Women's Biology Review and Critique of a Essay

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Women's Biology

Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology

How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy

Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).

Review of the Emergency Contraceptive Methods

The EC methods are emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) that contain synthetic hormones or use of a copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). Hormonal pills are effective compared to insertion of IUDs. Most women are unaware of the effectiveness of the IUD since the providers rarely recommend its use. The efficiency of Cu-IUD last for five days after sexual intercourse based on the specific drug regimen, dosage, time interval between sex and treatment, and the risk of conception. Women using ECPs have a high rate of preventing pregnancy compared to those without treatment. The article analyzed a data consisting of 3,445 women from randomized controlled trials; the risk of pregnancy among women treated with UPA within 72 hours of unprotected sex was almost half of that for women receiving LNG (Berger, 2012).

When taken after the lapse of 24 hours after unsafe sex, UPA is capable of decreasing the level of pregnancy compared to LNG. Research study conducted indicates that LNG dose are ineffective in affecting the functioning of the sperm. Use of Cu-IUD insertion discharges copper ions that cause an inflammatory reaction that elevates the levels of certain fluids that are lethal to sperm. LNG delays the increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) that usually occurs before ovulation, before the administration of the drug 24-72 hours before the rise of LH. After ovulation, fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube after 24 hours. The fertilized egg moves to the fallopian tube in 72 hours to reach the uterine cavity. Several factors such as, progesterone and estrogen receptors hinder the movement of zygote in the fallopian tube (Berger, 2012).

Use of LNG does not affect the performance of either progesterone or estrogen. Incase fertilization occurs after use of the CU-IUD, the method reduces the embryonic chances of survival in reaching the uterus. This suggests that CU-IUDs major post-fertilization is destroying the early embryo in the fallopian tube. Therefore, in case fertilization occurs in the presence of CU-IUD, it happens at a lower rate than in non-users of CU-IUD (Berger, 2012).

CU-IUD prevents embryo implantation rather than interfering with its performance. Copper administered in doses similar to the copper content present in CU-IUD triggers the uterine wall. In addition, incessant use of a Cu-IUD produces an inflammatory response that affects the fluids in the genital tract and hinders the development of embryos. If a blastocyst fails to reach the uterus, copper can change molecules in the endometrial lining to hinder implantation. Current study reveals that there is no relationship between exposures to LNG after untimely use of emergency contraceptives and negative pregnancy results. Currently, there are few cases of pregnancies exposed to UPA and the impacts are under research. Incase conception happens after CU-IUD insertion; the device becomes less effective and should be removed. There is minimal risk experienced if the removal of the device occurs in absence of contraction or miscarriages (Berger, 2012).


The major mechanism of action for LNG and UPA is preventing the rupture of follicles and ovulation. However, rarely prevents ovulation, and, it there is therefore, a need to develop effective emergency contraceptive methods. However, UPA causes a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture, which becomes effective when used after ovulation. The primary role of using Cu-IUD is to prevent fertilization through the production of copper ions on sperm viability and function. The method is also effective while used in the oocyte and endometrium to help prevent pregnancy when sexual intercourse happens after ovulation, which probably contributes to its high efficiency (Berger, 2012).

Adequate knowledge about the use of EC is necessary to avoid the consequences of either unplanned pregnancies. Insertion of CU-IUD is the most effective EC method used during the menstrual cycle and a lasting contraception. Physicians recommend using a single dose of UPA immediately after indulging in unprotected sex and below the period of 5 days. In absence of UPA, LNG provides an alternative of treatment that is available and has minimum number of side effects (Berger, 2012).

Even with the available Emergency Contraceptives, there is a need to develop efficient emergency contraceptive methods. This will ensure a high efficiency and cover complete chances of fertility, since the ideal purpose of EC is preventing pregnancy incidents. Therefore, increased knowledge of EC will increase the rate of acceptance to prevent unplanned pregnancy.

Review and critique of a women's health website

Indigenous women such as, Aboriginal and Torres Strait experience poor health attention compared to the non-Indigenous women. There are perhaps significant health benefits for Indigenous women through enhanced prevention, early diagnosis to address the higher level of risk factors and the burden of disease with prior inception and lesser survival rates. The national women's health is in the process of development to address the health needs of indigenous women. Most indigenous women experience health problem because of the many responsibilities entrusted on them. They are responsible for their own health and the health of their families.

In addressing the health issues surrounding indigenous women, strategies implemented by the government entails acquaintance and awareness of their past, experience, culture and rights. It is also important to know how indigenous women conceptualize health issues. Australian Indigenous Healthinfonet is a women's health website run by Edith Cowan University. It costs money to run a Web site. The Australian government through the department of Health and ageing is the core-funding agency of this website.

In addition, the Australian government is also the sponsor. Therefore, it is capable of limiting the contents contained in the website. The source of site's funding restricts the type of content and objectives of the site owners. This is because the sponsor has an objective of reaching out to a greater audience in addressing sensitive issues. Therefore, any content presented in the website is carefully evaluated to ascertain any unbiased agendas. Furthermore, a legitimate website must have a purpose clearly stated which helps in evaluating the trustworthiness of the information presented. In our case, the purpose of this website is' Helping to 'close the gap' by providing the evidence base to inform practice and policy in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health."

The information presented in the website relies on the objectives of both the site owner and the sponsor. In this case, the information comes from both the health sectors, for instance, medical journals and education sectors. The link indicates the source of information. The reliability of the information selected depends on the number of reviews made about the source. If various people with competent medical qualification review the material before presentation, such information become reliable to the public and applied in various cases.

For reliability purposes, the posted information must be reviewed and update regularly to ascertain validity. Even without altering the information, those visiting the site must be sure that the site owners reviews the information presented. After reviewing the information, the site owner shows the date and time the information was reviewed. In order to avoid misuse and distortion of the information posted, websites have policies that establishes links to other sites.

Other websites pay for a link posted on the website, but they must meet a certain criteria. For instance, the link for the source of information must be related to the information presented in the website. For examples, if the website's information is about women's health, any links to the website must have information related to women's health. Websites regularly track the number of visits on the websites and identify the pages used, and the websites that requests the visitors to either subscribe or sign up for membership. The site owner must find a way of interacting with the visitors in order to collect views, and feedbacks about the efficiency of the services offered. Based on the terms and conditions, the quality of services offered, I would always visit the site again.

Uterine fibroids are a common problem in all ethnic communities. They are particularly problematic in women of Afro-Caribbean ancestry. Most women require no intervention for their fibroids, but rather a conservative treatment. The management of uterine fibroids requires the balance of the complications of the fibroids against the…[continue]

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