Solar Thermal Systems According to 'Literature Review' chapter
- Length: 15 pages
- Sources: 15
- Subject: Energy
- Type: 'Literature Review' chapter
- Paper: #66321068
Excerpt from 'Literature Review' chapter :
In this regard, some exceptions have been given to the insurance companies while the other companies should follow these principles.
In the year 2005, the commercial sector of the United Kingdom spent $16,500 million for fossil fuels of 350,000 GWh. On the other hand, researchers have reported that a decline of energy consumption has been observed in the tertiary sector of the United Kingdom (Probst & Roecker, 2011, pg 109-124).
Hot water consumption
Probst (2011) stated that hot water is consumed around three percent in industries and fifteen percent I the fossil energy. This shows that a total of 22,000GWh of hot water is consumed each year.
The high and low temperature hot water from the hot water boilers is used in a number of things such as apace heating, washing and in some industrial processes. The direct and straight use of hot water is in washing. Modern hot water boilers are coming day by day and the development in the production of these boiler systems shows the significance of it use.
The solar Thermal Market of the United Kingdom
However, international economic crises were going on in the year 2008, but still, in this year the United Kingdom was among those who had a great market for solar thermal systems. It has been reported by (STA) Solar Trade Association of British that in the year 2008, fifty percent increase occurred in the total amount of solar thermal systems installation around the world. There were a number of reasons for this rapid increase in the installation of solar thermal systems. These include huge publicity, changes in climate, government assistance and open-minded people who wanted to adopt this technology and use clean energy (Council, 2004,pg 220-234).
The government of British assists in the solar thermal projects and these ways are as follows in two ways:
1) Arrangement of Low Carbon Building campaigns
2) Appreciating the owners of homes to invest in the green technology.
An amount of thirty million were invested in the Low Carbon Building program and this program started in the year 2006, during the mid of June. Since many more applications were received which were above the expected ones, therefore, in the year2008, an increment of six million GBP was made in the budget.
According to Barnst (2000), almost fifty percent of the total demand of energy of the United Kingdom is for heat; therefore, it is probable that the market of solar thermal systems will grow at a faster rate. Recently a study named as the Potential of Solar Thermal in Europe was conducted and the results of the study determined that how the heating as well as the cooling sector of the solar thermal can contribute in the growth of the country (Voravate, Barnes, & Bogach, 2000, 183-190).
Beside this, a survey was also conducted in different countries such as Germany, Austria, Spain, Denmark and Poland so that the European Union and its other member states can be made aware about the contribution of the solar thermal industry and how the renewable energy technology can bring change in the country. In addition to this, the demand of heating and cooling was also calculated for the future years of 2020, 2050 and 2030.
Sukhatme (2008) said that further predictions were also made regarding the growth of solar thermal systems and it was estimated that around twenty six percent of growth will occur in the annual sector of Europe due to which the solar thermal will be able to fulfill 6.3% from the total of twenty percent of renewable energy target of the Europe. It was also told that in the year 2008, above fifty percent growth occurred in the solar thermal industry of Europe (Sukhatme, 2008, pg 56).
As it is mentioned, above that, this growth in the solar thermal market will continue at a constant rate and in the year 2050, forty-seven percent of the total demand for low temperature by the European nation will be fulfilled by the solar thermal systems. Since a growth of any sector results in providing job opportunities to the individuals of the country, therefore this dynamic growth in the solar thermal industry will also affect positively in the employment structure of the country.
If only the domestic market is considered than the employment, opportunities by the solar thermal market in this sector will be around four-lack and seventy-thousand.
According to the President of the ESTIF, the growth in the solar thermal market of the country will occur definitely due to the changing climate and high demand of renewable energy technology. Keeping this thing in mind some of the renowned manufacturers has already expanded their production plan for the upcoming years and is willing to further invest in this. At another occasion, the President said that solar thermal system is the need of today's world. It helps people to get rid of harmful carbon and provides the best solution of using clean energy. Due to this solution, people are no more dependent on the limited fuels, which are imported from other countries. However, the country is facing some economic disorder, but, due to high demand of solar thermal systems, the President believed that the solar sector would not be affected by it (Ramlow & Nusz, 2010, pg 54-66).
The solar thermal industry is turning the society into a sustainable one and due to the growth in this sector; new markets are developing each day. As far as the international growth is concerned, this industry spread more vastly around the world in the year 2008. In the year 2008, the highest growth occurred in the market of Germany and it was observed that the demand of solar thermal systems increased around fifty percent over there.
On the other hand, some small markets also observed growth in this regard. In addition to this, in the year 2008, the turnover of the solar thermal products was more than €3 billion in the European market.
United Kingdom and the Solar Resources
Laughton (2010) told that United Kingdom has taken steps to adopt the renewable technologies in all of its sectors and these steps taken at private as well as government level are successful. It has been noticed that the country is involved in developing a solution to all of its energy related problems. This fact cannot be denied that in comparison with the other countries, the resources are less available in the United Kingdom, but, in order to overcome this, some projects are correctly going on. The government is hopeful that these projects will be successful and will answer the energy related problems of people (Laughton, 2010, pg 105-109).
The United Kingdom commonly produces three resources, which are petroleum, natural gas and coal. Among these three resources, the most imperative for the production of electricity is coal but unfortunately, United Kingdom faced a decline in its production since the year 1980. On the other hand, United Kingdom sufficiently produces natural gas and has a good gas network through which people can easily get gas at a low price.
In total, it can be said that United Kingdom has bulk of geothermal resources but beside this, it has a shortage of biomass resources as well as solar resources.
In the year 2007, an increase was observed in the market for heat pumps and this increase was due to increased prices of energy, but, before this increase, the markets for biomass as well as solar thermal systems were not so developed in the United Kingdom.
At present, due to government efforts, the market structure has been changed and development has occurred in this sector. A renewable heat incentive program was started in the year 2011 and providing the renewable heat to households, industries and communities was the basic aim of this program. It is still in process and positive results are coming each day (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, 1978, pg 37-49).
Types of Solar Water Heating System:
There are two types of solar water heating system, which are active heating systems, and passive heating systems however, active heating systems are commonly more used. In active heating systems, the water is moved towards the collector from the storage tanks with the help of a pump while passive heating systems rely on the water to move towards the collector from the storage area naturally with the help of gravity where it has to be heated.
Hulstrom (1989) told that mostly active systems are preferred over passive systems as they are very convenient to install. The motor required to pump water is powered by solar cells thus making this system 100% solar powered. Apart from this, there is no need to build and maintain water storage tanks like the one used in passive heating systems thus making it look more attractive to eyes. Solar water heating systems may require backup in case of abnormal use or for days when it is cloudy. This system may be part of the solar water heating system purchased…