Managing Risk Assessment Litigation Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

Managing Risk Assessment and Litigation in UK Physical Education Departments

This is a research proposal for a British university that aims to examine the rise of the litigation culture in the UK, as well as how schools' physical education (PE) departments are geared towards coping with it, particularly in light of professional training of physical education teachers for this purpose by management. Risk assessment training is a management-based programme; therefore, the emphasis lies on how the PE manager/head of department manages the process of risk assessment.

Risk assessment has reached a new level of importance in the Information Age. The growth of sophisticated networked information systems and distributed computing has created a potentially dangerous environment for private and public organizations. "Critical data -- such as from trade secrets, proprietary information, troop movements, sensitive medical records and financial transactions -- flows through these systems" (Hamilton, 1999, p. 69). Consequently, organizations are becoming increasingly concerned with potential exposure and are looking for ways to evaluate their organization's security profile today.

Risk assessment software applications systems allow researchers, managers and others to perform "what if" analyses of the value of their information and various threats and vulnerabilities (Hyatt, 2002). Different businesses will usually require different types of risk assessment analyses. For example, most industrial applications will probably involve a specific need to identify potential safety hazards in the workplace, whereas the banking industry may require a higher level of sophistication in examining its financial transactions (Hyatt, 2002).

Computerized software tools, are assuming increasing significance in conducting process hazards analyses (PHAs) for risk assessment purposes (Hyatt, 2002). This is because these applications have the potential to offer better online presentations and performance to risk assessment teams, as well as providing better documentation and tracking. The chances of something being "missed" or "slipping through the cracks" are greatly reduced using this approach.

Early computer-based software for performing risk assessments in an industrial setting was discussed by Gordon et al., in the early 90s; however, the use of computer software for risk assessment in industrial applications differs from others in that attention must be paid to making it acceptable not only to the immediate user but also for assisting team interaction and team performance. There are unique opportunities for the creation of more powerful interfaces in order to maximize the information communication process in these different settings. "The key, then, is to cut through the confusion to find the applications that will work best with your company" (Schmidt, 2003, p. 17). However, risk assessment is not a purely scientific enterprise (Mcgarity, 2003). Rather, risk assessment is an analytical process that employs "available scientific information on the properties of an agent and its effects in biological systems to provide an evaluation of the potential for harm as a consequence of environmental exposure to the agent" (Mcgarity, 2003, p. 155). According to this author, risk assessment should be differentiated from risk management, which consists of "the actions individuals and regulatory agencies take to reduce or eliminate the risks human beings encounter" (Mcgarity, 2003, p. 156). The risk-assessment process is becoming increasingly important but it has assumed enormously complex dimensions at the same time.

According to Caroline B. Hamilton, risk assessment involves gathering information about the assets of organizations, including all information assets, such as networks, data centers, computers, hardware, software, and data/information. "It also includes physical assets, such as personnel, network users, the physical facility, and dozens of other organizational resources. The risk-assessment process also includes finding sources for comprehensive threat data, which may be data gathered from internal sources" (Hamilton, 1999, p. 69). Those sources include incident report data, intrusion-detection software, and threat data (such as crime statistics, industry standards and benchmarking data, as well as historical data about what happened. Vulnerability data is then matched to determine what combination of asset/threat/vulnerability could trigger a potential loss; at this point, decisions are made about what safeguards can be implemented in order to mitigate or eliminate the potential loss (Hamilton, 1999).

According to Nigel Hyatt's "The Advantage of Using Computer Software for Process Hazard Analysis," No software can be successful unless it addresses and meets the requirements of the users' end goals. In the case of software for process hazard analysis these requirements are focused upon the handling of information in a number of ways:



Recalling and copying

Access to stored information (Libraries)


Transference (Exporting/Importing)



Printing and presentation

Selection and Tracking

While several of these functions may be undertaken manually, the task becomes onerous unless computerization is adopted.

Computerization has three major benefits in addition to providing functional aids. These include:

Consistency of analysis

Access stored data and information on an as needed basis.

Documentation of results that ensures meaningful records are created.

Although the performance of good process hazards analyses should not be restricted by time considerations, software can greatly improve productivity and efficiency by sharpening the focus, saving time, and improving the system integrity. All of these can lead to significant cost reductions.

Most industrial risk analyses are, by their very nature, qualitative in form. The introduction of risk matrices is an attempt to add some partial quantification. "Because risk is defined as the product of consequence (severity of an incident) and frequency (likelihood), their estimation provides some measure of risk, and therefore the degree of importance" (Hyatt, 2002, p. 137). This type of data in particular is well suited to computerization to assist in identifying the components and categories afforded by risk matrices. According to Hyatt, these can take the form of a predesignated matrix categorization or a user defined matrix (3x3 up to 10x10) (Hyatt, 2002).

Purpose of Study

The purpose of this research project is to investigate the status of risk assessment in a UK physical education programmes to identify a best practices model that can be applied in a variety of settings to help mitigate the impact of injuries and the concomitant resulting litigation using a thoughtful risk assessment approach.

