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He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: confusion of the symbolic and subjective, failure to study symbolic forms, and sociologists' inability to use non-mechanistic models. Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently? Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate?
Berger and Luckmann. Social construction.
QUESTION: Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one generation to another. Could social construction be used to understand the chimpanzee behavior, as it is used to explain human actions? Do chimpanzees have institutions that are formed through their views of realty?
Wikipedia: social constructionism
QUESTION: Likewise, social constructionism involves looking at the ways social phenomena are created, institutionalized and made into tradition "by humans." So, can one extend this search for constructionism to other animal forms? Are humans distinctly different in this regard, or are the rudiments of social constructionism seen in other animals, more so the apes?
This section deals with the scholar Kenneth Burke, who has been receiving renewed attention since his death a few years ago.
Kenneth Burke and Dramatism: A Puzzling Figure in Literary Criticism Is Suddenly Central
Kenneth Burke first became known because of his poetry, fiction, and essays. Later, however, his literary analysis included the most far-reaching ideas about language, power, and identity. The Symbolic, for example, made a major impact on scholars. During the 1920's, Burke's earliest critical essays analyzed the formal qualities of creative works -- their imagery and the rhythms of their language. Yet throughout the Great Depression, he paid ever more attention to the rhetorical dimension of writing: How texts hold readers' interest, persuading them to see the world in a particular way.
In the next couple of decades, Burke worked out a general theory of how people use language -- and the way they use vocabularies to make sense of the world that dominates them.
However, the most major development concerned his unpublished works called a Symbolic of Motives. The third part of a trilogy, sometimes call the "Motivorum," it was supposed to be the culmination of the theoretical system he called "dramatism."
In his work Burke suggests that everything in life, including communication, is a drama. His number-one concern is with the speaker's ability to identify with an audience. If there is a perceived similarity between the speaker and the listener, the audience is more likely to believe that the speaker is "talking sense." This is the key to persuasive speaking.
He identifies five crucial elements of our human drama or what can be seen as communication. The act is what is being done by the communicator. The scene gives the context or background surrounding the act. The agent is the person who performs the act. The agency is the means that is used to "get the job done." The purpose is the stated or implied goal of the address. In order to better understand communication through Burke's dramatism, it is necessary to analyze the situation through all five elements. He further argues that all public speaking is an attempt to purge oneself from an ever-present sense of guilt. The speaker has just two choices: Either to purge guilt through self-blame or blame his or her problems on someone else.
QUESTION: Is Burke a pragmatist, such as Mead and Dewey? In most of his works he favorably mentions the others pragmatists such as Pierce, Dewey, and especially Mead. He also analyzes philosophies of thought that measure right and wrong, or values, on how much they conform to a model of perfection. During his whole lifetime, he showed how an endless number of symbolic possibilities exist behind all forms of language, especially those that claimed to be "neutral."
Payne: Dramatistic Criticism
Since Burke has been "rediscovered," many other social scientists involved with communication and rhetoric have[continue]
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telepathy and how it does or does not really exist in the world we live. There are various schools of thought discussed in this paper to highlight the concept of this term that has been there for many centuries. The term "telepathy" was coined in 1882 by W.H Myers, who was also one of the founding members of the society for Psychical Research. Telepathy is a Greek term, tele means
Social Media and how it goes on to affects people. The advantages and the risks of social media are discussed. Furthermore, it goes on to talk about appropriate and inappropriate content. Use of social media in the professional world is also discussed. Social Media is basically the modes of interaction among persons in which they produce, exchange, and share information in varied virtual communities and network. (Ahlqvist et al., 2008)
Apple Company and how it recruits talent, how it selects and trains talent, and why it has become the most successful and most visible technology company in the world. Description of Apple The Apple Company (Apple Inc.) was first incorporated on the 3rd of January 1977. Apple is known for its excellence in "…designing, manufacturing and marketing mobile communication and media devices," according to the Apple profile written by Reuters. Steve
If the child responds well to one or more medications, then the medication with the lowest cost is prescribed. The cost is found taking into account the per-dose cost and the number of doses daily. A positive attitude is mandatory which is advised by the health care professionals and they help parents and care takers in developing a positive attitude in the management of medication. It may include positive reinforcements
The survey will be carried out on a sample of 11 organizations from various industries. Corporations must include IS departments and must also be representative in terms of size and revenues. Another specification that should be made is that the method should be pre-tested on an organization in order to notice possible mistakes and correct them. On the other hand, the group supervisors will be selected from the in-house project
Once an audience has been selected, one will have to find out what could motivate them to work based on their culture. For example if acquiring material wealth motivates members of a culture, one would appeal to them based on that. In terms of setting a message strategy, managers have to determine what structure, channel and format the message will be in. With message structure managers have to discover whether
Racial Discrimination: How it Affects the People of South Africa and Its Impact on the Field of Social Work Racial discrimination has for long been a part of the South African history. It is the country of Apartheid. Apartheid was the official policy of racial segregation implemented legally in South Africa by the ruling National Party governments from 1948 till 1994. Under the apartheid legislation, the rights of the non-white inhabitants