Variables Influencing Women's Entrepreneurs: Facts From Ethiopia Research Paper

Length: 15 pages Sources: 1+ Subject: Sports - Women Type: Research Paper Paper: #39745723 Related Topics: Demography, Entrepreneur, Sport Finance, Lottery
Excerpt from Research Paper :

¶ … women's entrepreneurs: Evidence from an East African Economy (Ethiopia)

It is an established fact that the Micro and Small Enterprise (MSE) sectors can help large parts of the populace in underdeveloped economies like Ethiopia as the means for livelihood. African women are beleaguered with societal and cultural challenges and overall entrepreneurial attributes, and that is reflected in the lack of their entrepreneurship development. This study hence takes up the issues ascribed to entrepreneurship orientation in African women and the factors affecting their business orientation. Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) levels of the African women were found to lie in the lower and mid levels assessed against businesswomen elsewhere. The EO of women is found to be positively related to multiple and often diversified business interests and ownerships amongst different socio-economic strata (Gelan & Wedajo 2013). This study is comprised of 203 entrepreneurs involved in 5 categories employing random, stratified sampling method. The questionnaire will be open ended and applied to analytics through Likert scales. The role of TAFE-delivered vocational education and training (TVETs) in shaping the entrepreneurship attitudes in women will be assessed through the questionnaire that seeks information about attitudes and aptitudes of women entrepreneurs and their businesses, parameters influencing the performance in MSEs owned by African women, supports MSEs acquire from TVETs and demographic profiling. In order to get better understanding of the phenomenon, the officials, and educators in MSE departments, and TVETs will also be interviewed. The data will be put through simple statistical analytics: tables and percentages, and standard and mean deviations (Wube 2010).

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

5

1.

Introduction

5

2.

Background of the study

5

3.

Problem statement

6

4.

Research objectives

6

5.

Research question and hypotheses

6

6.

Significance of study

7

7.

Brief explanation of methodology

7

8.

Gantt Chart

8

9.

Body Citation & References

8

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

9

1.

Introduction

9

2.

Review of the relevant literature

9

3.

List of Hypothesis or propositions

11

4.

Theoretical Framework

11

5.

References

13

6.

Title Page of articles

14

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OUTLINES

19

1.

Introduction

19

2.

Population and Sample Size

19

3.

Sampling Method

19

4.

Site of study

19

5.

Data collection method

20

6.

Data Collection Instruments

20

7.

Measurement of variables

21

8.

Data analysis plan

22

9.

References

23

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.

Introduction

Even though about fifty percent of the eighty million population of Ethiopia comprises of women, very few figure in the operational or even the start up business levels. The limitations they face comprise of but not limited to access to finance, infrastructure (including land and property ownerships), access to entrepreneurial skills' training and obtaining information about various business opportunities (Andualem, 2004). Women are suited to run MSEs as small businesses' demands on resources (time and finance, both) are frugal and flexible and can also be altered easily based on market conditions and demands (Shapero, 1975; Saravanan 2014)

Entrepreneurship can be defined as innovating or creating something by adding value and engaging in it to result in a commercial, socially engaging product that rewards the worker monetarily while providing personal satisfaction (Robert D.Hisrich 1989). Alternatively, Entrepreneurship can mean identifying, assessing and exploiting possibilities to evolve a commercial model that takes the form of a business (Stevenson 1986; Saravanan 2014).

Environmental and climatic conditions in the form of famines, drought and internal wars in the nation and a general lack of conducive business environment in the country has made the socio-economic fabric unstable that eventually leads to slow economic growth. The competitive business environment across the world calls for an innovative entrepreneurial approach among a nation's citizenry. Lack of such an attitude in the psyche of Ethiopia is the...

...

Entrepreneurship development and growth can help address most of the economic problems facing the nation. It also has a far-reaching effect on the socio-economic scene of a nation that has been ravaged by so many man-made and natural disasters (NuriKedir, 1976; Saravanan 2014).

2.

