Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
In this selection, Chong examines the foreign policy used by Singapore during the 1990s to establish its credentials as a full participant in the international conversation. I will use the examples explored in this article to support the thesis that soft power is a realistic and viable choice of policy.
Fukuyama, Francis, "The End of History?" National Interest 16 Summer 1989, pp. 3-18.
Fukuyama's assertion that the fall of the Soviet Union will result in the triumph of Western political liberalism has not yet been proven true; I will use his article as a warning against presuming too much in the political realm, especially in light of Jervis' assertion above that there will always be unpredictable actions in politics.
Gambill, Gary, "The Balance of Terror: War by Other Means in the Middle East," Journal of Palestine Studies 28:1, 1998, pp. 51-66
Gambill's examination of how terror changes the political actions that may and can be taken in the Middle East gives a thorough look to how terrorism has affected the political landscape and how sovereign nations may deal with it. I will use Gambill's information regarding terrorism to suggest possible soft-power actions to fight terror.
Hoffman, Bruce, "The Logic of Suicide Terrorism," The Atlantic Monthly June 2003
Hoffman's compelling examination of suicide terrorism enforces the fact that security is deeply undermined by the potential for suicide bombers and other forms of terror; his article will be used to support why the current theories of international relations are not working.
Huntington, Samuel, "Clash of Civilizations," Foreign Affairs 72:3, 1993, pp. 22-49.
Huntington's theory that the future of political conflict lies in disputes between civilizations and groups of people rather than ideology has not been proven; however, I will examine how soft power is an effective method of political relations no matter who the primary actors and their motivations are.
Jervis, Robert, "Models and Cases in the Study of International Conflict," Journal of International Affairs, 44, 1990, pp.81-101
Jervis argues that political behavior is impossible to predict every time and that models of international relations must allow for some irrational behavior. I will use his theory to explain some international relations behaviors that do not respond to rational actions like soft power or even hard power.
Luck, Edward and Gati, Toby Tister, "Whose Collective Security?" The Washington Quarterly, Spring 1992, pp. 43-56
This article again emphasizes the need for a new paradigm of political theory after the fall of the Soviet Union. I will utilize it as support for the "new" idea of soft power as a viable middle point between military might and complete subservience to the international community.
Nye, Joseph, Soft Power, New York: Public Affairs, 2004.
This book is the primary theoretical source for supporting my thesis. It argues that non-military power is just as effective, and usually even moreso, than traditional "hard power" in influencing international relations.
Szayna, Thomas, et. al. "The Democratic Peace Idea," in The Emergence of Peer Competitors: A Framework for Analysis, 2001 http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1346
Szayna's analysis of the United States as the world's dominant hegemon is based on the idea that a competitor will arise, and that the U.S. must be prepared to deal with that competitor. I will examine the ways in which soft power can be used to deal with this future competitor effectively.
Waltz, Kenneth, "Laws and Theories," in Keohane, Robert, Neorealism and its Critics, New York: Columbia UP, 1986, pp. 27-46
This text on neorealism provides an excellent reference about the theory and its priorities. In the chapter by Waltz, Waltz explains the structural conditions of international anarchy when allowed to prevail. I will construct an argument to Waltz as to why international anarchy will not be a result of a soft power approach.
Weaver, Mary Anne, "The Real bin Laden," The New Yorker, 24 January 2000
Weaver's article introduces the reader to Osama bin Laden's history and influences, and also deals with some of the United States' response to his terrorist actions. Again, this article will support the theory that new ideas, such as soft power, are needed in international relations to better fight these new…[continue]
"Conflict And Security International Relations" (2005, November 03) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/conflict-and-security-international-relations-69315
"Conflict And Security International Relations" 03 November 2005. Web.21 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/conflict-and-security-international-relations-69315>
"Conflict And Security International Relations", 03 November 2005, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/conflict-and-security-international-relations-69315
International Relations Theory and United Nations Peace: International Relations (IR) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field
International Relations Studies and research programs from inter-disciplinarity of sociology have proved that the society is essential to be protected. Social, political, economic and cultural aspects are evidently vital in promoting development and the improvement of life style, which eventually accounts for societal development. From previous projects, the society is a depiction of human life illuminating facets of social life to coax the modern world systems. Various theories have summed up
Finally, Paris introduces the concept of a matrix-based approach designed to include both military and non-military threats to nation states to address the traditional focus of security threats to the entire spectrum of potential threats to nations from external origin, internal conflict, as well as from nonviolent threats of a more chronic nature that affect individuals rather than whole societies. Applying International Relations and Security Principles to an Imprecise Concept: Paris is
.. because the self, in this logic, becomes social though acquiring and fulfilling an institutional identity" (Dunne, Kurki, and Smith 181). 6.) What does it mean to say that identities and interests are mutually constituted? One of the central premises postulated by the constructivist theory of international relations is based on the concept of mutual constitution, a term describing a coexistent social relationship between states in which agency, or the element of
International Relations Over the last several decades, the role of the UN has been constantly evolving. Part of the reason for this is because a host of events would underscore the need for an international institution that could address: the various global, economic and political issues facing the world community. The reason why, is because the 19th century would usher in a new era of technological innovation. This would have a
Political, financial and most of all ethnic interest are going to "to further muddle the results. Perhaps most dangerous is that the results did not yield a Parliament whose ethnic proportions match those of the country, and will therefore be perceived as unfair, whether the seats were won by fraud or not." (Rubin, 2010). The other two perspectives to be taken into account in terms of the development of the
S. fails to consider the inmates as war prisoners, and does not allow them to defend themselves against the charges brought, is a complete breach of the Geneva Conventions. At the same time, statements such as Donald Rumsfeld's consideration that the prisoners of Afghanistan are unlawful combatants and do not enter the category of prisoners of war is simply a means of establishing a legal niche that would allow the