Importance of Study

This study is important for three primary reasons:

1) There are going to be more students in the UK staying in school longer in the future;

2) The importance of being physically active and providing a safe environment in which physical education activities are promoted cannot be overstated; and 3) The UK is becoming increasingly litigious concerning tortious personal injuries. These reasons are discussed further below.

1) There are going to be more students in the UK staying in school longer in the future (Cetron & Davies, 2001). According to Cetron and Davies (2001), the under-20 cohort is remaining in school longer and taking longer to enter the workforce than before. "The age at which at least half of young Europeans either have a job or are seeking one has risen from 18 in 1987 to 20 in 1995. EU-wide, 59% of all 18-year-olds in 1995 were exclusively in education or training. The number varied from 27% in the United Kingdom to 88% in Belgium" (Cetron & Davies, 2001, p. 28).

2) The importance of being physically active cannot be overstated. Years of research evidence supporting the relationship between good health and participation in physical activity was recently summarized and published in the United States Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 1996). The Surgeon General recommended daily participation in physical activity for maximum health benefits because inactivity has been found to be significantly related to coronary artery disease (Araki, Huddleston, & Mertesdorf, 2002).

The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health (CDC, 1996) indicates that only 40% of adults are physically active and only 15% participate in leisure time physical activity at the minimum frequency and duration (three times a week for at least 20 minutes) recommended by the American University of Sports Medicine (1991) for maximum health benefits. Also, only 50% of people 12-21 years of age engage in regular leisure time physical activity for the recommended frequency and duration. Some researchers report even lower participation levels and exercise intensities. Activity choices most frequently reported by the physically active, regardless of exercise intensity, are: running, jogging, or walking; weight lifting; aerobic exercise; bicycling; and, swimming or other water activities (Araki, Huddleston, & Mertesdorf, 2002).

One way to better understand participation behavior is to identify individuals' attitudes about or reasons for involvement in physical activities. According to the body of evidence to date, one of the main reasons for university students' and young adults' leisure time physical activity involvement is health and fitness. Other reasons cited include social, competition, or relaxation. Regardless of the reason for involvement, Brynteson and Adams emphasize that it is important to remember that participation levels nation-wide are low. In fact, some researchers maintain that university programs that are designed to promote participation in leisure time physical activity and positive attitudes toward activity can be effective in helping young adults adopt a physically active lifestyle (Brynteson & Adams, 1993).

Furthermore, post-secondary programs that are specifically designed to educate pre-professionals in…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Managing Risk Assessment Litigation" (2004, August 27) Retrieved December 5, 2016, from

"Managing Risk Assessment Litigation" 27 August 2004. Web.5 December. 2016. <>

"Managing Risk Assessment Litigation", 27 August 2004, Accessed.5 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Risk Minimization and Loss Prevention

    Small Business' Need for a CPA One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in Birmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. Because of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison

  • Risk Management Improving Communication Amongst

    (Smith, 2003) Checking twice, or more than twice may be less important than securing a diversity of views in such an arena. (Smith, 2003) The ability adequately communicate risk levels amongst providers can become difficult. Also, hasty words can create a misperception in the minds of patients, if a doctor speaks too casually. "Science cannot prove a negative, but, where their children are concerned, parents want to be assured that

  • Management Action and Productivity Businesses in Developed

    Management Action and Productivity Businesses in developed countries tend to think of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a characteristic that is centered in their own businesses or, failing that, situated in the industries of wealthier nations. The CSR movement is substantively skewed in the direction of the developed world where the motivation for adopting a CSR initiative is driven more by altruism -- or "enlightened self-interest" (Vogel 2006: 18) -- than

  • Project Management What Role Does

    The project manager must effectively utilize all of the communication methods available to them. They must choose the most appropriate method of communication for the workers and for the managers. The more workers and managers hear the messages, in as many sensory modes possible, the more likely the message will be to make an impact on a reduction in accidents on the job. Language proved to be a problem in Australia's

  • Vose D 2008 Risk Analysis A Quantitative

    Vose, D. (2008). Risk Analysis: A quantitative guide. (3rd ed.). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The book is written on risk analysis using quantitative methodologies. The book has two parts and chapters are divided into these two parts. The first part is intended to help managers realize the rationale for conducting risk analysiswhereas the second part explains the modeling techniques of risk analysis. First part describes in detail

  • Occupational Health Safety Risks and Hazards Identified in a Student...

    NEBOSH Unit D According to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), the cost of workplace injuries and disease is in excess of $20 billion dollars per year. Obviously, these figures are alarming and would suggest that Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) should be a top priority for management. However, a survey from 2011 revealed that many companies have no written OHS policy and nearly half have no formalized occupational health and

  • LNG Process Risk Safety Modeling

    The main hazards related to LNG include: Rupture due to Corrosion Rupture while excavation Rupture while excavation Rupture during an earthquake Rupture due to mechanical failure Rupture at compressor Rupture at inspection stations Uncontrolled detonation of explosives Blow-out of gas at head and subsequent fire Gas leak from infrastructure Fire involving combustible Construction damage LPG or Diesel Diesel pump fire involving equipment brittle fracture valve Leaks Welding failure welding casting failure Mechanical overstressing of equipment Vibration pump Corrosion joint Erosion Failure due to external loading or impact Internal Explosion Underground pipe

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved