Public Transit Has a Serious Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

(iii) Among the ones who are dependent on transit, merely 37% stated that they would drive to work by availing the services of an automobile if available. Almost 50%of those driving to work could be taken as potential transit riders depending on flexibility and convenience of availability of transit services. (iv) the other factors which would fuel more use of transit were services of non-transfer nature, express avenues and higher fees for parking. (v) Congestion in traffic was regarded as a very grave situation in 36% among the respondents and fairly serious by 28%. (Byrd, 621) d) Steps to improve transit image and attract choice riders:

Among the modes of transit, introduction of a Bus Rapid Transit -- BRT is a novel innovation which can be promoted as a measure for improvement of the failing image of transit among the population. A good implementation normally entails several of the features stated as under (i) bus stations having amenities (ii) properly designed vehicles (iii) a system for speedier collection of fares (iv) Using Intelligent Transportation Systems -- ITSs (v) allocation of more targeted spaces in roadways. (vi) Increasing the frequency of services for a service that lasts throughout the day. These characteristics shall have to be integrated into a system having a distinct identity of its own. Some of the efficient BRT interventions are armed with the above features. These features are able to and must render BRT a supportive enough mode to appeal to choice riders apart from the present users of transit. (Wolfson, 1)

In order to attain this, BRT is required to fulfill the travel needs of the population in a manner that is quick, dependable and comfortable way. Among the other advantages of BRT which are vital are (i) more transit ridership for instance 30% in LA, 50% in Boston and 80% in Miami. (ii) Reduction in travel timings almost 30% for select and semi-exclusive running ways. (iii) Less pollution because of less use of fuel. (iv) Better land development and value around stations. Eventually the carrying capacity in majority of the BRT systems is less compared to most of the LRT systems. In some instances, this would be regarded as negative, but as the capacity is really more for the majority of the cities of N. America, this is a positive sign. (Wolfson, 2)

Bringing out a positive image of transit fall under four general categories which are (i) increasing the frequency of service i.e. more transit miles (ii) better services through more comfortable, convenience and dependable. (iii) incentives to make use of transit through lower fares, offering financial incentives to commuters, marketing of services etc. (iv) development that are transit oriented like land use patterns that are devised for supporting transit including greater compactness. The stations must be good spots for talking walks around transit stations and corridors. As transit service and travel by means of automobile both put considerable expenses inclusive of direct costs like wear and tear of roads, pollution emission and congestion, developments as well as incentives that compound elements of transit load and draw travelers who might in other terms are poised to deliver huge advantages. (Public Transit Improvements)

It is important to note that travel impacts are dependent on the characteristic and the state of affairs in which it is executed. It was TranSystem & Stanley and Hyman in the year 2005 that identified the different elements and approaches that tried to enhance transit ridership within an area, inclusive of better services, lower fares, marketing and integrated forms of planning. Enhanced transit service as well as comfort, and lowering of the fares for transit have a tendency to make the 'transit ridership' to mount. Technically, the elasticity relating to the usage of transit in relation to transit service occurrence gives an average of 0.5 signifying that every 1.0% rise in service raises average level of ridership by about 0.5%. Further the elasticity relating to the usage of transit to make extension of service remains normally within the range of about 0.6 to 1.0 signifying that each one of the 1.0% of added service raises ridership by a factor of 0.6 to 1.0%. Introduction of new bus services within a society normally attains about an annual rise of about 3 to 5% per capita, with about 0.8 to that of 1.2 passengers for each bus-mile. Further ridership might be on increased levels in certain regions like university towns or suburban areas having the facility of rail transit stations. Wide-ranging developments like Bus Rapid Transit or Light Rail are able to deliver huge enhancements in usage of transit and draw a sizeable number of choice riders who would travel through automobile instead. (Public Transit Improvements) new method suggested by Walle and Steenberghen in the year 2006 underline the increasing rate of trip chaining which includes multiple link trips like stopping at an outlet during travel and the value of designing of the public transit services to keep up with the intricate trips through mutual integration like Carsharing, Bike and Transit Integration, Park and Ride and Ridesharing. Apart from that better information relating to schedule, departure times which are simple to remember for instance departure every hour or every half an hour and increased easy transfer seem to enhance usage of transit, especially in regions in which the service frequency is considered to be less. Besides, financial incentives in favor of commuters wherein bosses subsidize the transit passes are able to give the equivalent to fare discounts. A blend of improvements in transit i.e. better services, reductions in fare, proliferation of service are also important. Improvements in transit particularly local bus services are poised to extend mobility that is affordable for people coming from low-income group as well as transportation disadvantaged sections of the society. Transit services prevalent in small communities as also at the time of non-peak hours are reasonable mainly to attain these goals. Besides, transit services aimed to cater to the requirements of individuals who are financially, socially and physically impaired are able to deliver added equity benefits. (Public Transit Improvements)

Use of state-of-the-art technologies like Geographic Information System -- GIS, Computer Aided Dispatching - CAD and Automatic Vehicle Location -- AVL assist transit providers to enhance the routes and enhance the schedule efficiency and passenger carrying productivity that outcomes in reduced unit expenses. At the time when information from these systems is shared among the agencies for coordination in services, greater efficiency and advantages in productivity are made. This apart, data are generated in an automatic fashion that assists in guaranteeing that billing and reporting are precise. Besides, in order to cater to the wide diversity of passengers, it is important to benefit from every available technology for information dissemination. In case of passengers for whom handling money poses difficulty because of physical deficiencies, an electronic fare card can be very apt. For the transit agencies, the appropriate fare card technology can help in boarding times. Apart from that electronic payment system facilitates more decent fare pricing structure and cost sharing opportunities. These systems assist in guaranteeing that transportation providers get reimbursement accurately and funding agencies receive the exact bill. (Improving Transit Equity: Streamlining Operations) latest development has been the deployment of Intelligent Transportation System -- ITS through which it renders possible to enhance the efficiency of transit operations. The mode of operation is described as the type of service presented on a specific route or a network. For fixed routes, the service might be, for instance stoppages at every point, limited stops, non-stop, zone-stop local or express in a zone and non-stop outside the zone or stop-on-call for instance dial-a-ride. For routes that are variable the service might be known as non-stop, zone stop and stop on call. A transfer-facility is a location at in which passengers are able to transfer from a particular mode to another. Bus stops as well as rail stations happen to be the most common instances. (Lam; Bell, 5) location transfer-facility is closely linked to the mode of operations. A terminal is a transfer-facility at the terminal portion of route. The reason behind for the use of temporary method in the functional planning of transit is currently rather apparent. The reality of the matter remains that the entire issue is rather very intricate to be formulated in a proper manner in its entirety for solution even by computer-based repetitive methods. In any cases, it would be foolish to write a complex non-linear objective function with a lot of non-linear constraints and optimize it with respect to a lot of variables through the use of extensive computer algorithm, as even the output from the most complicated and largest possible computer program, would have to be considerably changed by planers to permit for more factors that are unable to be modeled. (Lam; Bell, 5)

References

Bailey, Lee Worth. The enhancements of technology.

University of Illinois Press. 2005.…

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