Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
His analysis is therefore a direct investigation of the contact between the two cultural identities and their specific characteristics.
As opposed to this, Cronon uses an indirect argumentation to demonstrate the differences between the two cultures. He starts his discussion from a critique of Thoreau's view on the origins of the American civilization. Thoreau first advocated that the American land was a virgin territory when it was in the hands of the Indian-Americans. He thus contrasts at the same time the ecosystems and the economic policies of the Natives and the Colonists, focusing his argumentation of the external aspects of the two cultures rather than on the inner, spiritual cores of these cultures, like Axtell. His main thesis is that the Western colonizers brought with them the concept of "property" which is the main culprit for the subsequent radical changes in the ecosystems of the country: "English property systems encouraged colonists to regard the products of the land -- not to mention the land itself -- as commodities." Treating nature as property was the main reason for the fact that the initial ecological abundance disappeared under the destructive force of the colonizers.
Thus, the two books make strong arguments for their respective views of the way in which the present day American civilization was initially formed. Both texts attempt historical reconstruction from two different perspectives, of the first contact between the two cultures. Although the two authors manage their argumentation very well and make very interesting points about the history of the colonization, Cronon's book seems more remarkable in terms of argumentation and originality. Axtell fails to bring cogent arguments in favor of his approach. William Cronon, on the other hand, makes a more interesting argument with respect to the way in which the two cultures first interacted. By focusing his point-of-view on an external, indirect aspect- the changes in the ecosystem that followed the colonization of the people- he manages to underline an important characteristic of the present day American society, namely the way in which the initial abundance was turned, and is turned nowadays, into waste:"Ecological abundance and economic prodigality went hand in hand: the people of plenty were a people of waste." One crucial point in Cronon's demonstration is the fact that capitalism and environmental degradation went hand in hand: "The rural economy of New England thus acquired a new tendency toward expansion... Capitalism and environmental degradation went hand in hand." Thus, according to Cronon there is a very tight relation between economy and mercantile purposes of the Europeans and the degradation of the environment. The two opposed ways of manipulating the land, the Europeans and the Indians' are indicative of the differences in view and lifestyle that exist between the two. Thus, the colonists' economy was "self-destructive": "the colonists' economic relations of production were ecologically self-destructive."
On the other hand, the Indians' methods, although they were also manipulative, helped to enrich the country's natural abundance, through very wise management of the resources, such as the burn of the forests so as to leave enough space for pastures:
Here was the reason that the southern forests were so open and parklike; not because the trees naturally grew thus, but because the Indians preferred them so. As William Wood observed, the fire 'consumes all the underwood and rubbish which otherwise would overgrow the country, making it unpassable, and spoil their much affected hunting.' The result was a forest of large, widely spaced trees, few shrubs, and much grass and herbage."
Also, the Indians helped the environment by a very good management of the livestock that they used for food:
In short, Indians who hunted game animals were not just taking the 'unplanted bounties of nature'; in an important sense, they were harvesting a foodstuff which they had consciously been instrumental in creating. Few English observers could have realized this. People accustomed to keeping domesticated animals lacked the conceptual tools to recognize that the Indians were practicing a more distant kind of husbandry of their own."
Cronon's main hypothesis is thus that the Indians and the Europeans had two very different ways of belonging to the ecosystem: "The choice is not between two landscapes, one with and one without a human influence; it is between two human ways of living, two ways of belonging to an ecosystem."
The two books therefore offer a very good insight into the history of the colonization of the North America, and the way in which the two cultures contributed to the history of modern United States.
James Axtell. The Invasion Within: The Contest of Cultures in Colonial North America. New York: Oxford University Press,.p. 13
William Cronon. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 22
James Axtell. The Invasion Within: The Contest of Cultures in Colonial North America. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 55
James Axtell, ibid.
James Axtell. Ibid., p. 101
Cronon. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England, p. 103
Cronon. Ibid., p. 165
Cronon, ibid., p. 162
Cronon, ibid., p. 175
Cronon., ibid. p. 188…[continue]
"European-Indian Contact New England Books " (2007, October 03) Retrieved October 26, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/european-indian-contact-new-england-books-73378
"European-Indian Contact New England Books " 03 October 2007. Web.26 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/european-indian-contact-new-england-books-73378>
"European-Indian Contact New England Books ", 03 October 2007, Accessed.26 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/european-indian-contact-new-england-books-73378
European Voyages of Exploration of the 15th and 16th Centuries For several centuries following Columbus's historic discovery the North American Continent, Spain enjoyed riches from overseas that allowed it to be the most influential country in Europe. Originally inspired by a combination of a quest to prove that he could reach the Far East by sailing west and the desire to reap the rewards of precious metals and spices, Columbus
And even when they were not, and returned to Europe sniffing and huffing in letters and treatises about the evils of Native, pagan ways, they wielded some of their harshest critical words against Europeans who had 'gone native.' (4) These critiques are an example of how Calloway as a historian finds some portrait of how Native ways were before and after European settlers, how the settler's influence changed Native
Conflict and Cooperation: Native Americans and European Settlers in Early America The early history of the settlement of what would eventually become the United States has many competing narratives. Many people view the relationship between Native Americans and European settlers as fundamentally combative. While at times the relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans was certainly one of conflict, this period was also full of significant curiosity, education and cooperation
political framework of EU and OCT European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this
References Brauer, J.C. (1954). The Nature of English Puritanism: Three Interpretations." Church History. 23 (2): 99-108. Coon, D. (1976). Eliza Lucas Pinckney and the Reintroduction of Indigo Culture in South Carolina. The Journal of Southern History. 42 (1): 61-76. Daniels, B.C. (1991). "Did the Puritans Have Fun? Leisure, Recreation, and the Concept of Fun in Early New England." Journal of American Studies. 25 (1) 7-22. Governors of Massachussettes. (1768). "Massachusetts Circular Letter to the
Barbados Culture Barbados was once called the Little England due to its landscape of rolling terrain, as well as its customs of tea drinking and cricket, the Anglican Church, parliamentary democracy and the conservatism of its rural culture. It has a well-developed airport, electrical supply and road system, especially after independence in 1966 when the tourist industry became the most important sector of the economy. Of course, it also inherited a
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum") A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre ABSRACT In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and