Long-Term Productivity in Business Workers and Machinery Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

Long-Term Productivity in Business Workers and Machinery

Productivity is important to every kind of business. This does not mean that every possible bit of work has to be squeezed out of every single worker until they drop into an exhausted heap on the assembly line. Indeed, this would certainly not be productive because having to replace on a continual basis workers who quit from being exhausted - not to mention having to settle disability suits - is hardly the goal of any business.

Productivity means getting the most out of one's machines and workers on a long-term basis. Sometimes this means that everyone has to put in overtime. Sometimes this means that people need to spend an afternoon staring out the window and thinking up new ideas. It all depends upon the business involved and the stage of a project that business and that worker is at.

Something that every business can benefit from in terms of increased productivity is an adaptation of the ISO 9000 standards. However, these standards are most effective if they are in fact adopted as part of an overall operations management strategy. Both points will be discussed below.

Most people outside of the world of industry have never heard of ISO 9000 Certification, and yet this system - and similar systems of standardization - are integral to a number of the activities that we pursue each day and are central to the way that business and industry will be conducted in the 21st century.

Quality Management

Much has been written about the process whereby a business (whether in the high-tech field or in one of the more traditional heavy industries) can create a system of quality management. While each type of industry and business must determine the details of quality management for itself and each individual business must fine tune those requirements for its own particular needs, it is possible to make some general statements about the process of quality control - which are all tied in more or less direct ways to a systematic application by the company's executives of the concept of standardization.

The business leader who wishes to run his or her business at anything approaching maximum efficiency must establish, document, implement, and maintain a quality management system and thereafter continually improve its effectiveness by:

Mapping, controlling and analyzing processes,

- providing the necessary resources,

- implementing and continually improving processes.

One of the axioms of quality control for the production management of a company or business has traditionally been summarized as taking care of the "five M's": men, machines, methods, materials, and money. The first of these is now obviously no longer properly an "M" since it must include women (of course, women have always done at least have of the labor in human societies), but the uniformity of the acronym remains appealing. Since the vast majority of manufacturing personnel work in the physical production of goods, "people management" is one of the production manager's most important responsibilities and takes precedence over the other four in terms of the quality management.

Although the five M's cover the range of the major tasks of production management, control summarizes its single most important issue. The production manager interested in quality management is in fact interested in quality control. That person must therefore plan and control the process of production so that it moves smoothly at the required level of output while meeting cost and quality objectives.

An essential part of this planning process in almost every case is the implementation of a standardization process like the ISO 9000. This cannot be overemphasized.

Quality process control has two major purposes, and these are the same regardless of the kind of industry or business that is involved. The first of these is to ensure that operations are performed according to plan, and second, a continuous monitoring and evaluation of the production plan to see if modifications can be devised to better meet "cost, quality, delivery, flexibility, or other objectives."

This process of continually updating and checking for needed modifications is one of the greatest strengths of the ISO system. Moreover, it is the "continuousness" of this process that is most responsible for the connection between productivity and ISO 9000 use.

While the ISO standardization system is updated annually, often good quality control must be updated on a daily or even an hourly basis. For example, when demand for a product is high enough to justify continuous production, the production level might need to be adjusted from time to address fluctuating demand or changes in a company's market share.

This is called the "production-smoothing" problem. When more than one product is involved, complex industrial engineering or operations research procedures are often necessary because without them it may well not be possible to analyze in as sophisticated a way as is possible the many factors that are contributing to a single - perhaps seemingly simple - problem.

ISO 9000 Quality Systems quality system is "a set of documented procedures for carrying out a business process.... A quality system, in other words, helps create order, rigor, and routines from chaotic or spontaneously evolved processes.." Often companies or businesses do not implement quality control systems and systems of standardization because the amount of work (and paperwork) involved in such implementation can in fact be quite heavy. This sets up a psychological barrier at the beginning of the project that people often find it hard to overcome - not understanding how greatly their productivity will be improved.

Quite often people do not want to plow through the initial work that is required in setting up such a system. However, this must be filed under the "pennywise and pound foolish" category, for the time invested in implementing quality control and standardization processes is well worth it because "the introduction of quality systems frequently leads to improvements in quality and predictability of operations." The ISO 9000 is a particularly useful set of standards because it makes very explicit the issues that must be included in various kinds of systems.

The ISO 9000 specifications are promulgated, as one might suspect, by the ISO, the International Organization for Standardization. Founded in Geneva in 1947, the ISO is concerned with providing for an ease of standardization in all areas of work and technology in all technical and non-technical fields except for those of electrical and electronic engineering (which fall under the purview of the International Electrotechnical Commission). Its membership extends to more than 100 countries, and each member is the national body "most representative of standardization in its country."

In Western industrial countries such as the United States or the countries of Western Europe, these national bodies are usually private organizations, such as the American National Standards Institute (usually known by its acronym of ANSI) or the British Standards Institution (BSI). In other parts of the world - including Asia and part of Africa - these organizations are generally a formal branch of the government.

