Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Research Paper:
Further, while some upward mobility did exist, competition among small business entrepreneurs and economic instability caused by depression and financial panics created just as much downward mobility (Ibid. At 58).
Housing among the poor in the cities usually consisted of multiple families (as many as 8) living in homes designed for just one. The price of rent was disproportionately high because the numbers of immigrants in the teeming cities kept demand higher than supply (Ibid. At 132). As a result, slum housing developed and the risk of fire and disease became a daily risk for the urban lower class.
The middle class enjoyed much better conditions. While downward mobility was always possible, the middle class could typically expect rising wages and could afford moderate consumerism, that is, purchasing magazines, clothing, books and some of the new manufactured goods becoming more and more available. A basic middle class characteristic was the traditional nuclear home where the male earns a wage by working full time outside of the home and the female retained jurisdiction over domestic matters. More and more middle class households were presided over by the maternal values and a strong sense of Protestant spiritualism (Ibid. At 58).
For the very wealthy, not only would their lifestyle not resemble the poor working class, their lives would very often not come into contact with each other at all. The wealthy lived in neighborhoods far removed from the teeming inner cities, rode to the factories they owned in private carriages and employed servants to conduct their daily menial affairs (Ibid. At 57).. The food they ate, the clothes they wore and the diversions they partook of on a daily basis were all luxuries beyond the comprehension of the average worker, who struggled to buy an occasional ice cream cone for his children (Ibid. At 58).
The role of indentured servants and freed slaves in the class structure of the cities.
Indentured servants were much more popular and prevalent before the Revolutionary War; the practice did extend into the 19th century though with much less frequency.
Early indentured servants made a contractual commitment to labor for a specified period of time agreed with the shipper prior to sailing to America. The shipper recouped his transportation costs by selling the servant's contract on arrival or by agreeing to be bound to servitude to the extent necessary to pay off his transportation debt within a specified time period, unless his debt could be paid by other means such as through family or friends. This system of called the "redemptioner" system was the more popular form of servitude in the migrant servant trade by the 1750s (Tomlins at 7).
As far class structure, they were placed below the poor working class and above slaves ((Ibid. At 20). The performed the same basic types of labors as the colonial urban slaves and were most often immigrants of Western Europe (Scotch-Irish and German descent). While, most commonly found in New York and Philadelphia, they provided a high percentage of the manual labor in the early colonial cities (Ibid. At 20).
Freed slaves had a unique place as far as class in American society in the 18th and 19th centuries. Freed slaves migrated toward northern cities in large numbers. In the cities they found ample employment opportunities; many men as laborers but a few as skilled artisans and many women as domestic servants, but a few as shopkeepers and nurses. Despite their relative gains and opportunity, freed blacks were still by and large poor and property-less (Ibid. At 70).
Freed slaves and African-Americans that were still slaves fought their class struggle, at least at first, in terms of a struggle for culture. Their institutions were clearly and proudly marked as 'African.' Often times, the freed slaves enjoyed more stable and reliable cultural institutions than did the whites living in the same lower class neighborhoods (Ibid. At 72). In the middle of the 18th century, however, free blacks became their own class, as the legislation and ordinance passed by various states and cities excluded blacks, whether slave or free, from using many public accommodations (Ibid. At 73).
Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.:…[continue]
"U S Urban History Slavery In" (2010, October 20) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/us-urban-history-slavery-in-7568
"U S Urban History Slavery In" 20 October 2010. Web.21 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/us-urban-history-slavery-in-7568>
"U S Urban History Slavery In", 20 October 2010, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/us-urban-history-slavery-in-7568
In other words, World War II produced an important shift in both mentality and reality. Although many of the women who had been employed during the war returned to being homemakers, there was also a significant percentage which managed to reconcile being a mother and a wife with work. Also, despite the fact that their wages were far from being equal to those of men, their contribution to the
Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily. In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas. The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service.
Slavery According to the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, a slave is a 'person who is the legal property of another or others and is bound to absolute obedience' (Blackburn 262). To be very concise, slavery is the opposite of freedom. A 'liberated' individual possesses all the freedom to enjoy basic human rights of citizenship, profession choice and lifestyle. Not only this, he has all the rights of security of self and property.
Slavery Art Robert, Calvin, Martha, and William Scott and Mila ended up in the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco because its owner, Rev. William Anderson Scott, was the minister at Calvary Presbyterian Church there in 1853-61. He was originally from the South and because of his sympathy for the Confederate cause in the Civil War, including offering public prayers for Jefferson Davis, he "had to leave the city for his
MYTH: Decriminalizing prostitution would save a lot of money because police wouldn't have to arrest prostitutes or johns or pimps. FACT: Decriminalization of prostitution has resulted in expensive legal challenges because no one wants prostitution zoned into their neighborhood or near their kids' schools. Mustang Brothel was shut down because of tax evasion. Pimps are simply not going to hand over the massive profits that they make from the business of
Many of the busts in the ghetto are drug-related, and Hilfiker notes that our society punishes petty drug offences far more severely than crimes committed by people who are wealthy. Meantime, the mandatory minimum sentence takes away the possibility of any plea bargaining; it takes away the judge's previous alternative of giving probation for a petty crime and hands the power to the prosecutor, who runs for office on
history from 1865 to the present day. To focus the research, select six subtopics (specific events or developments related to the topic, separated in time); three from before 1930 and three from after. Immigrants There are more than 50 million immigrants (legal and illegal) and their U.S.-born children (under 18) in the United States as of August 2012. As of the last decade, most immigrants come from the following countries: Honduras