China-u S Bilateral Relationship the Past One Decade Essay
- Length: 9 pages
- Sources: 11
- Subject: History - Asian
- Type: Essay
- Paper: #3117965
Excerpt from Essay :
China-U.S. bilateral relationship
The past one decade of the 20th century has witnessed dramatic fluctuations in the China-U.S. relations. For instance, the Taiwan Strait led to several summit meetings to take place in Washington and Beijing to decide the fate of the countries. Additionally, the decade ended with the relationship facing serious challenges including a U.S. congressional investigation on the contribution of the Chinese government to the U.S. campaigns (Huang 2000). An important note is that, their bilateral trade relations have become a challenge in recent years owing to several issues. The issues include the large and developing U.S. trade deficit with China, rebellion by China to appreciate its currency to market standards, China's inconsistency in executing WTO obligations, infringement of U.S. rational chattels, and many Chinese industrial policies that impose new restrictions on foreign companies (Khalizad 1999). Owing to the relationship the two countries have, I felt this was an interesting one because at a time, the U.S. was against China, but another time the two countries chose to settle their differences (Friedberg 2005). This paper examines the U.S.-China relations since the contemporary period, and explores the importance of the U.S. concerning China's strategic and economic growth. Information gathered from print sources will provide issues of priority to the two countries, and subsequently demonstrate how the significance of the U.S.-China relationship. In addition, the paper will provide an overview of the U.S.-China relations and identify important issues that once made their relationship fragile, but later on joined hands for the good of the globe.
Overview of China-U.S. Relationship
The relationship between the United States and China touches on a broad series of issues such as security, trade, economic issues, environmental and human rights issue. In additional, the two countries base their relations on a wider range of things including politics, trade, military and sub-national relations. However, since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the relationship between the two countries was not aligned for development. In spite of this, based on five principles of peaceful co-existence, the two super-powers have managed to cope with each other (Huang 2000).
Additionally, since the establishment of diplomatic bonds, the relationship is moving steadily despite some apparent twists. Therefore, the two countries have managed to conduct extensive development exchanges locally and internationally. Currently, the relationship is assuming significant worldwide influence and strategic dimensions (Friedberg 2005). Contrary to passed eras, the emergence of new superpowers has often resulted to variance. The new leader of China, Xi Jinping emphasizes for a U.S. commitment to a "new approach of substantial country relationship" with the United States, which opts to stay away from such a result.
Into the bargain, the Obama leadership has regularly assured China that the U.S. "welcomes a firm, flourishing and triumphant China that plays an important task in world associations," and the U.S. is not finding ways to put off China's comeback as a great power. In the same context, China pledges to pursue "path of peaceful development." However, U.S. finds itself in a tough situation on how to engage with China concerning stability and security challenges in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the issues of concern by the U.S. include the intentions behind China's military modernization approach, the use of China's military forces in disputes over terror attacks by its neighbors, and China's threat to control Taiwan.
Although the two powers work together to address world affairs, there are notable differences when it comes to their way of perceiving things. However, China and the U.S. have worked closely to revive the global economy, devised ways to combat climate change and develop clean energy technologies. It is important to note that the two powers tend to disagree on which way to tackle human rights issues. While the U.S. suggests that China should ease constraints on freedom of speech, internet freedom, religious expression, and ethnic minorities, China perceives that the most important aim of the U.S. is to eliminate Communist Party Rule.
US-China Relations since Contemporary Period
During the contemporary period, the U.S. aimed at disrupting, destabilizing and weakening the communist administration of China for a period of 20 years. China had given the U.S. A reason to perceive the communist government as aggressive, expansionist that made vulnerable the security of non-communist countries that neighbored China. Therefore, the U.S. created an offshore line of military coalitions along the eastern and southern borders of China (Harding 1992). The alliances included the U.S. And Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, which had a nationalist government. This led to creation of a treaty between the United States and its allies known as the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), which included Thailand, Philippines and South Vietnam.
In addition, they also included the ANZUS treaty that connected Australia, New Zealand and the U.S. The U.S. maintained its military forces and stationed some of them in many of countries, such as Japan and South Korea. Additionally, the U.S. discouraged most of its allies into having diplomatic relations with China. The U.S. further forbid its citizens from visiting China, cut off trade, and created an international embargo of China. During this contemporary period, the U.S. had become tough on China compared to its major communist rival, the Soviet Union. The U.S. went further and developed the "wedge strategy," which aimed at fostering the splitting between the two communist allies.
The "wedge" strategy worked to achieve its intent because the split occurred, which was apparent around 1960, but worsened afterwards (Fairbank 1976). However, in the year 1970, there was an unexpected change. The two countries, China and the U.S. began moving closer to each other. The U.S. was seeking to end the war in Vietnam while China was seeking support for its rebellion to pressure from the Soviet Union. The visit of President Nixon to China in 1972 marked the beginning of rapprochement (Garrison 2005). The two leaders, Nixon and Zhou Enlai signed the Shanghai Communique, which was evidence of the beginning of rapprochement.
In addition, the communique stated that the U.S. "recognizes that every Chinese on either side of the Taiwan Strait uphold that there is a single China, and Taiwan was a part of China. The U.S. does not contest the position. It affirms its desire in a peaceful settlement of the Taiwan subject by the Chinese. With this affirmation in mind, the U.S. confirms the primary objective of the withdrawal of all U.S. military forces from Taiwan. In the meantime, the U.S. will do its best to decrease its military bases on Taiwan as the tension in the area vanishes…" central to this context and new emergence, the U.S.-China informal relations started to come up, with trade, education and cultural exchanges.
The relationship developed further. In the year 1979, China and the U.S. developed complete diplomatic relations. In order to achieve this, the U.S. had to break its official diplomatic relations with Taiwan; however, it upheld informal relations with occupants of that island. In addition, the development of diplomatic relations matched with the starting of China's "reform and opening" policies. In the following periods, there was rampant growth in trade and investment with the United States (Harding 1972). Into the bargain, China had an opportunity to practice Western tourism, and established extensive bonds in academics and cultural sectors.
The two states joined hands and worked together on a number of issues including bringing peace in the Korean state. However, there remained significant issues that the relationship could not resolve. The U.S. was not in agreement with the Chinese human rights policies, bulky trade leftovers with the U.S., and with the sale of missiles and nuclear technology. China also had grievances such as they felt it was wrong for the U.S. To continue selling arms to Taiwan. In addition, China criticized the U.S. global foreign policy (Chen 1992). They said that the policy tried to impose American desires and lacked to pay adequate attention to desires of other countries.
The Human Rights Issue
The human rights issue was the most contentious in the affiliation between the two countries. The U.S. administration was critical of the way the Chinese government treated of rebel, religious groups, racial minorities, workers, accused peoples, inmates, and marital statuses of people and other contemplating matters. A majority of the American suggest that the Chinese government policies in the listed areas contravened the globally identified human rights. In reaction, China came out energetically arguing that other governments should not show concern about their domestic policies, and secondly, the human rights record is commendable due to development made in feeding, educating, clothing and offering medical care to its extensive and its prior poor population (Chen 1992).
Present Priorities between China and USA
Managing North Korea
Owing to the superiority exhibited by the two countries, it is obvious that they contribute greatly to issues arising in the globe. Among the issues is the instability in the Korean Peninsula. The U.S. And China share a common interest in promoting peace in this area. Due to this interest, this issue has…