Industrial Development in Europe and Term Paper

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But he failed and started cooperating with real leaders - owners of huge industrial monopolies. To get rid of small businessmen organization (SA) Hitler murdered their leader Ernst Rem and some other leaders.

That's why fascists changed their political program.

Any national property was controlled by state, but in fact - rich monopolists. Hitler created extremely effective General department of property (head - Krupp and Siemens).

The largest corporation in the country belonged to German Gering. It was that huge because it received Jews' property and later - property which was captured in states- victims of German foreign policy. German leaders started regulating prices as it was in USSR or USA during New Line.

Agriculture was also controlled by the state. Agricultural production was controlled and every farmer had to sell it to the state (by the way, prices were also regulated by state).

So, all German private property got under state's control and there were very necessary reasons to do so. Hitler planned great war and knew that he had to strengthen and centralize his state to win it. Only under the condition of centralized economics and the main component - industry no state can win any war. Hitler valued Stalin's experience and though he blamed and hated Communism he learnt many ideas from Communists' politics in USSR. For example, Communists created 5-year plans of developing national economics and Hitler did the same. In 1936 he adopted Second 4-year plan which had to develop German industry to make German nation independent from import' also plan contained info about developing those spheres of industry which supported military producing. "Military expenses increased 10 times since 1933 till 1939 and amounted 15-16 trillion Marks per year or 75% of state budget income" (World Economics J.Simon, M. Miller. WestPrint 1988-page 214).

Germany was preparing to a big war. Everybody in the world knew that but we have true facts that British, American and French businessmen supported both NSDAP and its industrial programs but I repeat - everybody was sure that those investments would not be used against them, but at the same time war was inevitable and that was a true fact already in middle thirties.

What about Great Britain I can notice that its economical development was not very intensive and effective: industry was developing too slowly. I'll set an example: "In 1930 Britain produced the same quantity of goods as in 1913"(World Economics J.Simon, M. Miller. WestPrint 1988-page 195.) So, I'm sure Britain is not worth mentioning in this list because its economical politics was not that progressive as in those countries I have mentioned.

And at last I'll try briefly research Soviet economics.

Soviet Union

As we know Soviet Union was a very undeveloped country in 1920 ies but when Stalin became Soviet dictator (1929) the situation had changed. Stalin was a very wise man who was sure that First Socialist State as Soviets called their motherland could not be a weak state because its neighbors are ve4ry aggressive and he also remembered history (Foreign intervention in Russia during the Civil War). He proclaimed great program of industrialization and collectivization.

Collectivization had to create such conditions when farmers should be united in common agricultural unions. Peasants were forced to join them and work there as usual workers who receive money for their work. Farmers in these unions received a small part of what they grew. "In 1935 agricultural production amounted 125% of pre-war period (1913).. that was a real success..."(From Moscow to Berlin: Marshall Zhukov's Greatest Battles Georgi Zhukov Noontide Pr 1991 page 95). We can read some books, which blame Stalin for this politics because many people were left without their private property and died from hunger. Sure, we have remembered negative results, but also we must remember that many cities and villages were left without any food during Russian Civil War. Soviet leaders remembered that tragic experience. That's why collectivization supplied citizens who lived in cities and also soldiers of Red Army, which was very popular, and nation was ready to work hard to help own army. Later collectivization showed how effective it was during WWII.

Industrialization was proclaimed to fulfill the same plans Hitler wanted to do. Soviet government wished having own industry and be independent from foreign import because it was a threat to Soviet sovereignty. Also industrialization was necessary to make a highly developed country with major part of industry in national economics out of outdated part of Tsarist Russia where agriculture was leading sphere of economics. Here are some figures: -- in the beginning of 1937 plants constructed during industrialization amounted 88,6% of the whole industry; pre-revolutionary enterprises - only 11,4% -- (World Economics J.Simon, M. Miller. WestPrint 1988-page 239). Metal producing reached figures of the same American sphere of industry. Coal mines developed rapidly and many regions of Soviet Union which used to be famous for their undeveloped infrastructure turned into industrial centers of this country. In 1934-1937 electricity supply increased 2,7 times. These figures are amazing and their result was Soviet victory in WWII.

Soviet leaders succeeded creating a country of new formation which became first in Europe and second state in the world (after USA) which produced great number of goods and the main result of Stalin's politics was creating strong highly developed military industry which was the leading sphere of national economics (the same as in Nazi Germany).

So, to sum up the written I'd like to say that democratic states, such as USA, France, Britain suffered from economical crisis a lot and tried to overcome it anyway. Some of them succeeded, some - not. What about such states as Germany or USSR they didn't face serious crisis because their economics were regulated by the state and to tell the truth, I'm sure that such way of regulation is really necessary when situation in the country is not stable and to overcome some tragic events economical regulation is really necessary to gain success (Remember Roosevelt, Stalin, Hitler). But here I have to notice one more thing: regulation is dangerous in peaceful times when country has to develop according to natural economical laws. Soviet Union's economics was successful during WWII and the Cold War but when the situation had changed its economics collapsed and this event had very tragic results.

Literature sources:

1. John Bourne, Peter Liddle, & Ian Whitehead

The Great World War 1914-1945 -- Volume 1: Lightning Strikes Twice

2. Messenger, Charles Hitler's Gladiator., Conway Martim Press, 1988…

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