Educator Patricia M. Cunningham says in "What Research Says about Teaching Phonics," for example, that children do profit from systematic phonics instruction. However, there is more than one effective way to teach phonics. Positive results are the result of a high level of interaction, classroom management, explicit skills teaching, curriculum integration and a great deal of enjoyable reading and writing practice.
Gambrell, L.B., Morrow, L.M., Pressley, M., & Guthrie, J.T. (Eds). Teaching children to become fluent and automatic readers. Journal of Literacy Research 38(4): 357-387
Morrow, L.M., Gambrell, L.B., & Pressley, M. (Eds) (2003) Best practices in literacy instruction. New York: Guilford Press.
Reutzel, D.R. & Cooter, R.B. (1996). Teaching children to read: From basals to books, 2/E. Upper Saddle Ridge, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
A balanced literacy program is a very effective means for enabling children to become successful, independent readers and writers. As part of this process, teachers provide a comprehensive program by incorporating curriculum in reading, writing, listening, viewing, speaking, language and literature. As they promote positive reading and writing skills, the teachers inter-relate abilities and strategies across the literacy spectrum.
At the same time, they also integrate other disciplines such as social studies, science and mathematics in research, discussion, problem solving, journaling, and presentations. The whole goal is to enhance the power of thinking on one's own with the knowledge provided. Offering such experiences ensures children will have a balance of supportive and challenging learning opportunities.
Level II. Readers
Recognize that print offers an important message.
Pair spoken and written words
Can read fluently without decoding many words.
Know the concepts about print, such as left to right and top to bottom
Understand and begin using more vocabulary words.
Regularly uses cues to understand message.
Follow reading behaviors, such as intonation and pauses.
Use cues such as phonics, meaning and structure to know meaning of a text.
Relies on the text information for message.
Copy language patterns in familiar books.
Show knowledge of print, including punctuation, type face, etc.
After hearing/reading story is able to retell, summarize, and infer meaning.
Learn all letters either by sound, words that start with, etc.,
Start using reading strategies for a variety of texts.
It is also someone who uses specific strategies while reading to enhance meaning and knowledge gained. This person does not only read the material, but applies higher-level thinking skills, inferring and problem solving in the process. Someone who just learns the mechanics but not application and enhancement will not grow on the skills acquired. Experience is an essential aspect of reading strategies. A teacher will help the students incorporate their other knowledge and experiences in and out of the classroom with what is read.
Strategies for each of these areas:
Reading strategies -- decoding
Context and picture cues
Sounding out Recognizing patterns
Reading strategies -- comprehension
Writing strategies -- encoding
Word spacing and other conventions
Writing to express meaning
Goodman, Y. (1996) Reading Strategies: Focus on Comprehension. Katonah, New York: Richard Owen
Mooney, M. (2000) Read it again! Portland, ME: Stenhouse
Rasinski, T. (2000) Effective reading strategies. Princeton, NC Merrill.
Reutzel, D. (1999) Balanced reading strategies and practices. Princeton, NC, Merrill
Waver, C. (1998) Practicing what we know. Urbana, IL NCTE
Literacy proficiency is essential to successful learning in school and in life, especially during the 21st century. Literacy, goes well beyond reading. It is an all- inclusive form of both oral and written communication skills, and within those two larger categories smaller subcategories of learning areas and strategies. Literacy entails both conventional forms of learning, such as listening, speaking, reading and writing, as well as newer ever-changing formats that rely on innovative technology that accesses information and makes it available immediately. Being literate in this day and age means going beyond reading and writing and having the skills to take the information gained, synthesizing it and applying it to new uses.
This entails teaching the categories of importance of general reading and writing skills along with the goals and parameters of the No Child Left Behind Act. Not only should information be taught, but it needs to be integrated so it holds more value to the students and can be more readily applied to solving problems.
Thus literacy needs to have a comprehensive approach that includes both instruction and real world, hands-on application. Students must be taught in a way that moves them being dependent on skills to learning new ways of being an independent learner. Most important of all in Kindergarten, since this is the first time that children have had the opportunity to observe and be a part of the learning process, they have to see the value of what they are learning. The teacher has to continually show the students application and usage. Why are the students learning what they are? What is the purpose? What are the goals? What is the value of acquiring this new knowledge? Children are eager to learn, but they get bored and frustrated early if they do recognize the need for pursuing the…
The documents we provide are to be used as a sample, template, outline, guideline in helping you write your own paper, not to be used for academic credit. All users must abide by our "Student Honor Code" or you will be restricted access to our website.
Reading Comprehension in the Middle Grades Reading comprehension refers to a complex, active process that incorporates reader-related (linguistic awareness), activity-related (studying for the purpose of keeping information in mind for retrieval in future) and text-related (high-level vocabulary) variables, all of which are correlated in a broader socio-cultural context. However, studies on development of reading comprehension have, thus far, been typified by focus on student traits and/or specified instructional systems (Carnegie Council
visual cues come from students developing knowledge of letter/sound relationships and of how letters are formed what letters and words look like often identified as sounding out words Example 2- Phoneme Awareness -- Recognizing Rhyme Assessment (Klein, 2003). Instructor: Says two-three words that rhyme: fat, cat, bat Model: These words have the same sound at the end so they rhyme; cat and mop do not rhyme because their sound is different. Share: Listen to
teacher has in helping students develop their writing. Traditional methods of grading and scoring children's writing are being replaced in the modern educational system with feedback and constructive criticism of the work, rather than a trophy grade or labeling score. This study reviews literature previously compiled on the subject of feedback in the development of children's writing, as well as conducting original research with a small group of students
According to Paul B. Mckimmy (2003), "The first consideration of wireless technology is bandwidth. 802.11b (one of four existing wireless Ethernet standards) is currently the most available and affordable specification. It allows a maximum of 11 megabits per second (Mbps)" (p. 111); the author adds that wired Ethernet LANs are typically 10 or 100 Mbps. In 1997, when the IEEE 802.11 standard was first ratified, wireless LANs were incompatible and
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent. In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the
To this point, Chouliarki (2000) argues that "the facilitation of deliberative processes among audiences is a matter not only of changing institutional arrangements (towards a regulation of marketized media) but also of changing the mode of articulation of media discourse itself; even though the latter may be a consequence of the former, each is a sine qua non-for deliberative democracy." (Chouliarki, 293) To an extent then, these approaches to language