Conflict and Security International Relations Term Paper

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95-133.

In this selection, Chong examines the foreign policy used by Singapore during the 1990s to establish its credentials as a full participant in the international conversation. I will use the examples explored in this article to support the thesis that soft power is a realistic and viable choice of policy.

Fukuyama, Francis, "The End of History?" National Interest 16 Summer 1989, pp. 3-18.

Fukuyama's assertion that the fall of the Soviet Union will result in the triumph of Western political liberalism has not yet been proven true; I will use his article as a warning against presuming too much in the political realm, especially in light of Jervis' assertion above that there will always be unpredictable actions in politics.

Gambill, Gary, "The Balance of Terror: War by Other Means in the Middle East," Journal of Palestine Studies 28:1, 1998, pp. 51-66

Gambill's examination of how terror changes the political actions that may and can be taken in the Middle East gives a thorough look to how terrorism has affected the political landscape and how sovereign nations may deal with it. I will use Gambill's information regarding terrorism to suggest possible soft-power actions to fight terror.

Hoffman, Bruce, "The Logic of Suicide Terrorism," The Atlantic Monthly June 2003

Hoffman's compelling examination of suicide terrorism enforces the fact that security is deeply undermined by the potential for suicide bombers and other forms of terror; his article will be used to support why the current theories of international relations are not working.

Huntington, Samuel, "Clash of Civilizations," Foreign Affairs 72:3, 1993, pp. 22-49.

Huntington's theory that the future of political conflict lies in disputes between civilizations and groups of people rather than ideology has not been proven; however, I will examine how soft power is an effective method of political relations no matter who the primary actors and their motivations are.

Jervis, Robert, "Models and Cases in the Study of International Conflict," Journal of International Affairs, 44, 1990, pp.81-101

Jervis argues that political behavior is impossible to predict every time and that models of international relations must allow for some irrational behavior. I will use his theory to explain some international relations behaviors that do not respond to rational actions like soft power or even hard power.

Luck, Edward and Gati, Toby Tister, "Whose Collective Security?" The Washington Quarterly, Spring 1992, pp. 43-56

This article again emphasizes the need for a new paradigm of political theory after the fall of the Soviet Union. I will utilize it as support for the "new" idea of soft power as a viable middle point between military might and complete subservience to the international community.

Nye, Joseph, Soft Power, New York: Public Affairs, 2004.

This book is the primary theoretical source for supporting my thesis. It argues that non-military power is just as effective, and usually even moreso, than traditional "hard power" in influencing international relations.

Szayna, Thomas, et. al. "The Democratic Peace Idea," in The Emergence of Peer Competitors: A Framework for Analysis, 2001 http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1346

Szayna's analysis of the United States as the world's dominant hegemon is based on the idea that a competitor will arise, and that the U.S. must be prepared to deal with that competitor. I will examine the ways in which soft power can be used to deal with this future competitor effectively.

Waltz, Kenneth, "Laws and Theories," in Keohane, Robert, Neorealism and its Critics, New York: Columbia UP, 1986, pp. 27-46

This text on neorealism provides an excellent reference about the theory and its priorities. In the chapter by Waltz, Waltz explains the structural conditions of international anarchy when allowed to prevail. I will construct an argument to Waltz as to why international anarchy will not be a result of a soft power approach.

Weaver, Mary Anne, "The Real bin Laden," The New Yorker, 24 January 2000

Weaver's article introduces the reader to Osama bin Laden's history and influences, and also deals with some of the United States' response to his terrorist actions. Again, this article will support the theory that new ideas, such as soft power, are needed in international relations to better fight these new…[continue]

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