Gender Differences in Coping with Stress Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

1. What are the barriers that keep men from seeking counseling or therapy? What can break those barriers?

One of the barriers that keeps men from seeking counseling is masculinity itself. Sometimes referred to as toxic masculinity, this aspect of being a man involves the ego and the need for the man to feel that he is strong, capable of figuring out his own problems, and able to overcome adversity through resilience. From an early age, boys go through rituals that lead up to their coming of age moment, that defining moment when they believe that they have entered into manhood. To admit in one’s adulthood that he is in need of counseling can almost seem like a shock to one’s sense of masculinity (Kupers, 2005).

Not all men are going to be susceptible to this shock, but those who are will need support and understanding if they are to be assisted in overcoming their own sense of toughness so as to get the help in therapy that they need. Kupers (2005) recommends that counselors honor the resistance that men put up and do not disrespect it for it is a legitimate and valid part of masculinity. At the same time, a discussion of confidentiality, a display of empathy, and a willingness to advocate on the part of the man can help to overcome resistance (Kupers, 2005).

Reference: Kupers, T. A. (2005). Toxic masculinity as a barrier to mental health treatment in prison. Journal of clinical psychology, 61(6), 713-724.

2. Do women and men differ in levels of self-esteem and self-confidence?

The research suggests that men and women do have different levels of self-esteem and self-confidence, particularly in the West (American Psychological Association, 2016). But this may also have something to do with the ways in which esteem is generated in the West today. Traditionally, men and women occupied different spheres of influence, and their lives to different shapes—men worked in the world, while women tended to the domestic sphere: the house, the children, the cooking, and so on. When Betty Friedan produced her Feminist work The Feminine Mystique, it launched a new wave in the Feminist movement. Women became convinced that they needed to be working alongside the men in the world, that the domestic sphere was tantamount to slavery, that having children was not fulfilling, and that the family was stifling. Women thus sought fulfillment doing the same thing their men counterparts were doing. Yet, as the American Psychological Association (2016) points out, women have not found the expected confidence and esteem they were led to believe they would find. Is this because their natures and emotional needs and talents have been diverted from their traditional courses? Or is it because men stubbornly refuse to give them the due respect they deserve? The jury is still out on that matter, but the research shows men in the West do appear to have higher self-esteem and self-confidence—perhaps because they are still doing for the most part what men have traditionally always done.

Reference: American Psychological Association. (2016). Self-Esteem Gender Gap More Pronounced in Western Countries. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2016/01/self-esteem-gender

3. What styles of sexuality do heterosexual adults accept?

Strictly speaking, heterosexual adults accept sexual intercourse between a man and a woman. However, sexual fluidity has become more popular in recent years, and even though one might self-identify as heterosexual one could be accepting of homosexuality, bisexuality, or any type of sexuality. At the same time, heterosexual adults have been found to endorse a sexual double standard among initiators of consensually nonmonogamous relationship behaviors (Thompson, hart, Stefaniak & Harvey, 2018). In other words, although heterosexuality might seem normal and traditional, heterosexual adults do not necessarily believe in monogamy or commitment to one partner only. Traditionally speaking, heterosexuality has…

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…L. F. (1997). Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71(3), 309-328.

6. What role does coping play in the experience of stress? Has research shown gender-related differences in coping?

Coping plays an important role in the experience of stress. If one is not capable of coping with stress, one will likely experience burnout, anxiety, high blood pressure and any number of other issues. Relationships can be affected. Families can be harmed. Coping is crucial to dealing with stress, and people should be aware of various ways to cope with stress, such as breathing techniques, taking time to relax, recreate or rejuvenate; doing something creative, working out, or turning to a social support system—all of these are ways to cope with stress. Men and women do have differences in coping, according to research by Greenglass, Burke and Konarski (1998). Women tend to seek co-worker support to cope with stress, and men tend to rely upon personal or professional success to cope with stress—i.e., they become more stressed when their sense of personal accomplishment is obstructed. However, men also turn to co-worker support to cope—but they also turn to supervisor support as well, which is a difference between men and women in terms of coping with stress in the workplace (Greenglass et al., 1998). Outside the workplace, women and men can both rely upon social support systems for coping with stress, but both can still find other differing ways as well.

Reference: Greenglass, E. R., Burke, R. J., & Konarski, R. (1998). Components of Burnout, Resources, and Gender?Related Differences 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(12), 1088-1106.

7. Name and describe three diagnoses from the DSM that show an unequal gender distribution. How do these diagnoses compare to stereotypical female and male gender roles?

Three diagnoses from the DSM that show an unequal gender distribution are antisocial disorder (more heavily distributed…

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References

Jane, J. S., Oltmanns, T. F., South, S. C., & Turkheimer, E. (2007). Gender bias in diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: An item response theory analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 166.

Greenglass, E. R., Burke, R. J., & Konarski, R. (1998). Components of Burnout, Resources, and Gender?Related Differences 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(12), 1088-1106.

Glomb, T. M., Richman, W. L., Hulin, C. L., Drasgow, F., Schneider, K. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71(3), 309-328.

Dorak, M. T., & Karpuzoglu, E. (2012). Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: an inadequately addressed issue. Frontiers in genetics, 3, 268.

Maas, A. H., & Appelman, Y. E. (2010). Gender differences in coronary heart disease. Netherlands Heart Journal, 18(12), 598-603.

Small Arms Survey. (2016). A Gendered Analysis of Violent Deaths. Small Arms Survey Research Notes • Number 63. Retrieved from http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/H-Research_Notes/SAS-Research-Note-63.pdf

Thompson, A. E., Hart, J., Stefaniak, S., & Harvey, C. (2018). Exploring heterosexual adults’ endorsement of the sexual double standard among initiators of consensually nonmonogamous relationship behaviors. Sex Roles, 79(3-4), 228-238.

American Psychological Association. (2016). Self-Esteem Gender Gap More Pronounced in Western Countries. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2016/01/self-esteem-gender

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