010) states that the key elements of the model were online, collaborative learning and accessible computer-based educational resources. The results are stated to have exceeded initial expectations for "changing the focus in self-contained classrooms from behavior control to academic achievement." (Rush, 2010, p.1) Not only is academic achievement up but as well it is reported that "behavior referrals are down, and teachers report improved student outcomes in all areas." (Rush, 2010, p.1)
The work of Pierangelo and Guiliani (2008) states the effective classroom interventions with children with EBD "result in long-term behavioral change. To produce long-term results, effective interventions must directly address the function and contextual influences of the challenging behavior." (p.11) The stated solution is teaching alternatives that are acceptable. Pierangelo and Guiliani state that one of the primary concepts when working with EDB students is understanding "the difference between a symptom and a problem" since this difference "will be crucial when it comes time to develop a treatment plan or functional behavioral assessment. (2008, p.13)
Post school outcomes for students with EDB are stated in the work of Jolivette, et al. (2000) entitled: "Improving Post-School Outcomes for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" to include the following:
(1) Social Skills Training;
(2) Peer Mediation;
(3) Positive Behavioral Support;
(4) Vocational Training;
(5) Transition Planning; and (6) Wrap-Around Planning. (p.1)
Social skills training involves instruction in effective social skills in regards to individual planning. Effective social skills instruction typically involves "...s both direct instruction and teacher mediation. Direct instruction identifies the specific social skills needing development and provides teacher-directed instruction and practice across natural settings." (Jolivette, et al., 2000, p.1)
Peer Mediation and Conflict Resolution involves peer-mediated strategies in which a student without EDB is trained by an adult "to interact effectively with a student with disabilities. Following training, the two students meet for pre-selected social activities and the trained peer models, reinforces, and prompts appropriate social responses and behavior from the target student. Peer-mediated procedures remove the adult from the intervention, increasing the probability that the student will initiate interactions and not just respond to prompts, in an environment conducive to ongoing, age-appropriate interactions." (Jolivette, et al., 2000, p.1)
Positive Behavioral Support is a new intervention measure for students with EBD and is based "on the premise that schools address the full range of behavioral issues and needs of the student population, including strategies for preventing challenging behavior and intervening when such behavior does occur." (Jolivette, et al., 2000, p.1)
Vocational Training is a strategy used to improve post-school outcomes for students with EBD and involves the design of appropriate and initialized education for students with disabilities and is a method that makes provision of job training and vocational work placements as well as job coaching for students with EDB.
Transition planning is a detailed plan for the student's
Another strategy employed to still in school, individuals with EBD are provided with specific job training and experiences through vocational work placements, job coaching, and other related activities. post-school goals specific to employment and independent living." (Jolivette, et al., 2000, p.1) Finally, Wrap-Around Planning describes integrated services including counseling, financial counseling, job training, mentoring and coaching as well as health services.
Summary and Conclusion
Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) have special needs that must be addressed through classroom, school/family, and life intervention strategies if these students are to achieve academically, gradate and experience life success. It is critical that these needs are addressed instead of ignored in today's classrooms.
Pierangelo, R. And Guiliani, G.A. (2008) Classroom Management for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Step-by-Step Guide for Educators. Corwin Press, 2008.
Jolivette, Kristine, et al. (2000) Improving Post-School Outcomes for Students with Emotional and Behavioral disorders. ERIC Clearinghouse. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E597. Online available at: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org/e597.html
Salmon, Hallie (2006) Educating Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Law & Disorder. Online available at: https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/201/salmon%20educating%20students%20with.pdf?sequence=1
Rush, Sharron (2010) Improving Education for Students with Emotional…