Background of the study

The contribution and involvement of women in Ethiopian agricultural sector, though huge, has been largely unaccounted for. Women dominate the agricultural sector by their involvement in buying and selling activities, production, and preservation of agricultural produce. Their engagements and responsibilities in the farm sector leave little room to express their entrepreneurial qualities and acumen. The main factors, then, that impede the growth and development of woman entrepreneurship arise out of social concerns- early marriage, illiteracy, access to land and infrastructure ownership (lack of it) (Chamber of Commerce news paper 1993; Saravanan 2014)

As women in Ethiopia already constitute half of the workforce in economic activities of the nation, added to the fact that most of this work (pottery, tailoring, weaving carpets) is in the informal sector, concerted efforts to improve the entrepreneurship skills specifically targeted towards women would be beneficial to help in the growth of the nation's economy. The women's role in the economy is considered to be marginal (though the range of activities in which they are involved is tremendous) and special attention in this regard will be helpful to overall development of the nation's economy (Saravanan 2014).

In Ethiopia, women need to attend to multiple responsibilities in the socio-economic domain and yet face barriers as business owners socially. The main impediments to women entrepreneurship are recognized as lack of economic and technological knowledge, capital, and lack of managerial, entrepreneurial, and technical training. The socio-cultural, economic and political environment conducive to women entrepreneurship is lacking and the cumulative effect of these factors inhibits development and growth of women-led businesses (Saravanan 2014).

3.

Problem statement

Newer data is being collated about the activities in which women are predominantly involved in Ethiopia, including-preparation of household food, supply activities of household food, agricultural production and family health care. The socio-cultural pressures (in parts contributed by women themselves) have restricted the access of women to land ownership and to start and own businesses. The cause of women entrepreneurship is also impeded by lack of access to capital needed for business, perceived notion's of women's incapability to run businesses, decision making ability and inappropriate infrastructure (information network and knowledge skills) needed for business. These factors are equally displaced for both men and women entrepreneurs but the handicap for women seems to be more pronounced. As such this study concentrates on assessing the factors conducive to women entrepreneurship development and growth. The study also aims to address the implementation of actions needed to alleviate some of these limitations and maximize the possibilities for women to engage in business by addressing the risks, limitations and finding solutions to organize, manage and grow women owned enterprises (Saravanan 2014).

4.

Research objectives

This paper sets out the following 3 research objectives:

Identification of problems and challenges of Ethiopian women entrepreneurs.

Assessing opportunities for women entrepreneurs.

Empowering women entrepreneurs with knowledge and information to engage in innovative ideas (Saravanan 2014)

5.

Research question and hypotheses

The study attempts the following queries:

What are the dominant factors of women entrepreneurs in their businesses and specifically MSEs?

What are the underlying socio-economic, cultural and political or establishment related factors that influence the performance of women entrepreneurs in MSEs?

What is the role of TVETs in providing positive support to women help evolve as entrepreneurs? (Wube 2010)

6.

Significance of study

Moving towards entrepreneurship is increasingly becoming important as a means to financial freedom with the opportunities and employments in not only the government, but also the non-government or a private organization continue to decline (Gemechis 2007). The importance of removing barriers to women entrepreneurship development and growth hence becomes an important issue in addressing this premise, as enumerated below:

This study can be applied to address TVET educators, potential entrepreneurs, Women Entrepreneurs, and the existing and successful MSE heads of the town and the region. Through such means, the obstacles faced by aspiring and potential women entrepreneurs can be addressed.

This study will help the MSEs and TVETs concentrate on the specific action plans and measures they need to resort to.

This study aims to address the lacunae faced in earlier studies (Wube 2010)

7.

Brief explanation of methodology

The design of a research sample needs to be precise and without any ambiguity. The representative sample needs to be selected from a proper target populace. These two steps need to be taken to arrive at a well-defined research sample that would reflect the overall population addressed in the research (Gelan & Wedajo 2013)

In this study we aim to target the women entrepreneurs working in micro and small business in all the "kebeles" (administrative unit) in Gambella Wereda. This region comprises of the most number of women entrepreneurs according to the Regional Revenue Authority, and hence the researcher will concentrate on this region (Gelan & Wedajo 2013). The added reason is that this region has the promise to engender business entrepreneurship.

We will…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Cools, E. And Van den Broeck. H, 2007. Development and Validation of the Cognitive style indicator. The Journal of Psychology 3(14): 10-15

OECD, 2002. The Keys for Successful Women Entrepreneurs. The OECD Bologna Process, December 2002.

Wube M.C, 2010. Factors affecting the performance of women entrepreneurs in micro and small enterprises (the case of Dessie town)

Altinay. L., 2006. Determinants of Ethnic minority entrepreneurial growth in the catering sector. The service Industries Journal. 26(2): 203-222


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