Investment higher education important investment anticipating a national return.This relevant tool promoting economy eradicating poverty world. However, a huge problem taking consideration, inequality barriers colleges universities admission-based social demographic background.
Investments in Higher Education
The economic situation of most countries is in decline as a result of several environmental factors. The level of poverty is numerous countries has become a problem for these countries, but also for richer countries that must invest in helping poor regions in the world to improve their situation. The number of people living under subsistence levels is increasing, which means that something must be done in order to redress the situation.
The answer to the problem of promoting economy and eradicating poverty seems to be higher education. Whenever state governments present their long-term strategy for economic development, they consider investments in higher education the most important tool that can provide a national return. In other words, they consider higher education the strategy that determines economic development.
This is because individuals with higher education get better paid jobs. This means that their income increases, and so does their spending power. By purchasing more things, they help develop more companies. This means that more jobs are created. The state budget also benefits from higher levels of incomes from taxes paid by these companies and people. The unemployment levels reduce, the average salary can increase, and all these with the help of higher education.
However, the solution is not as simple as it sounds. This is because a reduced number of individuals have access to higher education. It seems that the current number of people that benefit from higher education is not nearly enough in order to improve the economic situation in most countries. The inequality and barriers in the admission on colleges and universities determines this reduced number of people that have access to higher education. Basically, these barriers are represented by the social and demographic background of most applicants.
In other words, these taxes of these colleges and universities are too high for them to afford. Some of them benefit from scholarships that are usually granted for sports merits. It is important to understand how the situation can be improved in order to allow a larger number of people to benefit from higher education.
The issue of investments in higher education as a strategy intended to improve economy, and the barriers to this system are largely address by numerous works. The American Sociological Review in 2009 has published a work of Sigal Alon of the Tel Aviv University in which the author addresses the evolution of class inequality in higher education, focusing on competition, exclusion, and adaptation. The study provides important information on how the education system significantly intensifies competition in higher education. This seems to be a good thing, because the best of students have access to higher education, However, this is not a good thing on medium term and on long-term. This is because only a small number of people become students in higher education systems. This small number of people is not enough in order to make a difference in improving national economies, and reducing the poverty level in the world.
The study also reflects how a large number of applicants are excluded from colleges and universities admissions because of their social status that does not allow them to support the costs of higher education (Alon, 2003). Some of these people can have the intellectual capacity to challenge other students, but do not have the chance to do so because they cannot afford higher education, and they cannot benefit from scholarships.
This is where the government should try to improve the situation. This is where investments in higher education are necessary. Governments should attribute some of their budget to increasing the number of admission seats that underprivileged individuals can benefit from through scholarships. However, this investment's results will not be observed on short-term. This is what makes it difficult for most people to understand that investments in higher education determine economic development.
When addressing economic development, most people want to see result fast. This objective cannot be reached with investments in higher education. But the results of these investments are durable, and provide higher national returns on long-term in comparison with other investments that provide faster results but that are not as durable.
The inequalities regarding higher education are found in the U.S., but can also be found in India. In this country, social differences are reflected in castes. These differences between numerous layers of the Indian society are significant. An article written by Sonalde Desai and Veena Kulkarini address this problem in India. In accordance with this study, "Indian society suffers from substantial inequalities in education, employment, and income based on caste and ethnicity. Compensatory or positive discrimination policies reserve 15% of the seats in institutions of higher education and state and central government jobs for people of the lowest caste, the Scheduled Caste; 7.5% of the seats are reserved for the Scheduled Tribe." Therefore, positive discrimination does not seem to represent the answer to the problem of inequality. This is because by promoting positive discrimination, the state interferes too much in addressing the inequality problem (Desai & Kulkarni, 2008). It does not allow poor categories to develop themselves, to be on their own. This means that the state still has to permanently ensure that these categories have certain benefits that help them improve their situation.
The Hispanics in the U.S. also complain about not having enough access to higher education. Marta Tienda of the Princeton University has addressed this issue in a conference. The work of this professor refers to the risks, opportunities, and future courses of action regarding Hispanics and educational inequality (Tienda, 2009). This means that social status is not the only reason that prevents numerous individuals to access higher education. Race seems to be another important factor that determines this situation. Therefore, it is important to understand the complexity of education inequality.
The Purpose of Research
The objective of this research proposal is to investigate what the barriers to college and universities admissions are, how they influence the admission process, and how they can be overcome. By identifying these barriers, the research study can point the finger at some of the causes that determine the fact that such little numbers of people have access to higher education. In addition to this, it can help identify some courses of action in order to address these problems and reduce these barriers. The research proposal also intends to identify how these barriers affect national economies and the poverty level.
In this case it is important to address primary and secondary sources of information. The issue of the research and its importance require such an approach. Primary sources of information can provide the necessary answers to the problem research by this study. In other words, by questioning the source of this situation, the answers they provide can also identify the solutions. However, primary sources of information are difficult to access, they can be time consuming, and they can also have certain costs.
The primary sources of information in this case are represented by college and universities professors, by students, and by individuals that applied for higher education, but were refused because of the social and demographic barriers. In order to address these sources of information, a self administered questionnaire is to be developed. This questionnaire can be send to respondents by email or by traditional mail.
It is expected that a large number of targeted respondents will not answer to this request. Therefore, it is important to gather an as large database as possible with individuals that fall into the categories addressed by the research. Questionnaires transmitted by email are likely to have the highest return rate. This is because it easier for people to respond to electronic mail in comparison with traditional mail.
The different categories of respondents require different types of questionnaires. Therefore, questionnaires addressed to individuals that applied for higher education but were not admitted to colleges and universities are aimed at identifying the issues of these situations. They must identify why these people could not get a place in a college or a university. This can be either because of lack of money, the impossibility of relocation, the impossibility of scholarship, and others. It is important to identify these factors in order to determine the limits and barriers to higher education.
In the case of students that were able to get into colleges and universities, it would be interesting to identify what they consider to be the pluses that made the difference between them and other students. This is because this helps understand what students think of the educational system.
The questionnaires administered to members of colleges and universities is intended to identify the factors based on which they make these admissions. By identifying these factors, one can draw some conclusions on whether the current higher education system is able to promote economy and to…