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" (Hurtado et al., p. 1)
This idea of a structural change is further girded in the article by Hiebert & Morris (2012), which agues in favor of altering the fundamental strategy of instruction. To the authors, the focus on improving the characteristics of educators rather than the educational resources and parameters given to these educators if wrongheaded and problematic. Hiebert & Morris "expose the assumptions on which this logic is built, propose an alternative approach to improving teaching that engages teachers (and researchers) directly in the work of improving teaching, present some indirect evidence to support this approach, and examine the cultural traditions and beliefs that have kept the conventional approach in place for so long." (p. 92)
The article by Hiebert & Morris challenges the idea that teacher qualifications are the flaw in the present educational system. The opportunities for improvement lay, instead, in bringing about greater intuition and flexibility in curricular design, learning materials and even the overarching structure of the traditional public school.
The opposition to the proposed strategies for philosophical and structural reconsideration of our educational system is largely formed by members of the federal and state governments. The rigid standardized testing and accountability strategies that have marked the last decade of educational policy are, in many ways, responsible for the deplorable state of American education. However, the opposition argues that a further reinforcement of this approach is the best way forward. According to Coffey & Alberts (2013), "an organization established by the 50 U.S. state governors to improve academic standards and testing will begin finalizing its draft document (released in January 2013) of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). This document aims to establish new common standards for science education for students aged 5 to 18 in the United States, and it explicitly builds on the U.S. National Academies' 2011 Framework for K-12 Science Education." (Coffey & Alberts, p. 489)
The strength of this strategy is that it offers greater opportunities for student participation and hands-on learning in science classrooms. However, beyond this stated strategy, the approach is weakened by its reliance on the standardized testing ideology that has done little to improve student performance in recent years.
Coffey, J. & Alberts, B. (2013). Improving Education Standards. Science, 339(6119), p. 489.
The article by Coffey & Alberts reports on standards devised by the assembled governors of the 50 states in order to strengthen the use of standardized testing in evaluating students. The standards reported on here relate to the field of science. The article contributes to the position of the opposition in the above research discussion.
Hiebert, J. & Morris, A.K. (2012). Teaching, Rather Than Teachers, As a Path Toward Improving Classroom Instruction. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(2), 92-102.
The article by Hiebert & Morris argues that the strategy for improving education by improving teachers has been fundamentally flawed. Instead, the authors take the approach that teaching methods and strategies must be addressed first and foremost. This reinforces the idea in the present research that the best way to improve American education is to address the strategic approach taken to promoting learning.
Hurtado, S.; Milem, J.; Clayton-Pederson, A. & Allen, W. (1999). Enacting Diverse Learning Environments: Improving the Climate for Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.
The article by Hurtado et al. concerns the issue of diversity in our schools, and particularly in the context of higher education. The article offers a discussion on the need to improve the respect for and embrace of diversity in the content and educational strategy of our classrooms. The text contributes the idea to our discussion that one of the major shortcomings of America's educational system is its critical underservice to minority groups or non-white populations.
Mehta, J. (2013). Why American Education Fails. Foreign Affairs.
The article by Mehta provides further reinforcement to the idea that America's educational system lags behind that of many other nations. It also attributes part of this to a failure to accommodate America's increasing ethnic diversity.
Moore, L. (2013). Finland has an education system the U.S. should envy -- and learn from. The Guardian.
The article by Moore provides useful background to the present research, particularly in establishing a case for the need for improvement in America's education system. In particular, it compares…[continue]
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State regulations prohibit discrimination on the basis of explicit protected categories, including age, in any program or activity that is funded directly by the state, or receives any financial assistance from the state (Black, 2002). The Age Discrimination Act of 1975 and the federal implementing regulations at 34 Code of Federal Regulations part 110, prohibit discrimination based on age in programs or activities that receive federal financial assistance. All California
Businesses, especially small businesses, must often pay for benefits for their employees, and budding American entrepreneurs would not have this additional expense to worry about when starting an enterprise, under a single-payer system. Even huge companies like General Motors and Ford are suffering because of the lack of universal coverage for all Americans. One of the greatest drains upon both automotive companies' finances has been the extravagant benefits they
Research was the first to feel the effects. The shift in the material base of the university leaves the humanities entirely out in the cold. Corporations don't earmark donations for the humanities because our research culture is both self-contained and absurd. Essentially, we give the copyrights of our scholarly articles and monographs to university presses, and then buy them back, or demand that our libraries buy them back, at
Tenure and Higher Education Does Tenure Work in Education or is it Outdated? My position is that Tenure still works. The topic tenure has formed much intense discussion in current years. There is an argument by few that tenure is an outdated idea and concept, and, therefore, if institutions remain competitive, then for this purpose they actually need to be more expert as well as flexible to appoint and dismiss the teaching
(Eds.). (2005). The role of education: Promoting the economic and social vitality of rural America. Jackson, MISS: The Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. Green, M., Eckel, P., & Barblan, a. (2002). The brave new (and smaller) world of higher education: A transatlantic view. The Changing Enterprise. First in a Series. [n.p.]. Phelps, D.G. (1992). A vision for the Los Angeles Community College District. Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Community College District
In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," Rasch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special
Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more