Standardization affects a very wide range of processes and sub-processes. These include setting units of measurement; establishing systems to alphabetization and transliteration of different alphabets; setting specifications for parts and their component as well as for the quality of materials, work surfaces, work processes, required and optional tools, all methods of testing, and machines. Even the exact form in which specifications are presented is standardized.

The ISO is often called in by the representatives of either an industry or a government or a national standards institution to establish bodies called "technical committees" that draw on an international group of experts to investigate and resolve specific concerns about standardization in that field. These resolutions are then published under the title "International Standards" (IS). Because of the pace of technological change as well as changes in ideas about labor, ISO standards are reviewed (and, if necessary, revised) every five years.

While the ISO is a relatively new organization, the concept of standardization in industry is itself centuries old. The development and application of standards to allow for large production runs of component parts that can be readily fitted to other parts without adjustment - which is in a nutshell all that standardization is - has been with us since the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution. Such standardization allows (at least when it is well executed) for clear communication between an industry and all of its suppliers, for relatively low cost both to industry and to the final consumer, and for the planning of manufacture on the basis of interchangeable parts.

What is a Standard?

A standard is simply that which has been selected as a model to which objects or actions may be compared. Standards for industry may be devices and instruments used to regulate color, size, weight, and other product attributes. Standards may also exist in the form of actual they may be physical models. Standards may also be written mathematical or symbolical descriptions, drawings, or formulas setting forth the important features of objects to be produced or actions to be…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Long-Term Productivity In Business Workers And Machinery" (2002, April 21) Retrieved December 10, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/long-term-productivity-in-business-workers-130321

"Long-Term Productivity In Business Workers And Machinery" 21 April 2002. Web.10 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/long-term-productivity-in-business-workers-130321>

"Long-Term Productivity In Business Workers And Machinery", 21 April 2002, Accessed.10 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/long-term-productivity-in-business-workers-130321

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Management in Business Operations and Performance

    Integrating Total Quality Environmental Management Systems - a Critical Study of TQEM Relevance of TQM to Environmental Management Scope of Dissertation Moving from Reactive to Proactive Management Understanding TQM in Relation to TQEM History of TQM Operation of TQM Quality and Environmental Management Standards Environmental Management Systems Weaknesses of EMS Standards Total Quality Environmental Management Comparing ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 Integrating the ISO 14000 Environmental Management System Demographics Impact of certification on economic and ecological performances Research Design and Nature Integrating a Sustainable EMS with

  • Businesses and Information Technology

    Strategic Planning in IT IT Impact on Service Industry Performance Cooperative Competitive Competitive Advantage Implementation of IT Innovations 1992 U.S. VALUE-ADDED AND EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY AVERAGE ANNUAL GROWTH IN GDP PER HOUR, MAJOR SECTORS OF THE U.S. ECONOMY Management TASKS IN BUREAUCRACY VS ADHOCRACY ORGANIZATIONS This paper addresses the following problem statement: "Without information technology (IT), a business will not be able to compete globally in any industry, nor in any market it wants to enter. It will

  • Business Political Science the

    Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production

  • Performing Purchasing Agent Duties Business Booming Waters

    Performing Purchasing Agent Duties Business booming Waters, Inc. Need Identification and Specification Rationale for asking the questions The Waters Inc. bases its specifications on various and different parameters of performance within the machinery system. The basic factors under consideration are designed to establish the best working environment. This environment will let the computer systems and all the software machines work with increasing performance for the company. It is necessary to consider the fact

  • Bury Price Elasticity Service Business Proposal for

    Bury Price Elasticity Service Business Proposal for Will Bury Price Elasticity, Incremental Costs Digitally recorded books (e-books) and digital content face several significant challenges from a price elasticity and market pricing perspective. The barriers to entry from digitizing content alone are low (Starkweather, 2004), with differentiation existing at the marketing, packaging, delivery technology and pricing strategy level. The intent of this proposal is to define how Will Bury will be able

  • Financing Community Business the Importance of Small

    Financing Community Business The Importance of Small Business in the Economy Canadian Federal Support for SMEs Tackling SME Tax and Fiscal Priorities Rebalancing Canada's EI System Assist Small Business Owners with Succession Plans Growing Small Firms into Larger Firms Federal Support for SMEs Depleted Communities in Canada Distressed Communities in United States Community Economic Development Investment Funds Community Economic Development Funds in U.S. Non-Bank Financing Community-based financial organizations have been developed in many countries to serve the critical needs of small to medium

  • Business Creation in Canada

    Canada International Trade International trade accounts for a dominant share of the Canadian economy, led by exports of natural resources. Exports accounted for approximately 25% of Canada's GDP in 2010. Agricultural, energy, forestry and mining exports accounted for about 58% of total exports. Machinery, equipment, automotive products and other manufactured goods accounted for a further 38% of exports. The United States is by far its largest trading partner, accounting for about

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved