Heart Disease In The United States Week 7 Lab Assignment Lab Report

Length: 10 pages Sources: 6 Subject: Healthcare Type: Lab Report Paper: #87725373 Related Topics: Race, Data Analysis, Family History, High Blood Pressure
Excerpt from Lab Report :

Introduction

Heart disease has been an enormous challenge in the United States. The most common heart disease in the nation is Coronary Heart disease (CHD). There are various heart diseases apart from CHD. Heart disease approximately causes 1 in 4 deaths in the US. This number happens to be rather high, hence the need for an intervention. Experts have blamed Americans' lifestyle and ignorance on the sharp rise of heart disease deaths. Although heart disease can affect anyone at any age, some experts argue that it affects the aged severely – in comparison to the other age brackets.

In this assignment, the relationship between heart diseases and various other variables is going to be expounded. The first section of this assignment will expound on the background of heart diseases in the United States. Several studies will be explored in this assignment. After the background formulations of the hypothesis based on the literature review, the analysis will be based on the heart disease data. The SPSS software will be used to perform the statistical test, and the results will also be discussed. Finally, a conclusion will be made based on the study's output.

Background

Heart disease affects both the male gender and the female gender. This implies that both genders have an equal risk of being diagnosed with related heart disease (AHA 2019 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - American College of Cardiology, 2019). The percentage of males succumbing to illness resulting from heart disease is approximately 25%, whereas the approximate rate of women who succumbed to heart-related disease is 22% (CDC, 2020). The difference in the percentage is notable, but not significant.

Even though the gender male and female death rates are almost the same, heart disease symptoms among the two genders are different (AHA 2019 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - American College of Cardiology, 2019). Health practitioners tend to misdiagnose women as their heart disease symptoms are similar to those of other diseases. To a large extent, the commonly ignored symptoms amongst women are inclusive of cold sweats, chest discomfort, and nausea. This could explain the notable (but not significant) higher percentage of women succumbing to heart-disease-related issues, in comparison to that of men.

In as far as race and ethnicity are concerned, it would be prudent to note that as Virani et al. (2020) point out, “in the United States, certain racial and ethnic groups face a higher risk of dying from heart disease than others” (p. 27). As the authors further point out, according to data from the American Heart Association, blacks tend to have a higher risk of heart disease than other groups (Virani et al., 2020). They are closely followed (at second place) by non-Hispanic whites. It would, however, be important to note that those with the least risk of heart disease are Hispanics.

Even though heart disease is the most common cause of death in the country today, this was not the case several decades ago – i.e. in the '90s. The sudden increase in heart disease has been attributed to Americans' lifestyles. There are several risk factors that have been identified for heart disease. The said risk factors are inclusive of, but they are not limited to; obesity, physical inactivity, poorly controlled diabetes, smoking, etc. It is also important to note that autopsy reports have indicated that a rise in atherosclerosis leads to increased heart disease deaths (Virani et al., 2020). Increased intake of junk food by Americans and the buildup of too much bad cholesterol from the said dietary sources is a leading factor in as far as increased incidence of this particular disease is concerned. Education also happens to be a factor in as far as susceptibility to heart disease is concerned. Citizens who lack basic education are more susceptible to heart-related diseases owing to the fact that they have limited knowledge and access to information related to healthy living.

To a large extent, “government investment has facilitated…percentage of the Hispanic ethnicity and the Asian ethnicity was 17% and 12%, respectively. The results above show that the most dominant races were the whites and the black races. The number of bedrooms that the houses the respondents live in have was recorded. The descriptive statistics showed that 53% of the data set have 3-bedroom houses. The percentage of respondents with a two bedroomed house was 8%. 30% of the household lived in a four bedroomed house. The dataset that lives in a five-bedroomed and a six-bedroomed house is 8% and 1% respectively.

The cross-tabulation of race by the history of heart disease was conducted. Based on the output, 9 of the 28 blacks have no heart disease record, whereas 19 of 28 respondents have a heart disease history. The number of Hispanic races that have no history of heart disease is 6; of the 17 Hispanians. 11 of the 17 Hispanians have a history of heart disease. The number of whites of the 43 that do not account for heart disease is 22 and 21, respectively. Finally, the number of Asians with no history of heart disease is 5 of 12 respondents, whereas 7 of 12 respondents have a heart disease history. Table 1 below shows the summary of the cross-tabulation.

Conclusion

Based on the data analysis above, we can conclude that the most dominant race in the western government township is the white and the black race. This is evident since the descriptive statistics of the white race comprised 43% of white and 28% of blacks. The above results agree with the literature review findings. The results also concluded that most people in the western government township have a history of heart disease. The results showed that 58% of the respondents have a heart disease history, while 42 % do not account for heart-related conditions. The results are alarming – effectively meaning that more drastic measures ought to be taken to reign in the situation.

The data analysis…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

AHA 2019 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - American College of Cardiology (2019). AHA 2019 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics. American College of Cardiology. https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2019/02/15/14/39/aha-2019-heart-disease-and-stroke-statistics

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC (2020, September 8). Heart Disease Facts. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC (2020, May 19). High Blood Pressure Symptoms and Causes. https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/about.htm

Holtz, C. (2020). Global Healthcare: Issues and Policies. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Mastroianni, A.C., Kahn, J.P. & Kass, N.E. (2019). The Oxford Handbook of Public Health Ethics. Oxford University Press.

NEDARC (2019). Hypothesis Testing. https://www.nedarc.org/statisticalHelp/advancedStatisticalTopics/hypothesisTesting.html

Virani, S. S., Alonso, A., Benjamin, E. J., Bittencourt, M. S., Callaway, C. W., Carson, A. P., Chamberlain, A. M., Chang, A. R., Cheng, S., Delling, F. N., Djousse, L., Elkind, M. S. V., Ferguson, J. F., Fornage, M., Khan, S. S., Kissela, B. M., Knutson, K. L., Kwan, T. W., Lackland, D. T. & Lewis, T. T. (2020). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2020 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 141(9). https://doi.org/10.1161/cir.0000000000000757

World Health Organization: WHO. (2019, June 11). Cardiovascular diseases. https://www.who.int/health-topics/cardiovascular-diseases#tab=tab_1


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