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" (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that it is precisely "this movement along a maturity gradient that Mezirow regards as a form of emancipatory learning..." (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that according to Mezirow "emancipation is from libidinal, institutional or environmental forces which limit our options and rational control over our lives but have been taken for granted as beyond human control." (Jarvis, nd) Mezirow suggests that there are various levels of reflection which exist over the course of the individual's life and states that seven of these which occur during adult learning are those as follows:


Affective reflectivity;

Discriminant reflectivity;

Judgmental reflectivity;

Conceptual reflectivity;

Psychic reflectivity; and Theoretical reflectivity. (Jarvis, nd)


Newman writes in the work entitled: "Health as Expanding Consciousness" that intuition plays a key role in her life and for example, in the books that she chooses to read, the people she meets, and the jobs she has taken and even the places she lives "somehow fit together in a pattern that is right for me." (2000) Newman writes that she has sometimes "been able to sense the pattern well in advance of its coming together" while other times, when it "feels right..." she simply plunges in." (2000)

Newman relates that the most pronounced of these experiences for her was her "mother's nine-year struggle with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a degenerative disease of the motor neurons." (2000) Her mother's symptoms started at the time Newman was finishing high school and progressed forward to "partial incapacitation during the years I was away at college, almost unnoticed by me as I was struggling to establish my identity as a young adult." After having struggled to establish her own identity in college and then returning home following graduation from college, Newman relates that she was confronted "with the unmistakable dependence of my mother on my brother and sister-in-law and me." (Newman, 2000)

The factor that really made an impression upon Newman was the importance of simply living in the present in order to maintain a level of happiness in life and that life had to be taken "one day at a time." (2000) Newman states that she learned that her mother, "though physically incapacitated was a 'whole' person, just like anybody else." (2000) Newman relates that through this experience she cam to "know her and to love her in a way I probably never would have taken the time to experience had she not been physically dependent." (Newman, 2000) While the time she spent with her mother was time described as difficult, tiring, restrictive in some ways, but intense, loving and expanding in other ways." (Newman, 2000) Newman relates having had the feeling that through facing this great difficulty and having traversed across it that she was somehow being prepared for something else. Newman states that she had "been feeling a call to nursing as a career for a number of years." (2000)

When Newman was attending the Southern Baptist university of Baylor in 1950 she relates feeling clueless as to her specific life direction. Losing her mother was the turning point and her decision was made to follow the call to nursing and enrolled at the University of Tennessee School of Nursing in Memphis." (Newman, 2000) Newman states that her basic learning included the perspective in which "illness reflected the life patterns of the personal and that what was needed was the recognition of that pattern and acceptance of it for what it meant to that person." (Newman, 2000) Newman states that it was many years later when she concluded that "health is the expansion of consciousness." (Newman, 2000)

Newman states that the "expansion of consciousness is unending. In this way we can embrace aging and death. There is peace and meaning in suffering. We are free from all things we have feared - loss, death, dependency. We can let go of fear." (2000) Newman writes that the view of individuals and society of health "as the absence of disease has pervaded most of our thinking from very early in life. From the immunizations that prevent devastating childhood diseases to admonitions to brush our teeth and drink our milk, the predominant view is that health is within our control and it is our responsibility to make sure we have it. This view is so strong that those who don't have it are viewed as inferior or even repulsive and don't belong with the responsible majority who have exercised the appropriate self-control with its concomitant perfect health. Indeed, those who are labeled with a serious disease often question what they have done to deserve this fate or worry about whether or not their family will be able to continue to accept them in their diseased state." (2000)

Newman states that there is another view however, and this is viewing "disease as a manifestation of health" which Newman terms as a "revolutionary idea." (2000) Newman states that this "synthesized view incorporates disease as a meaningful aspect of health." (2000) Newman relates that Jantsche (1980) takes this further with the assertion that "process thinking transcends a synthesis of opposites leaving only complementarity, in which the opposites include each other. This would mean that health includes disease, and disease includes health." (Newman, 2000) Bohm (1981) also echoes this way of thinking and states: "When you trace a particular absolute notion to what appears to be its logical conclusion, you find it to be identical with its opposite, and therefore the whole dualism collapses, as Hegel found. Reason first show you that opposite pass into each other, then you discover that the opposite reflects the other - not really different at all." (Newman, 2000)

Newman writes that the mind and body are not "separate interactive phenomena, but manifestations of the same larger does not cause the other or control the other, as in 'mind over matter' terminology, but each is a reflection of an underlying pattern of a phenomenon of greater dimensions. Each is reflective of the larger whole." (Newman, 2000) Newman states that "...reconsideration of the projected synthesis of health and disease reveals a new concept: 'Pattern of the Whole'. This is the primary, underlying, indivisible pattern which includes the context of the identified focus." (Newman, 2000) This view is compatible with Bohm's theory of "implicate order" who holds that "there exists in our universe an unseen multidimensional pattern that is the ground, or basis for all things. This is the implicate order. Arising out of the implicate order is the explicate order, a kind of precipitate of the implicate order. The explicate order includes the tangibles of our world. These tangibles, the things we can see, touch, hear, feel are so much more real to us than the underlying unseen pattern that we think the explicate order is primary - the real thing." (Newman, 2000)

In reality "...the implicate order is primary..The explicate order arises periodically from the implicate, like waves appearing and disappearing on the surface of the ocean. The explicate, whatever for it may take, is a temporary manifestation of a total undivided patterns, which Bohm refers to as the holomovement." (Newman, 2000) the failure of a "frontal attack on disease in bringing about significant changes" has been recognized among those concerned with health and it was stated by Dossey (1982): "They focus only on the reality of the explicate order, the realm of our habitation, where the world is one of the separate objects and events. The implicate domain, where the very meaning of health, disease and death changes radically, is currently of no concern to medicine." (Newman, 2000)

Newman states that within the meaning of the theory of implicate order "manifest health, encompassing disease and non-disease, can be regarded as the explication of the underlying pattern of person-environment. Common observable phenomena, such as body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate; neoplasms and biochemical variations; immune reactions; diet and exercise, communication; family relations; environmental pollution - are explicate manifestations of the patterns of the whole. Viewing these manifestations as reflections of the underlying, dynamic pattern makes it possible for use to see the pattern of the whole and thereby begin to understand it." (Newman, 2000)

Newman states that the theory of biological rhythms assist in viewing health and illness as a "unitary process, a fluctuating pattern of rhythmic phenomena. There are times when the pattern of a person becomes increasingly disorganized, similar to when one's physiological rhythms are out of phase." (Newman, 2000) This may continue until the individual "becomes what we ordinarily regard as 'sick'. The sickness then can provide a kind of shock that reorganizes the relationships of the person's pattern in a more harmonious way." (Newman, 2000) Newman states for example the function of a high fever or even an emotional crisis and states that these "and other critical incidents may provide the shock that facilitates a jump from one patterns to another, presumably at a…[continue]

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