William Tecumseh Sherman who was also known as General Sherman (born on 8 February, 1820 in Lancaster-Ohio) that is nearby Hocking River shore. By profession, his father was a lawyer and worked at Ohio Supreme Court. At the age of nine, his father died. A family friend raised him.
When he was 16 years old, Ewing appointed him as a cadet in U.S. military academy at the West Point. After his graduation, he entered into the army as second lieutenant in 1840. Sherman was promoted to Captain due to his services. He was not only an American soldier, but also a businessman, an author and an educator. He served as Military General in American Civil War, from the year 1861-1865. He was known for his military strategies. His strategy was advancing and for this quality he was declared as the "First modern Military General."
Services and trainings at military
Sherman served as Military General in many wars namely Ulysses S. Grant, Vicksburg, State of Tennessee, Atlanta, and March through Georgia, the Carolinas and Florida. Sherman became General of the Army from 1869 to 1883. For this position, he was responsible for the Indian wars for 15 years. Sherman published his autobiography in 1875, which was known for the best first-hand accounts of the civil war.
Marriage and Career
When Sherman was promoted to the rank of Captain, he got married to Eleanor Boyle, daughter of Thomas Ewing. Politicians like President Zachary Taylor attended the wedding ceremony. That time, Thomas Ewing was in the position of secretary interior. Ellen Ewing was Roman Catholic.
Sherman resigned from the post of captain in 1853 and became manager of St. Louis Bank of San Francisco. At that time, San Francisco was in trouble due to which Sherman was also in stress. Again, in 1856, Sherman served himself as a major general in the military of California.
In May 1857, St. Louis branch in San Francisco was closed and it was relocated to New York and due to financial crises, New York branch also got close and he went to Kansas where he practiced law, but he failed to succeed (Clarke & Dwight, 1969).
Sherman accepted job of Superintended in Louisiana State Military Academy in Pennsville. He proved himself as an effective and famous leader of that institute. His personality and work in the military was perfect.
After his departure from Louisiana, he traveled to Washington to get a position in the army. There he met Abraham Lincoln. He expressed his concern about the poor position of North, but Abraham did not give his response.
Sherman was the head of St. Louis railroad, but he holds that position for only few months. He refused the offer from the Lincoln administration for taking any position in the war. After few months he served in the regular army.
Services in Civil Wars
On 14, May 1861, Sherman became Colonel. He was one of the Union officers at Bull Run, and in that battle he was grazed by bullets on his knee and shoulder. President Abraham was impressed and promoted him to Brigadier General. He worked under Robert Anderson in the department of Cumberland.
Sherman was sent to military of Kentucky where he complained about improper facilities of forces. After sometimes, he was removed from his post and transferred to Missouri. He was considered unfit for duty. According to some scholars, Sherman had a nervous breakdown and he wanted to suicide.
General Sherman is mostly known because of his command in logistics and he was a brilliant strategy maker. British military, historians and theorist all consider him as one of the most important strategists of the wars. Sherman's greatest contribution in war was to make strategies. The only role he played in the wars was to give orders at his best (Eicher & Eicher, 2001).
Year 1864 (Atlanta Event): Preparation of War
In 1864, the areas of Georgia were completely destroyed. The misery was everywhere and people were either killed or helpless. The victory of Confederate at Chickamauga in the year of 1863 seen much of the old Union invasion and this forced the fighting to North into Tennessee.
In the beginning of 1864, the new divisional commander of Mississippi, William Tecumseh Sherman was in kind of an unpleasant situation where he has to obey General Grant, who was actually the General in Chief and a good fellow of Sherman. There was much of the dislike between them regarding the orders and idea of wars. Grant ordered to destroy the army of Lee, whereas Sherman ordered to go against to the army of Johnston's and he also ordered to make as much distraction to the internal system and infrastructure of Georgia. Sherman tried to show that he is very interested in planning more war in Atlanta that is already destroyed, but he was not actually in favour of making any further war and terror their as it was already in the so much assault. This means that the target is the Johnston's army that is needed to be defeated. It also means that according to Sherman the target was not Atlanta. It was a key to the railroad junction, which was connected to the Richmond. It also developed its major centre to the Confederate military capability of production. This Confederacy is the centre of industry. It had much of foundries, factories and many warehouses. It stood in between of the two major armies one is of Charleston to the East and the Gulf of Mexico. Joseph Johnston, the commander of Confederate, held the command of Virginia before he got to suffer from the wounds in 1862. Meanwhile, for the war, Sherman prepared 100,000 men whereas, Johnston prepared 75,000 men. For the defensive strategy, Northern Georgia was a perfect place. Sherman was required to cross few mountains and rivers between Chattanooga and Atlanta (Rhodes, 1901).
Johnston started to protect himself from the closest point of the Tennessee border. His prime idea was protection of the Dalton, where the two railroads meet each other. In order to protect the railroad, the men of Johnston went along to the Rocky Face Ridge whereas; Sherman was focused on the protection of 150 miles of railroad that is located across Tennessee back to the Union area (Rhodes, 1901).
For achieving the goal, Sherman made it easier by sending a two-third of his army to feint Johnston, and the third part of the army was sent to South through the mountains in order to cut the line at Rasaca. The plan was succeeding. They were successfully sent to their positions, but failed to have an attack on Confederate at Rasaca (9 May).
Sherman tried to assault Johnston, but he was so close to the railroad; whereas Johnston was holding a strong position at Rocky Face Ridge to Rasaca. This obliged him to move to Cassville. There Johnston planned to attack the Sherman's army who was looking for the way to the mountain and they were not in contact with the rest of the army. As the army of Johnston's has come much close to Atlanta, the army was much in the pressure.
Sardonically, Sherman gave an opportunity to Johnston to fight with him whereas; Johnston had prepared another defensive position at Allatoona that is located 30 miles from the Atlanta. Meanwhile, Johnston received news where he has to send his army to block the way of Sherman at New Hope Church (25-27 May), but the weather supported Johnston and Sherman failed to move due to the heavy rain and he was at the defensive place of Johnston that was Kennesaw Mountain (Rhodes, 1901).
Facing all those hardships in the war, Sherman attacked on Johnston army where he faced many problems. Around 1,999 of the men were wounded and killed, whereas 270 of the men of Johnston suffered. The rain was still going. As soon as the rain stopped, Sherman attacked on the defensive position of Johnston that was Kennesaw Mountain. This made the Johnston's position weaker. Two of the defensive positions were under-attack. This made Johnston go back and take help of military of Atlanta to invade Sherman's power. President Davis, who was in Atlanta had lost his patience with Johnston and replaced his position with new General John Hood (18 July).
General Hood was an aggressive commander and he was interested in invading Sherman, whereas; Sherman was looking for a chance to be attacked by General Hood so that he could reach to Confederate army. Two days after joining the general position, the attack that was done on Sherman. However, the plan was the same even when the general Hood was appointed (Rhodes,…